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PROCEEDINGS 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 



won m 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



FOR THB FORTY-FIBST MEETING. 



HBLD AT 



^ * • " J 



.N.Y., ' 



AUaUST^ 189i. 



SALEM: 
PUBLISHED BT THE PEBMANSKT SSCBETABT. 

Dbceubeb, 1892. 



bditbd bt 
Fbbdbrio W. Pdtkam, 

' ^•tly 



FRUTTED BT 
THB SALBlff PBXS8 PUBLISHINa AND PBnmNQ GO. 

SALEM, MASS. 



1 






TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Paob 

Officers for the Bochester Meeting zi 

Coancil for the Bochester Meeting zil 

Local Committees for the RocheBter Meeting • . xiil 

SpecialCommittees of the Association • . zv 

Officers elected for the Madison Meeting zviil 

Meetings and Officers of the Amer. Association of Geologists and Naturalists xix 

Llstof Association Meetings; number of members ....•• xx 

Officersof the American Association for the Advancement of Science • xzl 

Act of Incorporation • • • • • xxix 

Constitution ••• xzx 

Patrons of the Association • xzzix 

Corresponding Members xxzix 

Members xxxix 

Honorary Fellows • . Ixx 

Fellows . . Ixx 

Deceased Members ••••• xct 

IN GENERAL SESSIONS. 

ADDBB88 BT ALBBBT B. PBB8COTT, THB RETIBINQ PBBSIDBNT ... 1 

' SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 

Offieersof Section A 16 

ADDBEB8 OF VlGB PBE8IDBNT, J. B« EASTMAN 17 

On the imaginary of algebra. By A. BCagfablanb • - • . . 8S 
The speotroheliograph of the Kenwood astro-physical observatory, Chioago, 

and results obtained in the study of the sun. By Gbobgb B. Halb .' 55 
Models and machines for showing curres of the third degree. By Amdbbw 

W. PHILUF8 • • 56 

Least square fallacies. By Tbuman Hbnbt Saffobd 57 

Lineo-llnearyector functions. By Abthob S. Uathawat 59 

Concerning a congruence-group of order, 300 contained in the group of linear 

firactional substitutions. By E. Hastings Moobb ^. . • . . 62 

The secular motion of a Aree magnetic needle. By L. A. Baubb (Title) • . -QS 

European observations. By J. A. Bbashbab (Title) 63 

On the conflict of observation with theory, as to the earth's rotation. By S. C. 

Chandleb (Title) • • • • • 68 

Latitude of the Sayre Observatory. By Prof. C. L. Doouttlb (Title) • • 63 
(iii) 



iv COHTBKTS. 

Paob 
LisI of thirty new proper motion start. By C L. Doouttui (Title) . 8S 

Thermal absorption in the solar atmosphere. By Edwih B. Fbost (Title) • 8S 

Forms of solar faonla. By Gbobob B. Haub (Title) 68 

On the intersection of an equilateral hyperbola and the sides of a plane triangle. 

A question in trilinears. By Wiluam Hoovbb (Title) . * . . • 68 

Xlectriclights for astronomioalinstrnraents. By JBVrBRSOM E. Kbrshmbb . 68 

(TiUe) 

On the discriminators of the discriminant of an atgebralo equation. By Mams- 

FIBLD Mbbbimam (Title) 68 

On 'the construction of a prime rertical transit instrument for the determina- 
tion of the latitude of flaryard College Obsenratory. By W. A. Boobrs 68 
(Title) 

(Dilferential formula fbr orbit corrections. By T. H. Saffobd (Title) . . 68 

Proper motion of eighty-nine stars within 10* of the north pole, with remarks 

on the present state of the problem of solar motion. By T. H. Saffobd 64 

(TiUe) 

Jtfeteorological observations made in April, 1890, 1891, 1892, in the totality path 

of the eclipse of 1896, April 16. By David Todd (Title) • • . . 64 

jincrease in constant for addition, in testing for integral values in the equation 

ofquarter-sqnai-es. By Ja8. D. Wabwbb (Title) 64 

iPractical rules for testing whether a number is divisible by 7 or any other 
small prime; and if not divisible, to ascertain the remainder. By Jas. 

D. Warnbb (Title) 64 

(On the general problem of least squares. By R. 8. Woodwabd (Title). . 64 

The ioed-bar base apparatus of the U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey. By K. 8. 

Woodwabd (Title) 64 

SECTION B. PHYSICS. 
•Oflioers of Section B • • . • 66 

ADDBB88 OF VlGB PBSBIDBNT, BBNJAMIir P. THOMAS 67 

Persistence of vision. By Ebtim 8. Fbrbt • . 81 

B. M. F. between normal and strained metals in voltaic ceUs. By W. S. 

Frankun 83 

Note on the photography of the manometric flame, and the analysis of vowel 

sounds. By Bbnbst Mbbbitt 88 

The distribution of energy in the spectrum of the glow lamp. By Edwabd L. 

Nichols 83 

The absorption spectra of certain substances In the inft«-red. By JSaxnuT F. 

Nichols . 88 

Further experiments on the speoiflo indaotive capacity of electrolytes. By 

Edwabd B. Rosa • $4 

On the dispersion of radiations of great wave length in rock salt, silvite and 

fluorspar. By Hbinrich Bitbkns and Bbnj. W. Skow . , . 8S 

On the distribution of energy in the spectrum of the arc. By Bbnj. W. Show 86 

On the infra-red spectra of the alkalies. By Bbnj. W. Snow .... 87 

An experimental comparison of formulae for total radiation between 1ft* C and 

110* C. By W. LBCONTB Stbvbns • • • 87 



CONTENTS. 



Paob 



On the constancy of Tolmne of iron in strong magnetic flelds. By Frank P. 

Whitman • 88 

Some difficulties in tlie Lesage^Tbomson gravltatlon-theory. By J. E. Oliver 88 
A mechanical model of electromagnetic relations. By A. B. Dolbbar (Ti- 
tle) 90 

On the mechanics of the three states of aggregation. By GUSTAVUS Henkighs. 

(TlUe) 90 

The ocular spectrum. By Gso. W. Hollbt (Title) 90 

On the sensitiveness of photographic plates. By G. W. HouoH (Title) • 90 
Influence or the moon on the rainfall. By Mansfield Hebrihan (Title) . 90 
Description of a contrivance for the study of color perception at definite dis- 
tances. By Charles E. Ouveb (Title) 90 

A photographic method of mapping the magnetic field. By C. B. Thwinq 

(Title) 90 

On the mechanical and physical means of aSrlal transit without a propeller. 

By David P. Todd (Title) 90 

Kote on the magnetic disturbances, caused by electric railways. By Frank P. 

Whitman (Title) 90 

SECTION C. CHEMISTRY. 

Officers of Section C .* • 92 

Address of Vigb President, Alfred Springer 93 

The influence of ammonia on amorphous substances to induce crystallization. 

By B. Goldsmith 105 

Trimethyl-xanthin and its derivatives. By MosES GoMBBRa .... 107 

An effective condenser for volatile liquids and for water-analysis. By W. A. 

Notes 106 

Di-ethyl-carfoinamin and its conduct towards nitrous acid. By W. A. Notes. 109 

On the decomposition of acetone with concentrated sulftirio acid. By W. B. 

Orndorff 109 

The iQdomercurates of organic bases. By Albert B. Presoott ... Ill 

The ensymes or soluble ferments of the hog-cholera germ. By B. A. de 

Schweinitse Ill 

Kote on the effect of fertilizers upon the juice of the sugar-cane. By Clinton 

P. TOWNSEND 112 

Some points in connection with the composition of honey. By H. W. Wilet 112 

A method of polarimetric observation at low temperatures. By H. W. Wilet 113 

The albuminoids of maize. By George Archbold (Title) .... 114 
A select bibliography of chemistry. By H. Caurington Bolton (Title) . lU 
Copper sulfate as a material for standardizing solutions. By Edward Hart 

(Title) - . . . . lU 

On the mechanical determination of the stereographic constitution of organic 

compounds. By GusTAVUS Hinrichs (Title) 114 

Presentation of samples trom the salt mines of New York. By S. A. Latti* 

MORB (Title) • . • 114 

Effect of sedimentation upon self-purification of running streams. By Wm. 

P. Mason (Title) •••#.•.••••• ii4 



Tl CONTENTS* 

PAOB 

Po8t>inoiiem Imbibition of anenio. By W, P. MASOir (Tltle> . • • • 114 

The YMlueofa water analysis. By W. P. Masox (Title) « . . . . 116 

Itacolamlte ftrom North Carolina. By Laura Osbobkb Talbott (Title) • lift 

Notes on a bibliography of mineral waters. By Alfred Tuokbbman (Tille) lift 

Tenth annual report ofthe Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature • • lift 

SECTION D. MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENQINEERINa. 

Officers of Section D • . • • • 124 

Address of Yiob President, Joiin B. Johnsox 129 

Method of measaring the loss of power by drop of pressure between cylin. 

ders in multiple cylinder engines. By J. E. Denton . • . • I8S 

Steam economy of the engines of the screw ferry boat Bremen. By J. S. 

DENTONandD.S. Jacobus 18ft 

Measurement of total heats of combustion. By D. 8. Jacobus • • • 13S 

Use of anemometers for measuring the velocity of air in flumes. By D. 9. 

Jacobus 187 

Relative economy of a single cylinder air compressor with cooling by a spray 
of water and the present economy of the compound compressors at Quai 

de la Gare, Paris. By Fred. Taylor Gausb 188 

Bending tests of timber, etc. By J. Burkitt Webb 13d 

Description of a transmission dynamometer (model exhibited). By G. W. 

HouoH • 141 

Negative specific heat. By De Volson Wood .••.... 142 

Recent results of municipal ownership of gas works in the United Statea. 

By Edward W. Bemis 148 

Extensometer for measuring distortion of specimens under test. Instrument 

exhibited. By J. B. Johnson (Title) lift 

Peculiar visible strain in steel when tested in tension compression and cross- 
breaking. Exhibition of specimens and photographs. By J. B. John- 
son (Title) lift 

Exhibition and description of combined yard and metre standard bar. By 

William A. Rogers (Title) lift 

Investigation of a twenty-one feet precision-screw. By William A. Booers 

(Title) 14ft 

A new window-ventilating appliance. By A. M. Rosebruqh (Title) . • 146 
On the use of long steel-tapes in measuring base lines. By R. S. Wood- 
ward (TiUe) 146 

SECTION E. GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Officers of Section E . • • • 118 

Address of Vice President, Hbnrt S. Williams . . • • • 140 

Submarine valleys on continental slopes. By Warren Upham * t # 171 

Terminal moraines in New England. By C. H. Hitchcock " • • • « .173 

Extra-morainic drift in New Jersey. By Albert A. Wright • • • 17ft 
Notes bearing upon changes in the pre-glacial drainage of western Illinois 

and eastern Iowa. By Frank Lbyerbtt . • • • • t • 176 



OOKTENTS. Til 

Pags 

An episode in the history of the Cuyahoga riyer. By B. W. Clatpolb • 176 

Some prohlems of tlie.Mesabi iron ore. By N. H. Winchbll • • • 176 

The CenoEoic beds of the staked plains of Texas. By B. D, COPB ... 177 

On a new form of Marsupialia iVom the Laramie formation. By B. D. COPK 177 

Paleobotany of the yellow gravel at Bridgeton, N. J. By Abthus Holuok 177 
Bxhibition of Guelph fossils found in Bochester, N. Y. By Albbbt L. Abbt 

(Title) • 178 

Gerro Viejo and its cones of volcanic ejecta and extension in Nicaragua. By 

JohnCrawfokd (Title) 178 

The mathematics of mountain sculpture. By Vbbplanck Colvin (Title) 178 
Becent geological explorations in Mexico. By Bobbbt T. Hill (Title) • 179 
The volcanic craters of the United States. By Bobbbt T. Hill (Title) • 179 
The homotaxic relations of the North American lower cretaceous. By Bob- 
bbt T. Hill (Title) 179 

The American mastodon in Florida. By John Kost (Title) • • . • 179 
The mining, metallurgical, geological, and mineralogical exhibits to be shown 

at the World's (Columbian Exposition. By Gbobgb F. Kunz (Title) . 179 

Pleistocene geography. By W J McGbb (Title) 179 

Distribution of ttie Lafayette formations. By W J McGbb (Title) • • 179 

SECTION F. BIOLOGY. 

Officers of Section F 182 

ADDBB88 OF VlOB PBBBIDBMT, SIMON HBNBT GAOB 183 

A preliminary account of the brain of Diemyctylus viridescens, based upon 

sections made through the entire head. By Susanna Phblps Gagb 197 
On the digestive tract of some North American ganoids. By G. S. Hopkins 197 
The ''maxillary tentacles" of Pronuba. By John B. Smith .... 198 
The descent of the Lepidoptera. An application of the theory of natural se- 
lection to taxonomy. By John Hbnbt Ck>M8TOGK 199 

An interesting case of parasitism. By Albert H. Tuttlb . • • • 201 

On the adult cestodes of cattle and sheep. By C. W. Stilbs . • • • 901 
The production of immunity in guinea pigs trom hog cholera by the use of 

blood serum from immunized animals. By B. A. db Sghwbinitz . 201 
Preliminary note on the anatomy of the Urodele brain aa exemplified by Des- 

mognathus Aisca. By Pibbbb A. Fish (Title) 202 

The animal parasites of dogs. By E. W. Doban (Title) 202 

The insect fauna of the Mississippi bottoms. By H. E. Webd (Title) . . 202 

On Carphoxera ptelearia, the new herbarium pest. By C. V. Bilbt (Title) • 202 
Biological notes on the &una of Gold Spring Harbor. By C. W. Habgitt 

(Title) 202 

Notes on some A%fih«water mollusks. By W. M. Bbauchamp (Title) • , 202 

On two embryo chicks in a single blastoderm. By Bobbbt W. Moodt (Title) 202 

HereditjT of acquired characters. By Manlt Miles 202 

On the supposed correlations of quality in fruits — a study in evolution. By 

L. H. Bailbt 211 

The signifloance of deistogamy. By Thomas Mbehan 211 

The fertUiaation of pear flowers. By M. B. Waits •••••• 212 



▼iii COWiEMTB* 



Paqb 



Oermlnatioii at imerrali of seed treated with ftmgtoidee. By W. A. Kbllbb* 

HAW S19 

The fertUlBation of the flg and OAprlioatioii. ByCT. BiLiT • • • . SU 

Kotet on Mlf-polliiMtton of the grape. ^f9.A.BB▲0B SIS 

Adaptatloaa of i^anti to external enrlroniBeiit. By WiujaM P. WiLSOir SK 

The CMuparatlTe intoenee of odor and oelor of iowen ia attraotlnf lABeota. 

By 6»OB«B B. S UDWOKIH 916 

A oomparatiTe stady of the roota of BanimoiilaeeM. By F. B. Maxwsll 217 

The root4ystem of Mlkanta acandens L. By W. W. Bowlki ... 217 

Geographle relatioaship of the Bora of the high Sierra Nevada, Callfl>nihi. 

By FBSDSBICK TnUIOII COTILLB 918 

Charaoteristioa and adaptationa of desert regatatloo. By WBMtmaieK Tm- 

vohCotillb 919 

Kotea on a monograph of the North American apeoles of Lespedeaa. By N. 

L. Bmnoir 919 

Notes on Bannnoalas repeas and its eastern North Aaserlean alUes. By N. L. 

BBITlOir 219 

Preliminary eomparlsoa of the Hepatio Bora of boreal and snb-boreal re- 
gions. By LueiBM MABOVS UMDBBWOO0 219 

A stndy of the relative lengths of the sheaths and faitemodes of greases Ibr 
the purpose of determining to what extent this is a reliable specilc 

oharaoter. By Wm. J. Bsal 229 

Pleospora of TropiBolnm mi^s. ^y BTRcnr D. Halstbd • . . • 921 

Secondary spores of Anthracnoses. By Btbon D. Halstbd ... 221 

A bacterlnm of Phaseolns. By Btbom D. Halstbd 221 

Non-parasitie bacteria in regetable tissue. By H. L. BvasBix • 

Bacterlologieal inrestigation of marine waters and the sea Boor. By H. L. 

BUSBBLL 

On the ralue of wood ashes In the treatment of peach yellows. By Erwin 

F. Smith • . • . . 294 

On the ralue of superphosphates and muriate of potash In the treatment of 

peach yellows. By Bbwdt F. Smith 

How the application of hot water to seed Increases the yield. By J. C. Ab- 

THUB •... 

Notes on maize. By Obobob Maoloskib (Title) 927 

Spikes of wheat bearing abnormal sptkelets. By W. J. Bbal (Title) . • 227 

Adaptation of seeds to fscilitate germination. By W. W. Bowlbb (Title) 227 
Note on the yellow pitch-pine, Finns riglda Mills, rar. lutea, n. y. By W. A. 

Ebllbbmak (Title) ' 227 

Do Termites onltlTate Fungi? ByO.F. Cookb (Title) 227 

Notes on Daucus carota. By Chablbs W. Harqitt (Title) . . • 227 

Conditions that determine the distribution of bacteria in the water of a rfrer. 

By James H. Stollbb (Title) 227 

Variation in native ferns. By W. M. Bbauohamp (Title) ..*... 227 
Sketch of flora of Death Talley, Gblifomia. By Frbdbriok T. Coyillb 

(Title) 227 

Llye-for-eyer eradicated by a ftrngons disease. By D. F. Fadkchild (Title) 



COITTENTS. Iz 

Paob 
Otto Katize't changes In nomenclatnre of North American grasses. By 

GBOBaBVASBT (Title) 328 

Beyised nomenclature of the arborescent flora of the United States. By B. 

E. Febnow and G. B. SUDWOKTH (Title) 228 

Shrinkage of wood as observed under the microscope. By Fiubebt Both 

(TiUe) 228 

Feziza sclerotium. By L. H. Pammbl (Title) ....... 228 

Temperature and some of Its relations to plant life. By L. H. Pammbl 

(Title) 228 

Report to the Biological section of the A. A. A. S.^on the American table at 

Naples 228 

Report upon the proposed biological station at Jamaica. By Albbbt H. Tut- 

TLB • . 220 

Report of committee on biological nomenclature • 280 

SECTION H. ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Officers of Section H • 288 

Adobbss of Vicb Pbbsidbvt, W. H. HoLHsa 289 

Proposed classification and international nomenclature of the anthropologic 

sciences. By D. G. Bbintow 2S7 

Tusayan legends of the snake and flute people. By Matilda Ck>XB Stbybn- 

80N 268 

Primitive number systems. By Lbvi L. Conant 270 

The Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition. By F. W, Pittnam ... 271 
Explorations on the main structure of Copan, Honduras. By Mabshall H. 

Savillb 271 

Vandalism among the antiquities of Yucatan and Central America. By M. H. 

Savillb 276 

Sacred pipestone quarries of Minnesota and ancient copper mines of Lake 

Superior. By W. H. Holmbs 277 

Aboriginal quarries of flakable stone and their bearing upon the question of 

paissolithic man. By W. H. Holmbs . 270 

On the so-called palnolithic implements of the upper Mississippi. By W. H. 

Holmbs ... - 280 

Brief remarks upon the alphabet of Landa. By Hilbobnb T. Cbbsson . . 281 

Comparative chronology. By W J McGbb 288 

Theearly religion of the Iroquois. By W. M. Bbauchamp 284 

Early Indian forts in New Tork. By W. M. Bbauchamp 284 

Prehistoric earthworks of Henry County, Indiana. By T. B. Bbdding . . 285 

On some prehistoric objects ttom the Whitewater valley. By Amos W. Bdtlbb 285 

Some Indian camping sites near Brookville, Indiana. By Amos W. Bdtlbb . 285 

On the earthworks near Anderson, Indiana. By Amos W. Butlbb ... 286 

Anvil-shaped stones flrom Pennsylvania. By D. G. Bbinton 286 

Pebbles chipped by modern Indians as an aid to the study of the Trenton gravel 

implements. By H. C. Mbbcbb 287 

Ancient earthworks in Ontario. By C. A. Hibschfkldbb 289 



X 00KTENT8. 

Paov 
iTTldenoes of prehistoric trade in Ontario. By 0. A. Hi«8CfHFELDBB • • 290 

Observations upon Fort Ancient, Ohio. By Sbldbn S. Sootillb . . • 890 

SinfQlar copper implements and ornaments ftrom the Hopewell group, Rosa 

county, Ohio. By W. K. Moorbhbad 291 

The ruins of southern Utah. By Warren K. Moorbhbad 291 

A few psychological inquiries. By Laura Osbosnb Talbott .... 294 
Demonstration of a recently discovered cerebral porta. By *ChA8. Portbb 

Habt 296 

Pueblo myths and ceremonial dances. By Fbank H. Cushino (Title) . . 296 
An ancient hearth in the stratified gravels of the banks of the Whitewater 

river, Ind. By Amos W. Butlbr (Title) 296 

Exhibition of a skull of a pig, found in Ohio, having a flint arrowhead Imbedded 

in the bone. By E. W. Claypolb (Title) . 296 

Plan of the ruins of Tiahuanaco. By A. B. Douolass (Title) • • . • 296 

Involuntary movements. By Josbph Jastrow (Title) 897 

Exhibition of pottery flrom a mound on the banks of the Illinois river, near 

Peoria, 111. ByJ.KosT (Title) 897 

A definition of anthropology. By Otis T. Masok (Title) 297 

The department of Ethnology of the World's Columbian Exposition. By F. W. 

Putnam (Title) 297 

Exhibition of a model of the serpent mound of Adams Co., Ohio. By F. W. 

Putnam (Title) 297 

Report ofcommittee on International Congress of Anthropology • . • 297 

SECTION I. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Oflloers of Section I , 800 

Address of Viob Prbsidbnt, Lbstbb F. Ward 801 

Competition and combination in nature. By Hbnbt ^arquhab • • • 823 • 

The standard of deferred payments. By Edwabd A. Boss .... 826 

Economic conditions antagonistic to a conservative forest policy. By B. E. 

Fbrnow • 829 

Some statistics of the salvation army. By (^A8. W. Smilet ... • 835 

Outline of statute to promote works of philanthropy, instruction, scientific re- 
search, embellishment and memorial arts within states, and also to regu- 
late the succession of estates of deceased persons and to tax inheritances 

thereof in certain cases. By B. T. Colburn 896 

The labor problem in America. By Robert H. Crafts (Title) ... 836 
Movement of duties and prices in the United States since 1889. By Hbnbt 

Fabquhar (Title) 836 

EXECUTIVE PROCEEDINGS. 

Bbfobt of the Gbnbbal Sborbtart 837 

Report of thb Pebmanent Sbcbbtabt 364 

Cash Account . • • • 870 

INDEX. 



OFFICEBS 



OF TBB 



ROCHESTER MEETING. 



PRESIDENT. 

Joseph LkConte, Berkeley, California. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

A. Mathematios and Astronomy— J. R. Eastman, Washington, D. C. 

B. Physics— B. F. Thomas, Columbus, Ohio. 

C. Chemistry— Alfred Springer, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering— John B. Johnson, St. 

Louis, Mo. 

E. Geology and Geography— H. 8. Williams, Ithaca, N. Y. 

F. Biology— S. H. Gage, Ithaca, N. Y. 

H. Anthropologfy— W. H. Holmes, Washington, D. C. 
I. Economic Science and Statistics— Lester F. Ward, Washing-* 
ton, D. C. \ 

PEBBIANENT SECBETABY. 

F. W. Putnam, Cambridge (office Salem), Mass. 

GENEBAL SECBETABY. 

Amos W. Butler, BrookviUe, Ind. 

SECBETABY OP THE COUNCIL. 

T. H. Norton, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

8ECBETABIES OF THE SECTIONS. 

A. Mathematics and Astronomy— Winslow Upton, Providence, 

R.I. 

B. Physics— Brown Ayrks, New Orleans, La. 

C. Chemistry— J. L. Howe, Louisville, Ky. 

D. Mechanical Science and Engineering— Olin H. Landrbth 

Nashville, Tenn. 

E. Geology and Geography— R. D. Salisbury, Madison, Wis. 

F. Biology— Byron D. Halstbd, New Brunswick, N. J. 

H. Anthropology— W. M. Beauchamp, Baldwinsville, N. Y. 
!• Economic Science and Statistics— @enry Farquhar, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

TBEASUBEB. 

William Lilly — ^Mauch Chunk, Pa. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL 

VOB THE 

ROCHESTER MEETING. 



Past Presidents. — James D. Dana of New Haven ; Jambs Hall of Al- 
bany ; J. S. Newbebbt of New York; B. A. Gould of Cambridge; Sim ok 
Newcomb of Washington; O. C. Marsh of New Haven; George F. Bar- 
ker of Philadelphia ; George J. Brush of New Haven; J. W. Dawson 
of Montreal; C. A. Young of Princeton; J. P. Lesley of Philadelphia; 
H. A. Newton of New Haven; Edward 8. Morse of Salem; S. P. Lang- 
lAT of Washington ; J. W. Powell of Washington ; T. C. Mendenhall 
of Washington; George L. Good alb of Cambridge; Albert B. Pres- 
COTT of Ann Arbor. 

Vice-Presidents of the Last Meeting,—^. W. Hyde of Cincinnati ; F. E. 
NiPHER of St. Louis; R. C. KEDzns of Agricultural College, Michigan; 
Thomas Gray of Terre Haute; J. J. Stevenson of New York; J. M. 
Coulter of Crawf ordsviUe ; Joseph Jastrow of Madison; Edmund J. 
Jambs of Philadelphia. 

Officers of the Present Meeting. — Joseph LeConte of Berkeley; J. R. 
Eastman of Washington ; B. F. Thomas of Columbus ; Alfred Springer 
of Cincinnati; John B. Johnson of St. Louis; H. S. Williams of Ithaca; 
8. H. Gage of Ithaca; W. H. Holmes of Washington; Lester F. Ward, 
of Washington ; F. W. Putnam of Cambridge ; Amos W. Butler of Brook- 
ville; T. H. Norton of Cincinnati; Winslow Upton of Providence; 
Brown Aykrs of New Orleans; J. L. Howe of Louisville; Olin H. 
Landreth of Nashville ; R. D. Salisbury of Madison; Byron D. Hal- 
stbd of New Brunswick; W. M. Beauchamp of BaldwinsviUe, N. Y; 
Henry Farquhar of Washington, William Lilly of Mauch Chunk. 

From the Association at Large. — A fellow elected from each section. — 
(The following hold over until their successors are chosen), G. W. 
Hough, Evanston, 111. (A) ; W. A. Rogers, Waterville, Me. (B) ; Wm. 
L. Dudley, Nashville, Tenn. (C) ; S. W. Robinson, Columbus, O. (D) ; 
C. H. Hitchcock, Hanover, N. H. (B) ; Thomas Morong, New York, af- 
ter Aug. 21, A. H. TuTTLB, Univ. of Virginia (F) ; Daniel G. Brinton, 
Philadelphia, Pa. (H) ; Manly Miles, Lansing, Mich. (I). 

(xii) 



LOCAL COMMITTEE 

FOR THE ROCHESTER MEETING. 



Edwabd M. Moorb, M.D., LL.D., President of the Local Committee. 

Prof. H. L. Faibohild, Local Secretary, Mr. David Hoyt, Local Treasurer, 

VICE PRESIDENTS. 

Bey. A. H. Strong, President David J. Hill, Bey. C. B. Gardner, Hon. Geo. F. 
Danforth, Prof. 8. A. Lattimore, Hon. H. S. Greenleaf, Mr. D. W. Powers, Mr. Mortimer 
F. Reynolds, Mr. S. H. Lowe, Mr. Joseph T. Ailing, Mr. Max Brickner, Bey. Max 
Landsberg. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

(The Council consfsts of the oficers of the Local Committee with the officers of the 
following sub-committees.) 

WOMEN'S RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

Mrs. J. W. OOTHOUT, Chairman; Mrs. J. M. PABKBS, Secretary; Mrs. OSOAR CBAIO, 
Mrs. Geobob W. Fisher, Mrs. H. L. Faibchild, Mrs. Hbnby F. Huntinoton, Mrs. 
Gboroe E. Jennings, Mrs. Silvanus J. Mact, Mrs. Oilman H. Pbbkimb, Mrs. B. 
y. Stoddabd, VUse-CJMirmen, and ninety other ladies. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

William C. Babbt, Chairman, John Faht, Secretary^ and seyenteen other 
gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON INVITATIONS AND RECEPTIONS. 

Hon. H. S. Gbbbnlbaf, Chairman, Mabsbnus H. Brioos, Secretaryf and twenty- 
five other gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON EXCURSIONS. 

Arthur S. Hamilton, Chairman, F. W. Warner, Secretaryf and twenty*three 
other gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION. 

Gborgb C. Bubll, Chairman, Dr. J. W. Whitbeok, Seeretary, and nine other 
gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON HOTELS AND LODGINGS. 

J. Eugene Whitnet, Chairman, Arthur B. Sbldbn, Secretary, and nine other 
gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON ROOMS. 

Adblbbrt Cronub, Chairman, H. K.Phinnet, Secretary, and ten other gentlemen. 

(xUI) 



XIV LOCAL COHXITTEE. 



COMMITTEE O^ MAIL, TELEGRAPH AND EXPRESS. 

BOBBBT Mathkws, Ckoirwutn, Gbobok D. Halb, Seereiarp, and nine other gen- 
tlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON PRINTING. 

David Hats, Chakmum, Chablbs H. Wiltsib, Secretary, and seven other gen- 
tlemen. * 

COMMITTEE ON MEMBERSHIP. 

Prof. 8. A. LATTnfORB, Chairman. Prof. A. L. Asbt, Secretary, and twent j- 
tbree other gentlemen and ladies. 

COMMITTEE ON PRESS. 

J08BFH (VCOHVOB, Chairman, Hknbt G. Mains, Secretary, and eight other gen- 
tlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON AMERICAN MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

Dr. M. L. Mai.U)ST, Chairman. Prof. C. W. Dodob, Secretary, and twenty-fbnr 
other gentlemen. 

COMMITTEE ON BOTANICAL CLUB. 

Wiujax Stbbbtbr, Chairman, C. C. Lahbt, Secretary, and fliteen other gentle- 
men and ladies. 

LOCAL COMMITTEE AT LARGE. 
Consisting of one hundred and seventeen gentlemen and ladles. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIATION.' 



1. Auditors. 
Thomas Mbshan, Germantown. | B. A. Gould, Cambridge. 

2. honorary Agent of Transportation to act with the Local Committees. 

Henrt Gannett, Washington. 

8. Committee on Indexing Chemical Literature. 



H. Carrington Bolton, New York, 
F. W. Clarkb, Washington, 
A. B. Leeds, Hoboken, 



A. A. JULIBN, New York, 
J. W. Langley, Pittsburgh, 
A. B..PRESCOTT, Ann Arbor, 



Alfred Tugkerman, Newport. 

4. Committee to apply to Congress for a Beduction of the Tariff on 

Scientific Books and Apparatus. 

B. D. COFB, Philadelphia, | J.B. E48TMAN, Washington, 

S.A.Forbes, Champaign. 

6. Committee to memorialize Congress to take steps for the Preservation 
of Archceologic Monuments on the public lands. 
AUCB C. Fletcher, Cambridge, | Matilda C. Steyenson, Washington. 

6. Committee on Water Analysis. 



G. C. Caldwell, Ithaca, 

J. A. Mters, Agricultural Coll., Miss., 

B. B. WARDER, Washington, 



J. W. Lanolet, Ann Arbor, 

W. P. Mason, Troy, 

W. H. Seaman, Washington. 



7. Committee on the Maintenance of Timberlands and on the Development 

of the Natural Besources of the Country. 

T. C. Mendenhall, Washington, i C. E. Besset, Lincoln, 

£. W. HILGABD, Berkeley, I B. £. Fernow, Washington, 

William Saunders, Ottawa. 

t All Committees are expected to present their reports to the Council not later than 
the fourth day of the meeting. Committees sending their reports to the Permanent 
Seeretary one month before a meeting can have them printed for use at the meeting. 

(XV) 



XVi SPECIAL COmflTTEES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

8. CommiUee to secure an American Table at tJie International Marine 

Biological Station at Naples, Italy, 



C. W. STiLBfl, Washington, 
E. D. COPB, Philadelphia, 



E. S. MORSB, Salem, 

W. B. DUDLBT, Palo Alto. 



9. Committee on Biological Nomenclature. 

Gbobob L. Goodalb, Cambridge, | C. 8. Mikot, Boston, 

J. M. CouLTBB, CrawfordsTllle, ' Thbodobe Gill, Washington, 

S. H. Gaqb, Ithaca. 



10. Committee on Standards for Astronomical and Physical Units. 



8. P. Lanolbt, Washington, 
E. 0. PiOKBRiNO, Cambridge, 
T. C. Mbkdbnhall, WashingtOMt 
W. B. Warner, Cleveland, 



6. N. Sabomullbr, Washington, 
WiLLiAH HARKNB88, Washington, 
J. A. BRA8RBAR, PitCsbarg; 
Alvin G. Clark, Cambridge. 



1 1 . Committee on the Endowment of Besearch Fund. 

JOHtf A. Brabhbar, Pittsburgh, Section A, Chairman. 

Francis E. Niphbr, 8t. Lonis, 

8. A. Lattimosb, Bochester, 

R. H. THUR8TON, Ithaca, 

John J. Stbvbnson, New York, 

C. v. BiLET, Washington, 



<l 


B, 


C( 


o. 


«( 


B. 


« 


B, 


« 


F. 


«< 


o. 


M 


H, 


l( 


I. 



Thomas Wiusou, Washington, 
Edmund J. Jambs, Philadelphia, 



12. Committee to confer with the Director-General of the WorlSs Colum- 
bian Es^osition to secure special headquarters during the Exposition 
for the sciences represented by the nine sections of the Association. 
Thb ninb Sboretaribs of thb Sections for the Meetino of 189S. 



18. Committee on a Table at t?ie proposed Marine Biological 

Station at Jamaica. 

A. H. TUTTLE, Univ. of Virginia, i B. D. Halsted, New Bmnswick, 

B. 8. Morse, Salem, I C. W. Stiles, Washington, 

N. L. Britton, New Torlt. 



14. Committee on the Preservation of tT^e Ancient Earthvwrks near 

Anderson, Indiana. 

W. H. Holmes, Washington, i O. T. Mason, Washington, 

F. W. Putnam, Cambridge, I D. G. Brinton, Philadelphia, 

A. W. Butler, Brookyille. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XVII 

15. Committee of the Sections to codperate with the World's Congress 
Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition for the holding of 
International Scientific Congresses during the Exposition. 

SECTION A.— Simon Newoomb, Washington; H. A. Newton, New Haven; E. C. 
Pickering, Cambridge; S. P. Lanolet, Washington; R. S. Wood- 
ward, Washington; T. H. Safford, Willlamstown; S. C. Chandler* 
Cambridge. 

SECTION B.— T. C. Mbndenhall, Washington; H. 8. Carhart, Ann Arbor; E. H. 
Nichols, Ithaca; H. A. Roland, Baltimore; A. A. Michblson, Chi- 
cago; John Trowbridob, Cambridge; C. F. Brackbtt, Princeton. 

SECTION C.^Ira Rkmskn, Baltimore; Lewis M. Norton, Boston; B. W. Morlet, 
Cleveland; Albert B. Prbscott, Ann Arbor; Bdoar F. Smith, 
Philadelphia. 

SECTION D.^E. L. CoRTHELL, Chicago; J. E. Denton, Hoboken; Hbnrt R. 
Towns, Stamford; R. H. Thurston, Ithaca; Benbzbttb Williams, 
Chicago. 

SECTION E.^T. C. CH4MBERLAIN, Chicago; 6. K. Gilbert, Washington; H. S. Wil- 
liams, New Haven; J. C. Branner, Menlo Park; R. D. Salisburt, 
Belolt; C. A. Walcott, Washington; J. F. Whitbaves, Ottawa; E. A. 
Smith, University of Alabama; W. H. Winchbll, Minneapolis; 6. H. 
WiLUAMS, Baltimore; W J McGee, Washington. 

SECTIONS F and G.— S. H. Gage, Ithaca; B. D. Halstbd, New Brunswick; Hbnrt 
F. OsBORN, New York; Chas. E. Bessey, Lincoln ; L. O. Howard, 
Washington; F. V.CoviLLB, Washington. 

SECTION H.—D. G. Brinton, Philadelphia; F. W. Putnam, Cambridge; W. H. 
Holmes, Washington; Frederick Starr, Chicago; Joseph Jastrow, 
Madison. 
SECTION I.- Edward Atkinson, Boston ; E. W. Bbmis, Chicago; W. H. Brewer, 
New Haven; S.Dana Horton, Pomeroy; Edmund J. Jambs, Phila> 
delphia; Lester F. Ward, Washington; Carroll A. Wright, Wash- 
ington. 

These several sab-committees have the power to fill vacancies and to add to thefar 
naml>ers. 



A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. B 



OFFICSB8 EIiBCTED 

TOR THE 

M A DI80]Sr MEETING. 

AUGUST, 1888. 
IThe first G€neral SeBtion ofthU MuUng will be on Tkundapf August 17.] 



PRESIDENT. 
William Habknsss, Washington, D. C. 

YICE-FBESIDEETTS. 

A« Mathematlos and Astronomy--C. L. Dooltttlk, South Beth- 
lehem, Fa. 

B. Physios— £. L. Nichols, Ithaca, N. T. 

C. Ohemistry— Edward Habt, Easton, Pa. 

D« Meohanioal Soienoe and Engineering--S. W. Robinson, 

Columbas, O. 
S. G^eology and G^eography— Ch as. D. Walcott, Washington, D. C. 

F. Zoology—HsNRT F. OSBOBN, New York, N. T. 

G. Botany—CHARLES E. Bessby, Lincoln, Neb. 

H. Anthropology — J. Owbn Dousby, Tacoma, Md. 
-I. Eoonomio Soienoe and Btatistios— William H. Brewer, New 
Haven, Conn. 

PEBICANENT SECRETABY. 
E. W. Putnam, Cambridge (office Salem), Mass. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 

T. H. Norton, Cincinnati, Otilo. 

SECRETARY OF THE CGUNCII.. 

H. L. Eairchild, Rochester, N. T. 

SECRETARIES OF THE SECTIONS. 

'A. Mathematlos and Astronomy— Andrew W. Phillips, New 
Haven, Conn. 

B. Physios— W. LeContb Stevens, Troy, N. Y. 

C. Chemistry— J. U. Nef, Chicago, 111. 

D. Meohanioal Soienoe and Engineering— D. S. Jacobus, Ho- 

boken, N. J. 

E. Geology and Geography— Robkrt T. Hill, Austin, Texas. 
P. Zoology — L. O. Howard, Washington, D. C. • 

G. Botany — F. V. Coville, Washington, D. C. 
H. Anthropology— Warren E. Moorkhead, Xenia, O. 
I. Eoonomio Soienoe and Statistios— Nellie S. Kbdzie, Man- 
hattan, Eas. 

TREASURER. 

WiLUAM Lilly, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 
(xvlii) 



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1. 

2. 

S. 

4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
IS. 
IS. 
14. 
16. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
90. 
21. 
83. 
.23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
.27. 
.28. 
.29. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
86. 
86. 
87. 
86. 
89. 
40. 
41. 
42. 



Philadelphia 

Cambridge 

Charleston 

New HaTen 

Cinclonatl 

Albany 

Cleveland 

Washington 

Providence 

2nd Albany 

Montreal 

Baltimore 

Springfield 

Newport 

Buffalo 

Burlington 

Chicago 

Salem 

Troy 

Indianapolis 

Dubuqne 

Portland 

Hartford 

Detroit 

2nd Buffalo 

Nashville 

St. Louis 

Saratoga 

Boston 

2nd Cincinnati 

2nd Montreal 

Minneapolis 

2nd Philadelphia 

Ann Arbor 

8d Buffalo 

New York 

2nd Cleveland 

Toronto 

2d Indianapolis 

2d Washington 

Rochester 

Madison 



DATS. 



MEMBERS 

IK ATTEKD- 

AKCB. 



KUMBER OF 
MEMBERS. 



Sept 20, 1848 
Aug. 14, 1849 
Mar. 12, 1800 
Aug. 19, 1860 
May 6, 1861 
Aug. 19, 1861 
July 28, 1868 
April 26, 1864 
Ang. 15, 1866 
Aug. 20. 1856 
Ang. 12,1867 
April 28, 1858 
Aug. 8, 1869 
Aug. 1, 1860 
Ang. 16,1866 
Aug. 21. 1867 
Aug. 6, 1868 
Aug. 18,1869 
Ang. 17. 1870 
Aug. 16, 1871 
Aug. 15, 1871 
Aug. 20. 1878 
Aug. 12,1874 
Aug. 11,1876 
Aug. 28,1876 
Aug. 29, 1877 
Aug. 21, 1878 
Aug. 27, 1879 
Ang. 26, 1880 
Aug. 17, 1881 
Aug. 28, 1882 
Aug. 15,1883 
Sept. 3, 1884 
Ang. 26, 1886 
Ang. 18,1886 
Ang. 10,1887 
Aug. 14, 1888 
Aug. 26, 1889 
Aug. 19,1890 
Aug. 19,1801 
' Aug. 17, 1892 
Aug. 17,1898 



? 
? 
? 
? 

87 
194 
? 
168 
166 
881 
861 
190 
190 
186 
79 
78 
259 
244 
188 
196 
164 
195 
224 
166 
216 
178 
134 
266 
997 
600 
937 
828 
1261* 
864 
446 
729 
842 
424 
864 
663t 
466 



461 
640 



704 
800 
769 
940 
1004 
605 
722 
946 



862 

644 

687 

415 

686 

611 

636 

668 

610 

670 

722 

807 

867 

963 

962 

1030 

1655 

1699 

1922 

2033 

1981 

1956 

1886 

1966 

1964 

1962 

1944 

2054 

2037 



•Including members of the British Association and other foreign guests, 
flnclading twenty -four foreign Honorary members for the meeting. 



OFFICERS OF THE MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



[The number before the name is that of the meeting ; the year of the 
meeting follows the name ; the asterisk after a name indicates that the 
member is deceased.] 

PRESIDENTS. 



6. 



7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11, 



1. W. C. Redfield,* 1848. 

2. Joseph Henry,* 1849. 

3. 4, 5. A. D. Bache,* March meet- 

ing, 1850, in absence of Jo- 
seph Henry. August meet- 
ing, 1850. May meeting, 1851. 

Loins Agassiz,* August meet- 
ing, 1851. 

(No meeting in 1852). 

Benjamin Fierce,* 1853. 

James D. Dana, 1854. 

John Torrey,* 1856. 

James Hall, 1856. 
12. Alexis Caswell,* 1857, in 
place of J. W. Bailey, de- 
ceased. 1858, in absence of 
Jeffries Wyman. 

13. Stephen Alexander,* 1859. 

14. Isaac Lea,* 1860. 

(No meetings for 1861-65). 
16. F. A. P. Barnard,* 1866. 

16. J. S. Newberry, 1867. 

17. B. A. Gould, 1868. 

18. • J. W. Foster,* 1869. 

19. T. Sterry Hunt,* 1870, in the 

absence of Wm. Chauvenet. 

20. Asa Gray,* 1871. 

21. J. Lawrence Smith*, 1872. 

22. Joseph Lovering,* 1873. 

23. J. L. LeConte,* 1874. 

24. J. E. HiLGARD,* 1875. 

25. William B. Rogers,* 1876. 

26. Simon Newcomb, 1877. 



27. O. C. Marsh, 1878. 

28. G. F. Barker, 1879. 

29. Lewis H. Morgan,* 1880. 

30. G. J. Brush, 1881. 

31. J. W. Dawson, 1882. 

32. C. A. Young, 1883. 

33. J. P. Lesley, 1884. 

34. H. A. Newton, 1885. 

35. Edward S. Morse, 188Q. 

36. S. P. Langley, 1887. 

37. J. W. Powell, 1888. 

38. T. C. Mbndenhall, 1889. 

39. G. Lincoln Goodalk, 1890. 

40. Albert B. Prescott, 1891. 

41. Joseph LeConte, 1892. 

42. William Harkness, 1893. 



(xxl) 



zxii 



OFVICKBS or TBI MEETIIIGS OF THE ASSOOIATIOK. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

There were no vice-presidents until the 11th meeting when there was a 
single vice-president for each meeting. At the 24tb meeting the Associa- 
tion met in Sections A and B, each presided over by a vice-president. At 
the 81st meeting nine sections were organized, each with a vtoe-presldent 
as its presiding officer. In 1886, Section O (Microscopy) was given up. 
In 1892, the Section of Botany was organized as Section O. 

1857-1874. 



11. Alexis Caswell,* 1857, acted 

as President. 

12. John E. Holbrook,* 1858, not 

present. 
18. Edward Hitchcock,* 1859. 

14. B. A. OouLD, 1860. 

15. A. A. Gould,* 1866, in absence 

of R. W. GlBBES. 
16. WOLCOTT OlBBS, 1867. 



17. Charles WHrrrLBSET,* 1868. 

18. OODBN N. Rood, 1869. 

19. T. Stkrrt Hunt,* 1870, acted 

as President. 

20. G. 7. Barker, 18n. 

21. AlRXANDBR WlKCHBLL,* 1872. 

22. A. H. WORTHBN,* 1873, not 

present. 
2%. C. 8. Ltuan,* 1874. 



1875-1881. 

Section A. -^JdatkenuOtet, Thy9ic$ 

and ChtmiBtry. 34. 

24. H. A. Newton, 1875. 25. 

26. C. A. YOUNO, 1876. 26. 
26; R. H. THURSTON, 1877, In the 27. 

absence of £. C. Pickering. 28. 

27. R. H. Thurston, 1878. 29. 

28. 8. P. Lanolby. 1879. 80. 

29. Asaph Hall, 1880. 
80. William Harknkss, 1881, in 

the absence of A. M. Mayer. 



Section B.-^Natuna Hiitorff, 

J. W. Dawson, 1875. 
Edward S. Morse, 1876. 
O. C. Marsh, 1877. 
Aug. R. Grotb, 1878. 
J. W. Powell, 1879. 
Alexander Agassiz, 1880. 
Edward T. Cox, 1881, in the 
absence of Georcub Engrl- 

MANN. 



Chairmen of Subsections, 1875-1881. 



94. 

25. 
26. 
27. 

28. 

29. 
SO. 



25. 
96. 
27. 



Subsection of Chemistry. 

8. w. Johnson, 1876. 
G. F. Barker, 1876. 
N. T. LUPTON, 1877. 
F. W. Clarke, 1878. 

F. W. Clarke, 1879, in the absence 
oflRA Remsbv. 

J. M. ORDWAT, 1880. 

G. C. Caldwell, 1881, in the abaenoe 
of W. R. Nichols. 

Subsection of Microscopy, 

R. H. WARD, 1876. 
R. H. WARD, 1877. 

R. H. WARD, 1878, in the absence of 
Q. S. BLACKIS. 



28. E. W. MORLET, 1879. 

29. 8. A. Laitimore, 1880. 
80. A.B. HERVET, 1881. 

Subsection of Anthropologiy. 

24. Lewis H. Moroan,* 1876. 

25. lewis h.morgak,* 1878. 

26. DANIEL WILSON,* 1877, not present. 

27. Untted with Section B. 

28. Daniel Wilsok,* 1879. 

29. J. W. Powell, 1880. 

80. Garrick Mallbrt, 1881. 

Subsection of JEntomologf. 
80. J. G. Morris, 1881. 



OFFICERS OF THE MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



xxiii 



Vicb-Pbksidbnts of Sections, 1882- 



Section A. — Mathematics and 

Astronomy, 31. 

W. A. RoOKRS, 1882, in the 82. 
absence of William Habk- • 33. 

NESS. ' 84. 

W. A. R06EBS, 1883. 
H. T. Eddy, 1884. 85. 

WiLUAM Harkness, 1885, in 86. 

the absence of J. M. Van 87. 

Vlkck. ^, 

J. W. GiBBS, 1886. 39. 

36. J. B. Bastman, 1887, in place 40. 

of W. Fbrrel, resigned. 41. 

Ormond Stone, 1888. 42. 

R. S. Woodward, 1889. 
S. C. Chandlkr, 1890. 
E. W. Hyde, 1891. 
J. R. Eastman, 1892. 
C. L. Doolittle, 1893. 



31. 



3$. 
33. 
34. 



35. 



37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 



Section C.—r Chemistry. 

H. C. Bolton, 1882. 

B. W. MoELKY, 1883. 

J. W. Lanolby, 1884. 

N. T. LuPTON, 1885, In absence 

of W. R. Nichols. 
H. W. Wiley, 1886. 
A. B. Pkescott, 1887. 
0. E. KuNKOE, 1888. 
W. L. Dudley, 1889. 
R. B. Warder, 1890. 
R. C. Kbdzie, 1891. 
Alfred Sfringbb, 1892. 
Edward Haet, 1893. 





Election B. — Physics, 


Section D.-^Meehanieal Science 


81. 


T. C. Mendenhall, 1882. 




and Engineering, 


82. 


H. A. Rowland, 1883 


31. 


W. P. Trowbridge,* 1882. 


33. 


J. Trowbridge, 1884. 


32. 


De Volson Wood, 1883, ab- 


34. 


S. P. Lanolby, 1386, in place 




sent, but place was not filled. 




of C. F. Brackeit, resigned. 


33. 


R. H. Thurston, 1884. 


86. 


C. F. Bbackett, 1886. 


34. 


J. Burkitt Webb, 1885. 


36. 


W. A. Anthony, 1887. 


35. 


0. Chanutb, 1886. 


37. 


A. A. MiCHELSON, 1888. 


36. 


E. B. COXE, 1887. 


38. 


H. S. Carhabt, 1889. 


37. 


C. J. H. Woodbury, 1888. 


39. 


Clkvkland Ab!bk, 1890. 


38. 


James E. Denton, 1889. 


40. 


F. E. Nipher, 1891. 


39. 


James E. Dknton. 1890. 


41. 


B. F. Thomas, 1892. 


40. 


Thomas Gray, 1891. 


42. 


E. L. Nichols, 1893. 


41. 


J. B. Johnson, 1892. 






42. 


S. W. Robinson, 1893. 



xziy 



OFFZOEBS OF THE MKBTINQ8 OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Vicx-Pbesidknts of Sections, continued. 



Section S. — Geology and Geography* 

81. E. T. Cox, 1882. 

82. C. H. Hitchcock, 1888. 

83. N. H. WiNCHBLL, 1884. 

84. Edward Orton, 1886. 

85. T. C. Chabcbbrlin, 1886. 

86. G. K. Gilbert, 1887. 

87. George H. Cook,* 1888. 

88. Charlbs a. Whttb, 1889. 

89. John C. Branneb, 1890. 

40. J. J. Stevenson, 1891. 

41. H. S. Williams, 1892. 

42. Charlks D. Walcott, 1898. 



Section H. — Anthropology. 

81. Alexandeb Winchell,* 1882. 

82. Otis T. Mason, 1888. 
88. Edwabd S. Mobse, 1884. 

84. J. OwKN Dorset, 1886, in ab- 

sence of W. H. Dall. 

85. HoBATio Hale, 1886. 

86. D. G. Brinton, 1887. 

87. Charles C. Abbott, 1888. 

88. Gabbick Mallert, 1889. 

89. Frank Bakeb, 1890. 

40. Joseph Jastbow, 1891. 

41. W. H. Holmes, 1892. 

42. J. Owen Dobsbt, 1898. 



Section F, — Biology, 

81. W. H. Dall, 1882. 

82. W. J. Beal, 1888. 
E. D. COFE, 1884. 
T. J. Bubiull, 1885, in the ab- 
sence of B. G. Wildeb. 

H. P. BowDiTCH, 1886. 
W. G. Fablow, 1887. 
C. V. RiUBT, 1888. 
George L. Goodaia, 1889. 
C. S. MmoT, 1890. 

J. M. COULTEB, 1891. 

S. H. Gage, 1892. 

Section F, — Zoology, 
Henby F. Osbobn, 1898. 



88. 
84. 

86. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
40. 
41. 

42. 



Section G* — Microscopy. 

31. A. H. Tuttle, 1882. 
82. J. D. Cox, 1883. 
33. T. G. WOBMLEY, 1884. 
84. S. H. Gage, 1885. 

Section united "with F in 1886. 
Section G,^Botany. 
42. Chables E. Bessey, 1893. 



Section I. — Economic Science and 
Statistics. 

81. E. B. Ellxott,* 1882. 

B2. Fbankun B. Hough,* 1883. 

33. John Eaton, 1884. 

34. Edwabd Atkinson, 1885. 

35. Joseph Cummings,* 1886. 

36. H. E. Alvord, 1887. 

87. Charles W. Smiley, 1888. 

88. Charles S. Hill, 1889. 

39. J. Richards Dodge, 1890. 

40. Edmund J. James, 1891. 

41. Lester F. Ward, 1892, in 

place of S. Dana Horton, 
resigned. 

42. William H. Brewer, 1893. 



OFFICERS OP THE MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



XXV 



SECRETARIES. 



General Secretaries, 1848- 

1. Walter R. Johnson,* 1848. 

2. Eben N. Hobsford, 1849, in 

the absence of Jeffries 
Wyman. 

3. L. R. Gibbs, 1850, in absence 

of E, C. Herrick. 

4. E. C. Herrick,* 1860. 

5. William B. Rogers,* 1851, in 

absence of E. C. Herrick. 

6. WiLUAM B. Rogers,* 1851. 

7. S. St. John,* 1863, in absence 

of J. D. Dana. 

8. J. Lawrence Smith,* 1864. 

9. WOLCOTT 6lBBS,-1855. 

10. B. A. Gould, 1856. 

11. John LeConte, 1857. 

12. W. M. Gillespie,* 1868, in ab- 

sence of Wm. Chauvenet. 

13. William Chauvenet,* 1869. 

14. Joseph LeContb, 1860. 

16. Elias Loomis, 1866, in the 
absence of W. P. Trow- 
bridge. 

16. C. S Lyman,* 1867. 

17. Simon Newcomb, 1868, in 

place of A. P. Rockwell, 
called home. 

18. O. C. Marsh, 1869. 

19. E. W. Putnam, 1870, in ab- 

sence of C. F. Hartt. 

20. E. W. Putnam, 1871. 

21. Edward S. Morse, 1872. 

22. C. A. White, 1873. 

23. A. C. Hamun, 1874. 

24. S. H. Scudder, 1876. 

25. T. C. Mendknhall, 1876. 

26. Aug. R. Grote, 1877. 

27. H. C. Bolton, 1878. 

28. H. C. Bolton, 1879, in the ab- 

sence of George Little. 

29. J. K. Rees, 1880. 

80. C. V. Riley, 1881. 

81. William Saunders, 1882. 



32. J. R. Eastman, 1883. 

33. Alfred Springer, 1884. 

34. C. S. MiNOT, 1886. 

35. S. G. WlLUAMS, 1886. 

36. William H. Pettee, 1887. 

37. Julius Pohlman, 1888. 

38. C. Leo Mees, 1889. 

39. H. C. Bolton, 1890. 

40. H. W. Wiley, 1891. 

41. A. W. Butler, 1892. 

42. T. H. Norton, 1893. 



Permanent Secretaries, 1861- 

5-7. Spencer F. Baird,* 1851-3. 
8-17. Joseph Lovering,* 1854-68. 
18. F. W. Putnam, 1869, in the 
absence of J. Lovering. 
19-21. Joseph Lovering,* 1870-72. 
22-23. F. W. Putnam, 1873-74. 
24-28. F. W. Putnam, 1876-79. 
29-33. F. W. Putnam, 1880-84. 
34-38. F. W. PUTMAM, 1886-89. 
39-43. F. W. Putnam, 1890-94. 

Assistant General Secretaries, 

1882-1887. 

31. J. R. Eastman, 1882. 

32. Alfred Springer, 1883. 

83. C. S. Mlnot, 1884, in the ab- 

sence of E. S. Holden. 

84. S. G. Williams, 1885, in the 

absence of C. C. Abbott. 

36. W. H. Pettee, 1886. 
86. J. C. Arthur, 1887. 

Secretaries of the Council, 1888- 

37. C. Leo Mees, 1888. 

38. H. C. Bolton, 1889. 

39. H. W. Wiley, 1890. 

40. A. W. Butler, 1891. 

41. T. H. Norton, 1892. 

42. H. Leroy Fairchild, 1893. 



XXVI 



OFFICERS OF THE MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



- i?;?;; 



Secretarips of Section A,-— Mathemat- 
ics, PhyHcB and Chemistry, 1875-81. 

S. P. Lanqlby, 1876. 

MendekhalLi 1875. 
26. A. W. Wmght, 1876. 

26. H. C. Bolton, 1877. 

27. F. E. NiPHER. 1878. 

28. J. K. Rees, 1879. 

29. H. B. Mason, 1880. 

80. E. T. Tappan, 1881, in the ab- 
sence of John Trowbridge. 



Secretaries of Section B, — Natural 
History, 1875-81. 

24. Edward S. Morse, 1875. - 

26. Albert H. Tuttle, 1876. 

26. William H. Dall, 1877. 

27. George Little, 1878. 

28. WiLUAM H. Dall, 1879, in 

the absence of A. C. Weth- 

KRBT. 

29. Charles V. Riley, 1880. 
80. William Saunders, 1881. 



Secretaries of Subsections, 1875-81. 



Subsection of Chemistry. 

S4. F. W. Clarke, 1876. 

SB. H. 0. BOLTOK. 1876. 

98. P. 8CHWBITZBB, 1877. 

27. A. P. 8. Stuart, 1878. 

28. W. E. Nichols • 1879. 

29. C. E. MUNROB, 1880. 

80. Alfred Springer, 1881, in the ab- 
■eDce of U. B. Warder. 

Subsection of Entomology. 
80. B. P. Mann, 1881. 



Subsection of Anthropology, 

24. F. W. Putnam, 1876. 

26. Otis T. Mason, 1876. 

96, 27. United witb SectionB . 

28, 99, 80. J. G. Henderson, 1879-81. 

Subsection of Microscopy. 

26. B. W. MORLET, 1876. 

28. T. O. SOMMERS, Jr., 1877. 

27. G. J. Enoblmann, 1878. 

28. 29. A. B. HERVBT, 1879-1880. 

80. W. H. SEAMAN, 1861, In the absence 
of S.P. Sharplbs. 



Secretaries of the Sections, 1882- 



Section A.'^MathenuUics and 
Astronomy. 

31. H. T. Eddy, 1882. 

32. G. W. Hough, 1888, in the ab- 

sence of W. W. Johnson. 

83. G. W. Hough, 1884. 

34. E. W. Hyde, 1886. 

35. S. C. Chandler, 1886. 

36. H. M. Paul, 1887. 

37. C. C. Doolittle, 1888. 

38. G. C. CoMSTOCK, 1889. 

39. W. W. Bbman, 1890. 

40. F. H. Bigelow, 1891. 

41. WiNSLOW Upton, 1892. 

42. Andrew W. Phillips, 1893. 



Section B, "Physics. 

81. C. S. Hastings, 1882. 

82. E. E. NiPHER, 1883, in the ab- 

sence of C. K. Wead. 

33. N. D. C. Hodges, 1884. 

34. B. F. Thomas, 1885, in place 

of A. A. MiCHELSON, resigned. 

85. H. S. Carhart, 1886. 

86. C. Leo Mees, 1887. 

37. Alex. Macfarlane, 1888. 

38. E. L. Nichols, 1889. 
89. E. M. Avery, 1890. 

40. Alex. Macfarlane, 1891. 

41. Brown Ayjies, 1892. 

42. W. LeConte Stevens, 1893. 



OFFICERS OF THE MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



ZXVU 



Secretaries of the Sections, continued. 



Section C, — Chemistry, 

81. Alfred Springer, 1882. 
g2 r J. W. Langley, 1888. 
I W. McMurtrie, *♦ 

83. H. Cahmichael, 1884, in the 

absence of R. B. Warder. 

84. F. P. Dunnington, 1886. 

35. W. MCMURTRIK, 1886. 

36. C. S. Mabbry, 1887. 

37. W. L. Dudley, 1888. 

38. Edward Hart, 1889. 

39. W. A. NOYES, 1890. 

40. T. H. Norton, 1891. 

41. James Lewis Howe, 1892. 

42. J. U. Nef, 1893. 



Section E, — Geology and Geography, 

31. H. S. Williams, 1882, in the 

absence of C. E. Dutton. 

32. A. A. JULIEN, 1883. 
83. E. A. Smith, 1884. 

34. G. K. Gilbert, 1885, in the 
absence of H. C. Lewis. 

85. E. W. Claypole, 1886. 

86. W. M. Davis, 1887, In the ab- 

sence of T. B. COMSTOCK. 

37. John C. Branner, 1888. 

38. John C. Branner, 1889. 

39. Samuel Calvin, 1890. 

40. WJMcGee, 1891. 

41. R. D. Salisbury, 1892. 

42. Robert T. Hill, 1893. 



Section Z>. — Mechanical Science and 

Engineering, gj 

81. J. BuRKiTT Webb, 1882, In the 

absence of C. R. Dudley. 82. 

82. J. BuKKiTT Webb, 1883, pro 38. 

tempore. 84. 

33. J. BuRKiTT Webb, 1884. 

34. C. J. H. Woodbury, 1886 35. 
85. William Kent, 1886. 36. 
36. G. M. Bond, 1887. 87. 
87. Arthur Beardsi^y, 1888. 38. 

38. W. B. Warner, 1889. 89. 

39. Thomas Gray, 1890.' 40. 

40. William Kent, 1891. 41. 

41. O. H. Landreth, 1892. 

42. D. S. Jacobus, 1893. 42. 



Section F.— Biology, 

William Osler, 1882, in the 
absence of C. S. Minot. 

S. A. Forbes, 1883. 

C. E. Bessey, 1884. 

J. A. LiNTNER, 1885, in place 
of C. H. Eernald, resigned. 

J. C. Arthur, 1886. 

J. H. COMSTOCK, 1887. 
B. H. Fernow, 1888. 
A. W. Butler, 1889. 
J. M. Coulter, 1890. 

A. J. Cook, 1891. 

B. D. Halsted, 1892. 

Section F,— Zoology. 
L. 0. Howard, 1893. 



ZZViii OFFICERS OF THE MSETIHGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



8ECRETABIES OF THE SECTIONS, CONTINUED. 



Section O.—Microicopif, 

81. Robert Brown, jr., 1882. 

82. Carl Skiler, 1888. 

83. RoMYN Hitchcock, 1884. 

84. W. H. Walmslet, 1886. 

Section 0,Sotany, 
42. F. V. CoviLLE, 1893. 



Section H. — Anthropology, 

81. Otis T. Mason, 1882. 

32. G. H. Perkins, 1888. 

83. G. H. Pekkins, 1884, in the ab- 
sence of W. H. Holmes. 

34. Erminnie a. Sbcith,* 1885. 

85. A. W. Butler, 1886. 

86. Charles C. Abbott, 1887, in 

absence of F. W. Langdon. 
37. Frank Baker, 1888. 
88. W. M. Bkauchamp, 1889. 

39. Joseph Jastkow, 1890. 

40. W. H. Holmes, 1891. 

41. W. M. Beauchamp, 1892, in 

place of S. CuLiN, resigned. 

42. WabrenK. Moorehead, 1893. 



Section 1. — Economifi Science and 

Statistics. 

«j f Franklin B. Hough,* 1882. 

\ J. Richards Dodge, 1882. 
32. Joseph Cummings,* 1883. 

83. Charles W. Sbcilrt, 1884. 

84. Charles W. Smilet, 1885, in 

place of J. W. Chickerino. 

85. H. E. Alvord, 1886. 

86. W. R. Lazknbt, 1887. 

87. Charles S. Hill, 1888. 

88. J. Richards Dodge, 1889. 

39. B. E. Fbrnow, 1890. 

40. B. E. Fernow, 1891. 

41. Henry Fabquhar, 1892, in 

place of L. F. Ward made 
Vice-president. 

42. Nellie S. Eedzie, 1893. 



TREASURERS. 

1. Jeffries Wyman*, 1848. 6-7. 

2. A. L. Elwyn,* 1849. 8. 

3. St. J. Ravenel,* 1850, in the 

absence of A. L. Elwyn. 9-19. 

4. A. L. Elwyn,* 1850. 20-30. 
6. Spencer F. Baird,* 1851, in 

absence of A. L. Elwyn. 32-42. 



A. L. Elwyn,* 1851-1853. 
J. L. LeContk,* 1854, in 

absence of A. L. Elwyn. 
A. L. Elwyn,* 1865-1870. 
Wiixiam S. Vaux, 1871- 

1881. 
William Lilly, 1882-1893. 



COMMONWEALTH OP MASSACHUSETTS. 



IN THE YEAR ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND SEYENTY-FOUR. 



AN ACT 

To Incorporate the "American Association fob the 

Advancement op Science." 

Be it enacUd hy the Senate and House of Bepresentatives^ in General Court 
assembled f and by the authority of the same, as follows: 

Skction 1. Joseph Henry of Washington, Benjamin Pierce of Cam- 
bridge, James D. Dana of New Haven, James Hall of Albany, Alexis 
Caswell of Providence, Stephen Alexander of Princeton, Isaac Lea of 
Philadelphia, F. A. P. Barnard of New York, John S. Newberry of Cleve- 
land, B. A. Gould of Cambridge, T. Sterry Hunt of Boston, Asa Gray of 
Cambridge, J. Lawrence Smith of Louisville, Joseph Loverlng of Cam- 
bridge and John LeConte of Philadelphia, their associates, the officers 
and members of the Association, known as the " American Association 
for the Advancement of Science,*' and their successors, are hereby made 
a corporation by the name of the ** American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science," for the purpose of receiving, purchasing, hold- 
ing and conveying real and personal property, which It now.ls, or hereafter 
may be, possessed of, with all the powers and privileges, and subject 
to the restrictions, duties and liabilities set forth in the general laws 
which now or hereafter may be in force and applicable to such corpo- 
rations. 

Section 2. Said corporation may have and hold by purchase, grant, 
gift or otherwise, real estate not exceeding one hundred thousand dol- 
lars in value, and personal estate of the value of two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. 

Section 3. Any two of the corporators above named are hereby 
authorized to call the first meeting of the said corporation in the month 
of August next ensuing, by notice thereof '*by mall," to each member of 
the said Association. 

Section 4. This act shall take eff'ect upon its passage. 

House of Representatives, March 10, 1874. 

Passed to be enacted, 

John F. Sanford, Speaker. 

In Senate, March 17, 1874. 

Passed to be enacted. March 19, 1874. 

Geo. B. Loring, President. Approved, 

W. B. Washburn. 
Sbcretart's Department, 

Boston, April 8, 1^74. 

A true copy. Attest : 

David Pulsifer, 

Deputy Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

(xxlx) 



CONSTITUnON 

or THB 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF 

SCIENCE. 

Inoorporatsd by Act of the General Court of the Comnonwealth of Hueaehnsetts. 



Objkcts. 

Articlk 1. The objects of the Association are, by periodical and mi- 
gratory meetings, to promote intercourse between those who are culti- 
vating science in different parts of America, to give a stronger and more 
general impulse and more systematic direction to scientific research, and 
to procure for the labors of scientific men increased facilities and a wider 
usefulness. 

Members, Fellows, Patrons and Honorary Fellows. 

Art. 2. The Association shall consist of Members, Fellows, Patrons, 
Corresponding Members and Honorary Fellows. 

Art. 8. Any person may become a Member of the Association upon 
recommendation in writing by two members or fellows, and election by 
the Council. 

Art. 4. Fellows shall be elected by the Council from such of the mem- 
bers as are professionally engaged in science, or have by their labors aid- 
ed in advancing science. The election of fellows shall be by ballot and 
a majority vote of the members of the Council at a designated meeting of 
the Council. 

Art. 5, Any person paying to the Association the sum of one thousand 
dollars shall be classed as a Patron, and shall be entitled to all the privi- 
leges of a member and to all its publications. 

Art. 6. Honorary Fellows of the Association, not exceeding three for 
each section, may be elected ; the nominations to be made by the Council 
and approved by ballot In the respective sections before election by ballot 
in Qeneral Session. Honorary Fellows shall be entitled to all the privi- 
leges of Fellows and shall be exempt from all fees and assessments, and 
entitled to all publications of the Association issued after the date of their 
election. Corresponding Members shall consist of such scientists not re- 

(XXX) 



ooNSTirunoN* xxsl 

siding in America as may be elected bj the Council, and their number shall 
be limited to fifty. Corresponding Members shall be entitled to all the 
privileges of members and to the annual volumes of Proceedings published 
subsequent to their election. 

Art. 7. The name of any member orj^fellow two years in arrears for 
annual dues shall be erased from the list of the Association, provided 
that two notices of indebtedness, at an interval of at least three months, 
shall have been given ; and no such person shall be restored until he has 
paid his arrearages or has been reelected. The Council shall have power 
to exclude from the Association any member or fellow, on satisfactory 
evidence that said member or fellow is an improper person to be connect- 
ed with the Association, or has in the estimation of the Council made im- 
proper use of his membership or fellowship. 

Art. 8. No member or fellow shall take part in the organization of, 
or hold office in, more than one section at any one meeting. 

Officers. 
Art. 9. The Officers of the Association shall be elected by ballot in 
General Session from the fellows, and shall consist of a President, a Vice- 
President (^om each section, a Permanent Secretary, a Qeneral Secretary, 
a Secretary of the Council, a Treasurer, and a Secretary of each Section ; 
these, with the exception of the Permanent Secretary, shall be elected at 
each meeting for the following one, and, with the exception of the Treas- 
urer and the Permanent Secretary, shall not be re51igible for the next two 
meetings. The term of office of Permanent Secretary shall be five years. 

Art. 10. The President, or, in his absence, the senior Vice President 
present, shall preside at all General Sessions of the Association and at 
all meetings of the Council. It shall also be the duty of the President to 
give an address at a Qeneral Session of the Association at the meeting 
following that over which he presided. 

Art. 11. The Vice Presidents shall be chairmen of their respective 
Sections, and of their Sectional Committees, and it shall be part of their 
duty to give an address, each before his own section, at such time as the 
Council shall determltie. The Vice Presidents may appoint temporary 
chairmen to preside over the sessions of their sections, but shall not del- 
egate their other duties. The Vice Presidents shall have seniority fn or- 
der of their continuous membership In the Association. 

Art. 12. The General Secretary shall be the Secretary of all General 
Sessions of the Association, and shall keep a record of the business of 



I 



XXXii CONSTTTUnOK. 

these sessions. He shall receive the records from the Secretaries of the 
Sections, which, after examination, he shall transmit with his own rec- 
ords to the Permanent Secretary within two weeks after the adjournment i 
of the meeting. 

Art. 13. The Secretary of the Council shall keep the records of the 
CounciL He shall give to the Secretary of each Section the titles of pa- 
pers assigned to it by the Council. He shall receive proposiils for member- 
ship and bring them before the Council. 

Art. 14. The Permanent Secretary shall be the executive officer of the 
Association under the direction of the Council. He shall attend to all bus- 
iness not specially referred to committees nor otherwise constitutionally 
provided for. He shall keep an account of all business that he has trans- 
acted for the Association, and make annually a general report for publica- 
tion in the annual volume of Proceedings. He shall attend to the printing 
and distribution of the annual volume of Proceedings, and all other print- 
ing ordered by the Association. He shall issue a circular of information 
to members and fellows at least three months before each meeting, and 
shall, in connection with the Local Committee, make all necessary arrange- 
ments for the meetings of the Association. He shall provide the Sec- 
retaries of the Association with such books and stationery as may be 
required for their records and business, and shall provide members and 
fellows with such blank forms as may be required for facilitating the busi- 
ness of the Association. He shall collect all assessments and admission 
fees, and notify members and fellows of their election, and of any arrear- 
ages. He shall receive, and bring before the Council, the titles and ab- 
stracts of papers proposed to be read before the Association. He shall 
keep an account of all receipts and expenditures of the Association, and 
report the same annually at the first meeting of the Council, and shall pay 
over to the Treasurer such unexpended funds as the Council may direct. 
He shall receive and hold in trust for the Association all books, pamphlets 
and manuscripts belonging to the Association, and allow the use of the 
same under the provisions of the Constitution and the orders of the Coun- 
cil. He shall receive all communications addressed to the Association 
daring the Interval between meetings, and properly attend to the same. 
He shall at each meeting report the names of fellows and members who 
have died since the preceding meeting. He shall be allowed a salary which 
shall be determined by the Council, and may employ one or more clerks 
at such compensation as may be agreed upon by the Council. 



CONSTITUTIOH • ZXXill 

Art. 15« The Treasurer shall Invest the funds received by him In such 
securities as may be directed by the Council. He shall annually present 
to the Council an account of the funds In his charge. No expenditure of 
the principal In the hands of the Treasurer shall be made without a unan- 
imous vote of the Council, and no expenditure of the Income received by 
the Treasurer shall be made -without a two-thirds vote of the Council. 

. Art. 16. The Secretaries of the Sections shall keep the records of their 
respective sections, and, at the close of the meeting, give the same, includ- 
ing the records of subsections, to the Qeneral Secretary. They shall also 
be the Secretaries of the Sectional Committees. The Secretaries shall have 
seniority in order of their continuous membership in the Association. 

4rt. 17. In case of a vacancy in the office of the President, one of the 
Vice Presidents shall be elected by the Council as the President of the meet- 
ing. Vacancies in the offices of Vice President, Permanent Secretary, 
General Secretary, Secretary of the Council, and Treasurer, shall be filled 
by nomination of the Council and election by ballot in Qeneral Session. 
A vacancy in the office of Secretary of a Section shall be filled by noml« 
nation and election by ballot In the Section. 

Art. 18. The Council shall consist of the past Presidents, and the Vice 
Presidents of the last meeting, together with the President, the Vice Pres* 
idents, the Permanent Secretary, the General Secretary, the Secretary of 
the Council, the Secretaries of the Sections, and the Treasurer of the cur- 
rent meeting, with the addition of one fellow elected from each Section 
by ballot on the first day of its meeting. The members present at any reg- 
ularly called meeting of the Council, provided there are at least five, shall 
form a quorum for the transaction of business. The Council shall meet 
on the day preceding each annual meeting of the Association, and arrange 
the programme for the first day of the sessions. The time and place of 
this first meeting shall be designated by the Permanent Secretary. Unless 
otherwise agreed upon, regular meetings of the Council shall be held In 
the council room at 9 o'clock, a. m., on each day of the meeting of the 
Association. Special meetings of the Council may be called at any time 
by the President. The Council shall be the board of supervision of the 
Association, and no business shall be transacted by the Association that 
has not first been referred to, or originated with, tfie Council. The Coun- 
cil shall receive and assign papers to the respective sections ; examine and, 
if necessary, exclude papers; decide which papers, discussions and other 
proceedings shall be published, and have the general direction of the pub- 

▲. A. A. S. VOL. XLI 



xxzlT C0N9TrruTi<»r. 

licatlons of the Association ; manage the financial affairs of the Association ; 
arrange the bnsiness and programmes for General Sessions ; suggest sub- 
jects for discussion, investigation or reports; elect members and fellows ; 
and receive and act upon all Invitations extended to the Association and 
report the same at a General Session of the Association. The Council 
shall receive all reports of Special Committees and decide upon them, and 
only such shall be read In General Session as the Council shall direct. 
The Council shall appoint at each meeting the following sub-committees 
who shall act, subject to appeal to the whole Council, until their sdccess- 
ors are appointed at the following meeting : 1, on Pi^>ers and Reports; 2, 
on Members ; 8, on Fellows. 

Abt. 19. The Nominating Committee shall consist of the Council, and 
one member or fellow elected by each of the Sections. It shall be the duty 
of this Committee to meet at the call of the President and nominate the 
general officers for the f ollcfwlng meeting of the Association. It shall also 
be the duty of this Committee to recommend the time and place for the 
next meeting. The Vice President and Secretary of each Section shall be 
recommended to the Nominating Committee by a sub-committee consisting 
of the Vice President, Secretary, and three members or fellows elected by 
the Section. 

Meetings. 

Art. 20. The Association shall hold a public meeting annually, for one 
week or longer, at such time and place as may be determined by vote of 
the Association, and the preliminary arrangements for each meeting shall 
be made by the Local Committee, in conjunction with the Permanent Sec- 
retary and such other persons as the Council may designate. 

Art. 21. A General Session shall be held at 10 o'clock a. m., on the 
first day of the meeting, and at such other times as the Council may direct. 

Sections and Subsections. 

Art. 22. The Association shall be divided into Sections, namely: — A, 
Mathematics and Astronomy ; B, Physics; C, Chemistry ^ including its appli- 
cation to agriculture and the arts; D, Mechanical Science and Engineering; 
E, Geology and Geography; F, Zoology; G, Botany ; H, Anthropology; 
I, Economic Science and Statistics. The Council shall have power to 
consolidate any two or more Sections temporarily, and such consolidated 
Sections shall be presided over by the senior Vice President and Secre- 
tary of the Sections comprising it. 



CX )N 8 1 ' ITUTlO y» 

Art. 23. Immediately on the organization of a Section there shall be 
three fellows elected by ballot after open nomination, who, with the Vice 
President and Secretary and the Vice President and Secretary of the 
preceding meeting shall form Its Sectional Committee. The Sectional 
Committees shall have power to fill vacancies In their own nnmbers. 
Meetings of the Sections shall not be held at the same time with a General 
Session. 

Art. 24. The. Sectional Committee of any Section may at Its pleasure 
form one or more temporary Subsections, and may designate the officers 
thereof. The Secretary of a Subsection shall, at the close of the meeting, 
transmit his records to the Secretary of the Section. 

Art. 25. A paper shall not be read In any Section or Subsection until 
it has been received from the Council and placed on the programme of the 
day by the Sectional Committee. 

Sectional Committees. 
Art. 26. The Sectional Committees shall arrange and direct the busi- 
ness of their respective Sections. They shall prepare the dally pro- 
^ammes and give them to the Permanent Secretary for printing at the 
earliest moment practicable. No titles of papers shall be entered on the 
dally programmes except such as have passed the Council. No change 
shall be made in the programme for the day in a Section without the con- 
sent of the Sectional Committee. The Sectional Committees may refuse 
to place the title of any paper on the programme ; but every such title, 
with the abstract of the paper or the paper itself, must be returned to the 
Council with the reasons why It was refused. 

Art. 27. The Sectional Committees shall examine all papers and ab- 
stracts referred to the sections, and they shall not place on the programme 
any paper Inconsistent with the character of the Association ; and to this 
end they have power to call for any paper, the character of which may not 
be sufficiently understood from the abstract submitted. 

Papers and Communications. 
Art. 28. All members and fellows must forward to the Permanent 
Secretary, as early as possible, and when practicable before the convening 
of the Association, full titles of all the papers which they propose to pre- 
sent during the meeting, with a statement of the time that each will oc- 
cupy in delivery, and also such abstracts of their contents as will give a 
general idea of their nature ; and no title shall be referred by the Council 
to the Sectional Committee until an abstract of the paper or the paper It- 
self has been received. 



xzzvi ooMSTrrnnoM. 

Art. 29. If the author of aoy paper be not ready at the time assigned, 
the title may be dropped to the bottom of the list. 

Art. 30. Whenever practicable, the proceedings and discussions at 
General Sessions, Sections and Sabsections shall be reported by profes- 
sional reporters, bat snch reports shall not appear in print as the official 
reports of the Association nnless revised by the Secretaries. 

PiaxTED Proceedings. 

Art. 81. The Permanent Secretary shall have the Proceedings of each 
meeting printed in an octavo volnme as soon after the meeting as possible, 
beginning one month after adjonrnment. Authors must prepare their 
papers or abstracts ready for the press, and these must be in the hands of 
the Secretaries of the Sections before the final adjournment of the meeting, 
otherwise only the titles will appear in the printed volume. The Council 
shall have power to order the printing of any paper by abstract or title 
only. Whenever practicable, proofs shall be forwarded to authors for 
revision. If any additions or substantial alterations are made by the 
author of a paper after its submission to the Secretary, the same shall be 
distinctly indicated. Illustrations must be provided for by the authors of 
the papers, or by a special appropriation from the Council. Immediately 
on publication of the volume, a copy shall be forwarded to every member 
and fellow of the Association who shall have paid the assessment for the 
meeting to which it relates, and it shall also be offered for sale by the Per- 
manent Secretary at such price as may be determined by the Council. The 
Council shall also designate the institutions to which copies shall be dis- 
tributed. 

Local CoBiMiTTES. 

Art. 82. The Local Committee shall consist of persons Interested in 
the objects of the Association and residing at or near the place of the 
proposed meeting. It is expected that the Local Committee, assisted by 
the officers of the Association, will make all essential arrangements for 
the meeting, and Issue a circular giving necessary particulars, at least one 
month before the meeting. 

Library of the Association. 

Art. 33. All books and pamphlets received by the Association shall be 
in the- charge of the Permanent Secretary, who shall have a list of the 
same printed and shall furnish a copy to any member or fellow on appli- 
cation. Members and fellows who have paid their assessments in full 
shall be allowed to call for books and pamphlets, which shall be delivered 



OOKSTITUnOK. ZXXYii 

to them at their expense, on their giving a receipt agreeing to make good 
any loss or damage and to return the same free of expense to the Secre- 
tary at the time specified In the receipt given. All books and pamphlets 
in circulation must be returned at each meeting. Not more than five books, 
including volumes, parts of volumes, and pamphlets, shall be held at one 
time by any member or fellow. Any book may be withheld from circu- 
lation by order of the Council. 

Admission Feb and Assessments. 

Art. 84. The admission fee for members shall be five dollars in addi- 
tion to the annual assessment. On the election of any member as a fellow 
an additional fee of two dollars shall be paid. 

Art. 35. The annual assessment for members and fellows shall be three 
dollars. 

Art. 36. Any member or fellow who shall pay the sum of fifty dollars 
to the Association, at any one time, shall become a Life Member and as 
such shall be exempt from all further assessments, and shall be entitled 
to the Proceedings of the Association. All money thus received shall be 
invested as a permanent fund, the income of which, during the life of the 
member, shall form a part of the general fund of the Association ; but, 
after his death, shall be used only to assist in original research, unless 
otherwise directed by unanimous vote of the Council. 

Art. 37. All admission fees and assessments mu^ be paid to the Per- 
manent Secretary, who shall give proper receipts for the same. ' 

Accounts. 

Art. 38. The accounts of the Permanent Secretary and of the Treas- 
urer shall be audited annually, by Auditors appointed by the Council. 

Alterations op the Constitution. 

Art. 39. No part of this Constitution shall be amended or annulled, 
without the concurrence of three-fourths of the members and fellows 
present in General Session, after notice given at a General Session of a 
preceding meeting of the Association. 



MEMBERS 



OF THB 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 

FOR THB 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.' 



PATRONS.* 



Thompson, Mrs. Elieabkth, Stamford, Conn. (22). 

Lilly, Gkn. William, Manch Chunk, Carbon Co., Pa. (28). P B 

HsRRMAN, Mrs. Esthkr, 59 West 56th St., New York, N. Y. (29). 

COBRESPONDIira MEMBERS.' 

Monselisc, Prof. G., Via Principe Amedeo I, Milnno, Italy (40). O 
Warington, Robert, F.R.S., Rothamsted, Harpenden, England (40). O 

MEMBERS.' 

Acker, Dr. Geo. N., 913 16th St., Washington, D. C. (40)- F 
Adrlance, John S., 231 Broadway, New York, N. T. (39;. C 
Agard, Dr. A. H., 1259 Alice St., Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. (28). 
Aitkin, Miss Clara I., 210 Madison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (40). H 
Aitkin, Miss Helen J., 210 Madison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (40). E H 

1 The numberB in parentheseB indicate the meeting at which the member was elected* 
The black letters at the end of line indicate the sections to whieh members elect to be- 
long. The Constitution requires that the names of ail members two or more years i» 
arrears shall be omitted A*om tiie list, but their names will be restoi*ed on payment of 
arrearages. Members not in arrears are entitled to the annual volume of Proceedings 
bound in paper. The payment of ten dollars at one time entitlea a member to the sttbse* 
quent 0olume§ to tokich he may be entitled, bouTid in cloth, or by the payment of twenty 
dollars, to such volumes bound in ha^ atoroceo. 

3 Persons contributing one thousand dollars or more to the Association are classed 
as Patrons, and are entitled to the privileges of members and to the publications. 

The names of Patrons are to remain perman^itly on the list, 
s See Akticlb vi of the Constitution. 

« Any Member or Fellow may become a Life Member by the payment of fifty dollars. 
The income of the money derived Arom a Life Membership is used for the general pur- 
poses of the Association during the life of the member; afterwards it is to be used to 
aid in original research. Life Members are exempt A*om the annual assessment, and 
are entitled to the annual volume. The names of Life Members are printed in small 
capitals in the regular list of Members and Fellows. 

(zxxix) 



Xl MEMBERS. 

AldeD, Jno., Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass. (86;. 

Aldis, Owen F., 230 MonHdnock Block, Chicugu, III. (41). H 

Allderdlce, Wm. H., Ass't £ng. U. S. N., U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis 

Md. (88). D 
Allen, J. M., Hartford, Conn. (22). D 
Allen, W. P., 24 Park Place, New York, N. T. (86). 
Allen, Walter S., New Bedford, Mass. (39). CI 
AmmWown, Edward H., P. O. Box 2739, New York, N. Y. (87). 
Anderson, Alexander D., Washington, D. C. (88). 
Andrews, E. R., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 
Angell, Geo. W. J., 44 Hudson St., New York, N. Y. (8C). 
Appleton, Rey. Edw. W., D.D., Ashbourne, Montgomery Co., Pa. (28). 
Arcbambanlt, U. £., P. O. Box 1944, Montreal, P. Q., Can. (31). 
Archbold, J)r. George, 121 and 123 Front St., New York, N. Y. (40). 
Armstrong, Mrs. Lnclus H., St. Nicholas, Daval Co., Fla. (80). 
Atkinson, Jno. B., Earllngton, Hopkins Co., Ky. (26). D 

Auhagen, Wllbelm, Mt. Pleasant, 17th St. ext., Washington, B. C. (40). < 

Austin, H. W., No. 8 B St., S. E., Washington, D. C. (40). G i 

Avery, Robert Stanton, 320 A St., & E., Washington, D. C. (40). A 
Aykry, Samuel P., 4 E. 88th St., New York, N. Y. (86). 
Ayer, Edward Everett, Room 12, The Rookery, Chicago, 111. (87). H 
Ayres, Horace B., Allamuchy, N. J. (40). 

Babcock, Wm. H., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Baker, Prof. Arthur Latham, 28 Strathallan Park, Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

AB 

Baker, Charles S., Rochester, N. Y. (41). O D 

Baker, Philip S., M.D., DePauw University, Greencastle, Ind. (89). C 

Baker, Richard D., 112 So. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). B O 

Baker, Wm. G., 284 E. 15th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Balderston, C. Canby, Westtown, Chester Co., Pa. (83). B 

Baldwin, Miss Mary A., 28 Fulton St., Newark, N. J. (81). E 

Baldwin, Mrs. O. H., 3 Madison Ave.. Detroit, Mich. (34). H 

Bancroft, Alonzo C, Eima, Erie Co., N. Y. (41). 

Banes, Charles H., 1107 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. (81). D 

Bangs, Lrmukl Bolton, M.D., 127 E. 34th St., New York, N. Y. (86). 

Barber, D. H., Marlon, Iowa (37). 

Barclay, Robert, A.M., M.D., 3211 Lucas Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (SO). 

Bardeen, Francis L., M.D., Box 76, Onondaga Hill, N. Y. (32). G F B 

Bargk, B. F., Mauch Chunk, Pa. (83). 

Barker, Francis C, 200 D St., N. W., Washington, D.'C. (40). B 

Barker, Mrs. Martha M., 26 Eleventh St., Lowell, Mass. (31). E H 

Barnes, Hon. Willis L., Charlestown, Ind. (40). A B 

Barnum, Miss Charlotte C, 144 Humphrey St., New Haven, Conn. (36). A 

Barrett, Fred. P., Gainesville, Wyoming Co., N. Y. (40). B 

Barringer, Daniel M., Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (40). G B 

Barrows, Walter B., Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). F 



MEMBERS. Xli 

Bartley, EliasH., M.D., 21 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (33). O 

Baskervllle, Charles, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. (41). C 

Bass, Win. H., 893 Collegre Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). D 

Bastln, Edson Sewell, 3330 S. Park Ave., Chicago, III. (39;. 

Bates, Wni. W., Com. of Navigation, Washington, D. C. (38). 

Bausch, Henry, P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

Baxter, James N., care H. E. and C. Baxter, Cor. Division and Bedford Sts., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. (36). 
Beach, Spencer Ambrose, N. Y. Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. (41). 

P 
Beall, Fielder M. M., Lieut. U. S. A., Auditorium Building, Chicago, 

111. (40). 
Bean, B. A., Ass't Curator, Dept. of Fishes, National Museum, Washing- 
ton, D. C. (40). P 
Bean, Thos. E.,Box 441, Galena, 111. (28). P 
Beaver, Daniel B. D., M.D., 160 North 6th St., Reading, Pa. (39). 
Bechdolt, AdolphusF., Supt. City Schools, Mankato, Minn. (32). EBP 
Becher, Franklin A., 406 Irving Place, Milwaukee, Wis. (41). I 
Bedell, Frederick, 118 Elm St., Montclair, N. J. (41). B A 
Bell, C. M., M.D., 320 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Belt, R. v., 1314 10th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Bemls, Edward W., Assoc. Prof, of Economics, Univ. of Chicago, 

Chicago, 111. (41). I 
Benner, Henry, N. W. University, Evanston, 111. (40). A 
Bennett, Charles M., Logansport, Ind. (39). 
Benton, George W., High School, Indianapolis, Ind. (39). C 
Beny, Daniel, M.D., Carml, White Co., 111. (41) BOB 
Beverldge, David, Room 1141, The Rookery, Chicago, 111. (38). I 
Biddle, James G., 924 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (39). 
Blen, Julius, 140 Sixth Ave., New York, N. Y. (34). B H 
Bigelow, Miss Clarissa, Kalamazoo. Mich. ^39). A 

Biggar, Hamilton F., M.D., 176 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (40). B P 
Bigney, Prof. A. J., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (40). P 
Blrdsall, Miss Louise W., 105 E. 37th St., New York, N. Y. (37). P E 
Biscoe, Prof. Thomas Dwlght, 404 Front St., Marietta, Ohio (41). 
Bishop, Hkber R., Mills Building, New York, N. Y. (36). 
Blair, Mrs. Eliza N., 213 E. Capitol St., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Blatchford, Eliphalet W., 375 No. La Salle St.,Chlcago, 111. (17). P 
Blatchley, Willis S., Terre Haute, Ind. (39). P 

Blelle, Albert M., M.D., 342 S. Fourth St., Columbus, Ohio (37). P 
Blish, W. G., Nlles, Mich. (33). B D 

Blount, Henry F., University Park, Washington, D. C. (32). J B 
Blount, Mrs. Lucia E., Univ. Park, Washington, D. C. (34). H I 
Boardman, William Dorr, 38 Kenil worth St., Roxbury, Mass. (38). B 
Bogue, Rev. Horace P. V., Avon, N. Y. (41). H I 

Bolley, Henry L., North Dakota Agric. Coll., Fargo, North Dakota (39). P 
Booraem, J. V. V., 204 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. (36). 



Xlii MBMBKR8. 

Booth, Miss Mary A.. Lonirmeadow, Mass. (34). F I 

Bourland, Addison M., M.D., Van Baren, Ark. (29). C E F 

Boustead, W. £., Toronto, Ontario, Can. (88). 

Bouton, Chas. L., M.S., 2909 Park Ave., St. Loals, Mo. (40). A D 

Bowers, Miss Virginia K., 61 Taylor St., Newport, Ky. (27). F H B 

Bowman, Chas. O., Lt. U. S. N., Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. (33). 

Bowman, Walker, Black8burg,-Va. (39). 

Boyer, Jerome L., Superintendent Chestnut Hill Iron Ore Co., Reading, 

Pa. (85). D 
Brackenridge, Geo. W., San Antonio, Texas (41). I 
Bradford, Chester, Patent Attorney, 16 & 18 Hubbard Block, Indianapolis, 

Ind. (39). D 
Bradley, Charles S., Avon, N. Y. (40). 
Brannon, M. A., Fort Wayne, Ind. (89). F 
Bray, Prof. C. D., College Hill, Mass. (29). D B 
Brayton, Miss Sarah H., M.D., Evanston, 111. (38). 
Breckenridge, J. C, Inspector General U. S. A., Inspector General's 

Office, WarDept., Washington, D. C. (40). B 
Breckenridge, Prof. Lester P., Agricultural College, Mich. (41). 
Brewer, Prof. Charles E., Wake Forest, N. C. (40). 
Brice, Judge Albert G., 19 Camp St., New Orleans, La. (82). H 
Brigham, Prof. Albert P., Hamilton, Madison Co., N. Y, (41). 
Bristol, Wm. H., Stevens Institnte, Hoboken, N. J. (86). A B D 
Britton, Wiley, Pension Office, Washington, D. C. (40). F 
Bromwell, Wm., Museum of Hygiene, 1707 New York Ave., Washington, 

D. C. (40). 
Bronson, Henry, 1198 Chapel Street, New Haven, Conn. (41). I 
Brooks, Prof. Wm. P., Amherst, Mass. (38). C F 
Broomall, Hon. John M., Media, Delaware Co., Pa. (23). A 
Brown, Miss AnnaM., 628 W. 7th St., Cincinnati, Ohio (31). F 
Brown, Prof. Charles Sumner, Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, 

Ind. (39V D 
Brown, C. Newton, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (34). 
Brown, Henry A., Saxon ville, Mass. (38). I 
Brown, Jonathan, 390 Broadway, Somerville, Mass. (29). 
Brown, Paul Taylor, 103 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). B 
Brown, Samuel B., Morgantown, W. Va. (40). B 
Brown, Prof. W. G., Lexington, Va. (40). 
Brownell, Silas B., 71 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (86). 
Brownell, Prof. Walter A., 906 University Avenue, Syracuse, N. Y. (30). 

BBC 
Brunk, Thos. L., College Park, Md. (40). F 
Buckingham, Chas. L., 195 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (28). 
Buffhm, Miss Fannie A., Linden, Mass. (29). B C 
Burke, William, U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (28). 
Burman, Rev. W. A., Winnepeg, Manitoba (38). F H 
Burnett, Edgar A., Agricultural College, Mich. (41). y 



MEMBERS. Xliii 

Burns, Prof. James A., Box 206, Atlanta, Ga. (32). OBI 
Barr, Mrs. Laura E., Commercial Hotel, Lansing, Mich. (34). B 
Burton, Prof. Alfred E., Mass. Inst, of Tech., Boston, Mass. (40). B 
Burwell, Arthur W., 208 Superior St., Cleveland, Ohio (37). 
Bush, Rev. Stephen, D.D., Waterford, N. Y. (19). B H 
Byrd, Mary E., Smith College, Northampton, Mass. (34). A 
Byrnes, Eugene A., Principal Examiner of Metallurgy aud Chemist of the 
Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (40). 



Cabot, John W., Box 440. Pottstown, Pa. (36). D . 

Calder, Edwin E., 15 Board of Trade Building, Providence, R. I. (29). O 

Caldwell, Wm. H., State College, Centre Co., Pa. (37). I F 

Calkins, Dr. Marshall, Springfield, Mass. (29). 

Campbell, H. D., Ph.D., Lexington, Va. (40). P 

Campbell, Jos. Addison, Queen Lane, Falls of Schuylkill P. 0., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (33). 

Camf)bell, Prof. John L., CrawfordsvlUe, Ind. (39). B 

Campbell, John T., Rockvllle, Ind. (39). 

Campbell, Wm. A., M.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. (34). F B 

Cannon, George L., jr.. High School, Denver, Col. (39). F H 

Cardeza, John M., M.D., Claymont, Del. (33). B 

Carman, Prof. A. P., La Fayette, Ind. (39). B 

Caron, C. K., Louisville, Ky. (30). B C 

Carpenter, Geo. O., jr., care of St. Louis Lead and Oil Co. , St. Louis, 
Mo. (29). 

Carr, Oma, Ass't dhem. Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Carter, Jambs C, 277 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. (86). 

Carter, James Madison G., M.D., Waukegan, III. (39). F 

Carter, John E., Knox and Coulter Sts., German town. Pa. (33). B H 

Carus, Paul, Ph.D., La Salle, 111. (40). 

Gary, Albert A., care Abendroth and Root MTg Co., cor. West and Noble 
Sts., Brooklyn, E. D., N. Y. (36). D 

Catlin, Charles A., 133 Hope St., Providence, R. I. (33). 

Chadbourn, Erlon R., Lewiston, Me. (29). 

Chamberlain, Prof. Joseph R., Raleigh, N. C. (41). F 

Chandler, George V., Room 86, Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (40). 

BC 
Chandler, John R., Ph.D., Fifth Ave. Hotel, New York, N. Y. (36). P H 
Chaplin, Prof. Winfleld S., care Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. (37). 

DA 
Chapman, Mrs. Etta L., 1207 L St., N. W., Washington, D.,C. (40). 
Chapman, W. Albert, M. E., YellvlUe, Ark. (40). C 
Charbonnler, Prof. L. H., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. (26). A B D 
Chase, Rev. E. B., Lake City, Minn. (37). 
Chase, Mrs. Marin6 J. (31). B F 
Chase, R. Stuart, 53 Summer St., Haverhill, Mass. (18). F 



Xliv MBMBKR8. 

Chatfleld, A. F., Albany, N. Y. (29). 

Cheshire, William W., 116 11th St., S. B., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Chester, Commander Colby M., U. S. N., U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, 

Md. (28). E 
Child, Wm. Addison, M.A., Ontario Rolling Mill Co., Swansea, Ont., 

Can. (88). CHD 
Chlpman, J. W., Indianapolis, Ind. (89). B 
Christian, Ira W., Noblesyllle, Ind. (89). 
Christie, James, Fencoyd, Pa. (33). D 
Christy, Prof. Samuel B., Box 41, Berkeley, Cal. (35). D 
Chrystle, Wm. F., Has tlngs-on- Hudson, New York, N. Y. (86). 
Church, Royal Tyler, Turin, Lewis Co., N. Y. (88). D F 
Clancy, Michael Albert, 1426 Corcoran St, Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Clapp, Geo. H., 116 Water St., Pittsburgh, Pa. (83). H O 
Clark, Alex. S., Westfield,N. J. (38). 
Clark, Edward, 417 Fourth St.. Washington, D. C. (40). 
Clark, John S., 646 Washington St., Boston, Mass. (81V I B O * 
Clark, Oliver Durfee, 248 Schenck St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (41). F E * 
Clark, Thomas H., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. (40). 
Clark, Tracy Earl, B. S., Pembroke, Genesee Co., N. Y. (41). P 
Clark, Wm. Brewster, M.D., 60 E. 81st St., New York, N. Y. (83). P O 
Clarke, Charles S., 180 Moss St., Peoria, 111. (34). 
Clarke, Francis Devereux, Principal Ark. Deaf Mute Inst., Little Rock, 

Arkansas (89). H 
Clarke, Robert, Cincinnati, Ohio (80). H 
Clarice, Sherman, 224 Alexander St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). G 
Clendenln, Miss Ida May, Columbia, Boone Co., Mo. (40). P 
CoK, Henry W., M.D., Hibernian Building, Portland, Oregon (32). H P 
Coffin, Amory, Phoenlxvllle, Chester Co., Pa. (31). D 
Colt, J. Mllner, Ph.D., Saint Paul's School, Concord, N. H. (88). B G E 
COLBURN, Richard T., Elizabeth, N. J. (31). I P H 
Cole, Aaron H., Greenwich, N. Y. (41). B P 
CoUe, Edw. M., East Orange, N. J. (80). E I 
Collin, Rev. Henry P., Coldwater, Mich. (87). P 
Collins, Prof. Jos. V., Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (37). A 
Collins, William H., Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. (41). A 
Colman, Henry, M.D., 7 Atlantic St., Lynn, Mass. (25). P 
Colonna, B. A., U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (37). B 
Colton, Buel P., Normal, McLean Co., 111. (34). P 
Combs, George W., M.D., 30 E. Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. (89). P 
Comstock, Dr. T. Grlswold, 607 North 14th St., St. Louis, Mo. (29). P H 
Conant, Prof. L. L., Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass. (39). A 
Condlt, Chas. L., 1823 G St., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Conklln, W. A., Director Central Park Menagerie, New York, N. Y. (29). 

P 
Cook, Dr. Charles D., 138 Pacific St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (26). 
Cook, Prof. Orator F., Clyde, N. Y. (40). P 



HEMBBBS. xlV 

Coon, Henry C, M.D., Alfred Centre, N. Y. (29). B O F 

Cope, Thos. P., Awbury, Gerraantown, Pa. (33). I 

Cordley, Arthur B., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Costa, Juao Bapti»ta Regueira (89). E 

Cowles, Alfred H., 666 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio (87). B O 

Coyri6re, Mrs. E. M., 160 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (^86). H 

Crafts, Robert H., 2329 So. 6th St., Minneapolis, Minn. (32). I B 

Craig, John, Horticulturist, Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Ontario, Can. 
(41). 

Craig, Oscar, Rochester, N. Y. (41). I H 

Crandall, Prof. C. S., Fort Collins, Col. (40). 

Crandail, R. Percy, Ass't Surgeon U. S. N., U;S. Naval Hospital, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. (89). P 

Crawford, John, Leon, Nicaragua, C. A. (40). £] H 

Crawley, J. T., 1260 10th St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Cresson, Dr. Hiibome T., 224 So. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. (89). H 

Crockett, Charles W., Reusselaer Polytechnic lust., Troy, N. Y. (39). 

AD 

Crowkll, a. F., Woods Holl, Mass. (30). C 

Cruilishank, James, LL.D., 206 So. Oxford St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (36). 

Crump, M. H., Col. Commanding 3d Reg. K. S. 6., Bowling Green, Ey. 

(29). B 
Crump, Shelley G., Pittsford, N. Y. (41). F 
Cummins, W. F., Dallas, Texas (37). E 

Cunningham, Francis A., 1613 Wallace St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). DEB 
Cunningham, Prof. Susan J., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. (38). 

A 

Cuntz, Johannes H., 326 Hudson St., Hoboken, N. J. (36). 

Curtis, Edw., M.D., 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (86). 
Curtis, Geo. Wm., West New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y. (86). 
Curtis, William £., Bureau of American Republics, State Department, 

Washington, D. C. (40). H I 
Curtman, Dr. Charles O., 8718 North 9th St., St. Louis, Mo. (89). O 
Cushlng, Frank H., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Cutler, Dr. Andrew S., Kankakee, 111. (32). I E 

Dalns, Frank Burnett, Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, Conn. (41). C 

Daly, Hon. Chaulbs P., 84 Clinton Place, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Dana, James Jackson, Lt. Col. and Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. Army, 1918 
1st St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Daniel, John, Vanderbllt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. (38). B 

Daniels, Edw., Washington, D. C. (32). 

Darton, Nelson H., U. 8. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (37). 

Davenport, Prof. Eugene, Agricultural College, Mich. (39). 

Davidson, R. J., Experiment Station, Biacksburg, Ya. (40). C 

Davis, C. H., Commander U. S. Navy, Chief Intelligence Ofllcer, Navy De- 
partment, Washington, D. C. (40). 



Xlvi MKMBKR8. 

Davis, Dr. Charles H. S., Meriden, Conn. (40). 

Davis, Prof. Floyd, Dralce Univ., Des Moines, Iowa (39). C E 

Davis, I. Tiiomas, Ass't Chem. Dept. of Agrlc, Wastiiugton, D. C. (40). 

Davis, J. C. Bancroft, 162i H St., N. W., Wastilngton, D. C. (40). 

Davis, J. J., M.D., 1119 College Ave., Racine, Wis. (81). F 

Davison, John M., 60 Oxford 8t., Rochester, N. Y. (88). C 

Dawson, Geo. M.,D.S.C., F.G.S., Geol. Surv., Ottawa, Ontario, Can. (88). 

Dean, Seth, Glen wood, Iowa (84). D 

Decker, Edward P., Hospital for Insane, EvansvUie, Ind. (40\ 

DeCourcy, Bolton Waller, Ocosta, Wasliinsj^ton (41). ID 

DeForest, Henry S., Pres. Talladega College, Talladega, Alabama (82). 

HI 

Deghn^e, Joseph A., 247 Harrison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (40). O 

Densmore, Prof. H. D., Belolt, Wis. (41). p 

Detraers, Henry J., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (89). 

Dewart, Frederick W., Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (41). F 

Dewey, L. H., Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40) F 

Dexter, Julius, Cincinnati, Ohio (80). 

Dinsmore, Prof. Thos. H., jr., Emporia, Kan. (29). B G 

Dinwiddle, William, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Dittenhoefer, A. J., 96 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Dixwell, Epes S., Cambridge, Mass. (1). H F 

Doane, Wra. Howard, Cincinnati, Ohio (86). D 

Dodge, Charles Wright, M.S., Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (39). 

F 
Dodge, Wm. C, 116 B St.,N. E., Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Doollttle, Alfred, 910 G St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). A 
Doolittle, Miss Mary A., 17 Grove Place, Rochester, N. Y. (41). 
Doran, Edwin W., Ph. D., College Park, Md. (40) F I 
Doraud, Fred James, Chester, Vt. (88). A I 
Doremus, R. Ogden, M.D., Bellevue Hospital, Medical College, New York, 

N. Y. (36). 
Dorsey, George A., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (89). H 
Doubleday, H. H., 716 H St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Doughty, John W., 165 Johnston St., Newburgh, N. Y. (19). B 
Dow, Frank F., M.D., 60 South Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (41). P H 
Dowling, Thomas, jr., 614 E St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Drescher, Willibald A. E., P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (41). F 
Drummond, Isaac Wyman, Ph.D., 436 W. 22ud St., New York, N.Y. (36). 
Dryer, Chas. R., Fort Wayne, Ind. (38). B 

Dudek, Miss Katie M., 64 W. o6th St., New York, N. Y. (86). B 
Dulaney, Judge William L., Bowling Green, Ky. (39). 
Dunham, Dr. Carroll, Irvington-on-Hudson, New York, N. Y. (31). F 
Dunston, Robert Edw., Room 86, Foster Block, Hartford, Conn. (35). D 
DuPont, Francis G., Wilmington, Del. (33). A B D 
Du Pr6, Prof. Daniel A., Wofford College, Spartanburg, S. C. (28). 

BCB 



MEMBEB8. ' xlvii 

Dnrand, El!as J., Canandaigna, N. Y. (41). F 

Durfee, W. F., Birdsboro, Berks Co., Pa. (83). D C B A B I 

Dyer, Clarence M., Lawrence, Mass. (22). 

Earle, F. S., Ocean Springs, Miss. (89). 

Eastman, Charles Rochester, Ass't Geologist, U. S. Geol. Survey, Cam- 

bridgeport, Mass. (41;. B 
Eccles, Robert G., M.D., 191 Dean St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (31). P O 
Edelheim, Carl, 253-269 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. (38). 
Edson, Hubert, Ass't Chemist Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

(40). 
Edson, Joseph R., 1008 F St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). E F H 
Edwards, J. W., Rico, Col. (32). 

Edwards, W. F., 62 North St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (83). B C F 
Eggleston, Eugene R., M.D., 29 Euclid Ave., Clevelaud, Ohio (37). F 
Eichelberger, William Snyder, Ph.D., Wesleyan Univ., Mlddletown, 

Conn. (41). A 
Elmer, Howard N., St. Paul, Minn. (32). D I 
Emery, Frank E., No. Caro. Experiment Station, Agrlc. and Mechan. Coll., 

Raleigh, N. C. (88). P 
Emmens, Stephen H., Youngwood, Westmoreland Co.; Pa. (41). 
English, Geo. L., 733 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (36). 
EsTKS, Dana, Brookline, Mass. (29). I 
Estes, Ludovic, Gr. nJ Forks, No. Dakota (41). B 
Evans, S. G., 211 Main St., Evansville, Ind. (39). F 
Evans, Walter H., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). F 

Evers, Edw., M.D., 1861 North Market St., St. Louis, Mo. (28). F H 
Ewell, Ervin E., Dept. of Agric, Chem. Division, Washington, D. C. (40). 

C 

Ewell, Marshall D., M.D., Room 89, 97 Clark St., Chicago, 111. (40). 
Eweu, John Meiggs, 115 Monroe St., Chicago, 111. (36). D 

Falrbank, Miss Helen G., 1801 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. (41). H 

Falrchild, Benj. T., 82 Fulton St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Falrchlld, David G., Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (40) P 

Fairfield, W. B., U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). E 

Falconer, Wm., Glen Cove, L. I. (29). 

Farnsworth, P. J., M.D., Clinton, Iowa (32). B H 

Farr, Henry L., Box 366, Rutland, Vt. (31). B F 

Fellows, Charles S., P. O. Box 966, Minneapolis, Minn. (84). P 

Fellows, G. S., 1317 Q St., Washington, D. C. (36). 

Ferree, Charles Maley, Kansas City, Mo. (37). 

Ferry, Ervln S., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). 

Flnley, Jno. P., Lieut. U. S. A., Weather Bureau, Pacific Coast Division, 

San Francisco, Cal. (39). B 
Fischer, E. G., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(40). A 



Xlviil MBMBBR8. 

Fish, Prof. Eugene E., Baffulo, N. Y. (36). F 

Fisher, Miss Ellen F., Lalie Erie Seminary, Painesville, Ohio (83). B A 

Fi«her, Geo. E., Rochester, N. Y. (37). 

Fisher, Dr. R. Cadin, 1225 Conn. Aye., Washington, D. C. (36). 

Fitz, Prof. Newton, Norfollt, Va. (30). A I 

Flexner, Prof. Abraham, Loaisville, Ky. (39). 

Flexner, Simon, M.D., Louisville, Ky. (89). 

Flint, Weston, Statistician, U. S. Bureau of Education, 1101 K St., K. W., 

Washington, D. C. (40). 
Foltz, Kent O., M.D., Akron, Ohio (36). 
Ford, Prof. D. R., Elmlra, N. Y. (41). A B 
Ford, Mrs. 0. M. (86). 

Fortescue, Keiiyon J., 57 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (89). H I 
Furtescue, Miss Maude, 57 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (40). H 
Forwood, Dr. W. H., Soldiers* Home, Washington, D. C. (40). 
Foshtiy, P. Max, Beaver Falls, Beaver Co., Pa. (37). E 
Foster, Prof. Eugene H., Shattuck School, Faribault, Minn. (39). 
Francis, Prof J. M., Tuscaloosa, Ala. (40). C 
Freeman, Prof. T. J. A., Woodstock Coll., Howard Co., Maryland (33). 

BC 
Frick, Prof. John H., Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Mo. (27). B P 

BA 
Frisbie, J. F., M.D., Box 455, Newton, Mass. (29). B H 
Fristoe, Prof. E. T., Columbian Univ., Washington, D. C.(40). C P H 
Frost, Howard V., Ph.D., Arlington, Mass. (38). C 
Frothingham, Mrs. Lois R., Milton, Mass. (31). P A I 
Fuelling, J. L., Ass't Chem., Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). 
Fuller, Chas. 6., M.D., Room 39, Central Music Hall, Chicago, 111. (35). P 
Fuller, Levi K., Brattleboro, Vt. (34). D A 

Fuller, Melville W., LL.D., Chief Justice U. S., 1800 Mass. Ave., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (40). 

Gable, George D., Ph.D., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (40). A B 

Gardner, Rev. Corliss B., 8 New York St., Rochester, N. Y. (29). A B I 

Gardner, Joseph, M.D., Bedford, Lawrence Co., Ind. (30). 

Garland, James, 2 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Garman, Harrison, Lexington, Ky. (38). 

Garnett, Algernon S., M.D., Hot Springs, Ark. (23). 

Gamier, Madame Laure R , Staunton, Va. (40). 

Gause, Frederick T., care Stevens Inst, of Tech., Hoboken, N. J. (40). 

Gbnth, Frkd. a., jr., 706 N. 40 St., Philadelphia, Pa. (32). O B 

Genung, Nelson H., Ardmore, Pa. (40). B 

Gere, Geo. W., Champaign, 111. (40). 

Ghequier, A. de, P. O. Box 565, Washington, D.C. (30). I 

Gibson, Chas. B., 813 Harrison St., Chicago, 111. (84). 

Gibson, Howard B., 16 Crescent St., Middletown, Conn. (38). 

Gibson, J. Stewart, Williamsport, Pa. (39). C B 



MEMBEES. XUX 

Glfford, T. v., M.D., Kokomo, Ind. (39), F H 

Gill, Adam Capen, Northampton, Mass. (88). 

Gilson, George Fredom, Pleasanton, Alameda Co., Cal. (41). H 

Glenn, William, 1348 Block St., Baltimore, Md. (33). G 

Glbnny, William H., jr., Buffalo, N. Y. (25). 

Gobln, Hillary A., D.D., Greencastle, Ind. (39). H 

Goler, George W., M.D., 64 So. Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). P 

Goodale, Greenleaf A., Oapt. 23rd Inf., U. S. A., Fort San Houston, San 

Antonio, Texas (39). H 
Goode, R. U., care U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (39). A D E 
Goodnow, Henry R., 32 Remsen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (32). B 
Gordon, Prof. Joseph C, National College for the Deaf, Kendall Green, 

Washington, D. C. (27). 
Gordon, T. Wiuslow, M.D , Georgetown, Ohio (30). F H O 
Gordon, W. J., 51 Water St., Cleveland, Ohio (29). 

Gore, Prof. Joshua W., Univ. of No. Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. (39). B 
Goss, Prof. Wm. F. M., La Fayette, Ind. (39). 
Gould, Sylvester C, Manchester, N. H. (22). A B B H 
Gould, Vernon, M.l)., Rochester, Ind. (39). 
Graef, Edw. L., 40 Court St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (28). P 
Graf, Louis, Van Buren, Crawford Co., Ark. (30). B P H 
Grant, H. L., 206 Moss Ave., Peoria, III. (39). C 

Grant, Ulysses S., Geol. Survey of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (39). P 
Greely, Adolphus W., Signal Office, Washington, D. C. (39). 
Green, Edgar Moore, M.D., Easton, Pa. (36). 
Green, Milbrey, M.D., 667 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. (29). 
Greene, Charles W., M.D., Merchantvllle, N. J. (41). I 
Greene, G. K., 170 East Third St., New Albany, Ind. (38). 
Greene, Jacob L., Pres. Mut. Life Ins. Co., Hartford, Conn. (23). 
Greene, Jeannette B., M.D., Sci. D., F.E.C., 66 W. 65th St., New York, 

N. Y. (33). P B C 
Greene, Thos. A., 297 East Water St., Milwaukee, Wis. (31). B 
Greenleaf, R. P., M.D., 803 Market St., Wilmington, Del. (31). B P 
Greenough, W. W. 299 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (29). D I 
Gregory, Emily L., 843 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (41). 
Greve, Theodor L. A., M.D., 260 W. 8th St., Cincinnati, Ohio (30). 
Griswold, Leon Stacy, 238 Boston St., Dorchester, Mass. (38). B 
Gudeman, Edward, Ph.D., care Amer. Glucose Co., Buffalo, N. Y. (40) O 
Gulliver, F. P., Norwich, Conn. (40). B 

Gunckel, Xewls W., 121 West Second St., Dayton, Ohio (41). H 
Gurley, Wm. F. E., Danville, Vermilion Co., 111. (37) B 

Hacker, William, 233 So. 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). p B 

Hagemann, John, 126 Rusk St., Houston, Texas (29). G 

Haight, Stephen S., C.E., 1266 Clover St., West Farms, New York, N. Y. 

(81). D 
Hale, George D., 5 Glbbs St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

A. A. A. S. VOL. xu. D 



1 MSMBIRS. 

Hale, William H., Ph.D., 40 First Place, Brooklyn, N. T. (82). I F H O 

BEA 
Hall, Arthur O., Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. (41). A B 
HaII, James P., 6 Poplar St., Brooklyn, N. T. (40). 
Hall, Winfleld S., M.D., Hayerford, Pa. (40). 

Hallock, Albert P., Ph.D., 440 First Ave., New York, N. T. (81). O 
Hallock, Dr. William, U. S. Geo!. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). B E 
Hammon, W. H., Weather Bureau, St. Louis, Mo. (37). B 
Hammond, Geo. W., **The Hamilton," 260 Clarendon St., Boston, Mass. 

(28). O D 
Hammond, Mrs. Geo. W., "The Hamilton," 260 Clarendon St, Boston, 

Mass. (29). H 
Harmon, Miss A. Maria, 49 Daly Avenne, Ottawa, Ontaria, Canada (81). 

HF 

Harper, Prof. Charles A., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (40). O 

Harrington, Prof. Mark W., Chief of Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 
(40). B 

Harrington, W. H., Post Office Department, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 
(29). P 

Harris, A. W., Office Exper. Station, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. 
(40). 

Harris, George H., 80 Arcade, Rochester, N. Y. (85). H 

Harris, Gilbert D., Asst. Paleont., U. S. Geol. Survey, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, Washington, D. C. (37). 

Harris, I. H., Waynesville, Warren Co., Ohio (30). E H 

Harris, James Robert, Raleigh, N. C. (41). C 

Harris, Mrs. Robert, Buckingham Hotel, New York, N. Y. (86). 

Harrison, Bdwln, 520 Olive St., Room 620, St. Louis, Mo. (11). E 

Harrison, George B., 520 E. Mulberry St., Bloomington, 111. (29). E 

Harshmann, W. S., Nautical Almanac Office, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Hart, C. Porter, M.D., Wyoming, Hamilton Co., Ohio (30). F 

Hart, Rev. Prof. Samuel, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (22). A 

Harvey, A. F., Kirkwood, Mo. (40). 

Harvey, Chas. W., 128 West Vermont St., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Hasbroack, Edwin M., 1610 15th St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Haskell, Eugene E. , U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (39) . A B D 

Hasse, Hermann E., Santa Monica, Los Angeles Co., Cal. (88). F 

Hasskarl, G. C. H., Ph.D., Frederick City, Md. (38). 

Hatch, John W., Normal and Agricultural Inst., Hampton, Va. (40). 

Hathaway, Prof. A. S., Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, Ind. (41). A 

Hathaway, Nath'I, New Bedford, Mass. (30). G 

Haven, Franklin, jr.. New England Trust Co., Boston, Mass. (29). 

Hay, Robert, Box 562, Junction City, Kan. (36). E 

Hayden, Everett, Lt. U. S. N., Hydrographic Office, Navy Dept., Wash- 
ington, D. C. (40). 

Hayes, Charles Willard, U. S. Geol. Sarvey, Washington, D. C. (41). E 

Hayes, Richard, 700 Chestnut St., St. Louis, Mo. (27). A B 



MEMBERS. li 

Hays, Dr. Franklin W., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). F 

Haywood, Prof. John, Otterbeln Univ., Westervllle, Ohio (80). A B 

Hazen, Henry Allen, P. O. Box 427, Washington, D. C. (83). B 

Head, W. R., 5467 Jefferson Ave., Hyde Park, Chicago, 111. (88). B 

Hedge, Fred. H., jr., Public Library, Lawrence, Mass. (28). P H 

Hedges, Sidney M., 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Muss. (29). 

Hedrick, Henry B., A.B., Nautical Almanac Office, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Henderson, C. Hanford, Manual Training School, Philadelphia, Pa. (38). 

ECB 
Hendricks, Henry H., 49 Cliff St., New York, N. Y. (30). 
Hemdon, J. H., Tyler, Smith Co., Texas (88). O E 
Hertzberg, Prof. Constantlne, 181 S. Oxford St., Brooklyn, N.Y. (29). BF 
Hester, W. A., Owensborough, Ky. (39). P 

Hbxamrr, C. John, C.E., 419 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (38). C B 
Heyer, Wm. D., 101 Pearl St., Elizabeth, N. J. (83). B D 
Hibbard, C. M., Canton, Mo. (SJ)). 
Hice, Richard R., Beaver, Beaver Co., Pa. (41). B 
Hicks, Geo. E., Great Neck, Long Island, N. Y. (36). 
Hicks, John S., Roslyn, N. Y. (31). I 

Hill, David J., Pres. Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (41). H I 
Hill, Geo. Wra.,Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (40). I 
Hinds, Clara Bliss, M.D., 1831 N St., Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Hinton, John H., M.D., 41 West 32nd St., New York, N. Y. (29). F H 
Hinton, Richard J., Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (40). I 
Hitchcock, Albert Spear, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (39). 

F 
Hitchcock, Miss Fanny R. M. (35). F 
Hitchcock, Hiram, Fifth Ave. Hotel, New York, N. Y. (86). 
Hoadley, Geo. A., A.M., Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. (40). 
Hobbs, William Herbert, Ph.D., Madison, Wis. (41). B 
Hockley, Thos., 235 S. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). I 
Hodge, J. M., Big Stone Gap, Va. (29). D E 
Hodges, Julia, 139 W. 41st St., New York, N. Y. (36). B F H 
Hodgkins, Prof. H. L., Columbian University, Washington, D. C. (40). 

BH 
Hob, Mrs. R., jr., 11 E. 36th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Hoe, Mrs. Richard M., 1 E. 69th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Hoeltge, Dr. A., 322 Lime St., Cincinnati, Ohio (30). 
Hoffman, The Rev. Eugene Aug., D.D., Dean of Gen. Theol. Seminary, 

426 W. 23d St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Hogsett, John J., Danville, Ky. (39). A B D 
HoLDBN, Mrs. L. E., The Hollenden, Cleveland, Ohio (85). 
Holden, Perry G., Agricultural College, Michigan (41). 
Holland, Rev. W. J., D.D., Ph.D., Pittsburgh, Pa. (37). F 
Holley, George W., Ithaca, N. Y. (19). B I 
Hollings worth, Jno. E., Austin, Texas (40). 
Holllnshead, William H., Vanderbilt Unly., Nashville, Tenn. (87). 



lii MEMBERS. 

Holmes, W. Newton, Pritchett School Inst., Glasgow, Mo. (30). 

Holstein, Geo. Wolf, Albany, Shackelford Co., Texas (28). E H 

Holt. Henry, 12 East 23d St., New York, N. Y. (29). 

Homburg, Frederick, 40 Clirton Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio (89). G 

Homer, Chas. S., Jr., of Valentine & Co., 245 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

(29). 
Hood, £. Lyman, Albuqaerqae, N. M. (30). F I 
Hood, Gilbert £., Lawrence, Mass. (29). H E B 
Hood, William, 512 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, Cal. (35). D 
Hooper, Dr. F. H., 460 County, cor. William St., New Bedford, Mass. (29). 
Hooper, Josephus, M.D., Louisville, Ky. (39). 

Hooper, Wm. DeM., Actuary, 467 No. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 
Hoover, Prof. William, Box 248, Athens, Ohio (34). A 
Hopkins, Mrs. Alice L., 17 Grove Place, liochester, N. Y. (41). 
Hopkins, Grant S., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). F 

Hopkins, Howard U., M.D., New Market, Frederick Co., Md. (40). F 
Hopkins, Thos. C, Leland Stanford Jr. Univ., Menlo Park, Cal. (88). E 
Horr, Asa, M.D., 1311 Main St., Dubuque, Iowa (21). B E 
Horton, Horace £. L., A^s't Chem. Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. 

(40). 
Jloskius, William, La Grange, Cook Co., III. (34). C 
Hough, Roineyn B., Lowville, N. Y. (37). 

Houser, James A , M.D., 124 Fletcher Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). F 
Hovey, Edmund 0., Waterbury, Conn. (36). O E 
Howard, Prof. Curtis C, 97 Jefferson Ave., Columbus, Ohio (38). O 
Howell, David J., 939 F St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). E 
Hoyt, James T., Temple Court, Beekman St., New York, N. Y. (38). AH 
Hubbard, Gardiner Greene, 1328 Conn. Ave., Washington, D. C. (40). E 
Hubbard, George W., M.D., Nashville, Tenn. (26). F 
Hubbard, Henry Guernsey, 114 Grlswold St., Detroit, Mich. (41). 
JIudson, George H., Plattsburgh, Clinton Co., N. Y. (31). F 
Hugo, T. W., Duluth, Minn. (33). D 
Hume, Alfred, C.E., University, Miss. (39). A 
Humphrey, Daniel, M.D., Lawrence, Mass. (18). F H 
Hunt, Richard M., Tribune Bid., 164 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Hunt, Miss Sarah E., Salem, Mass. (20). 

Hunter, Andrew Frederick, Barrie, Ontario, Can. (38). B H I 
Huntington, Elon, 762 N. St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). B B 
Hurd, E. O., Plalnville, Hamilton Co., Ohio (30). B F 
Hussey, Wm. J., Leland Stanford jr. Univ., Palo Alto, Cal. (39). A 
Husted, Dr. Nathaniel C, Tarrytown-on-Hudsouj N. Y. (36). E 
Huston, Henry A., LaFayette, Ind. (37). O 
Hutchinson, E. S., May berry, W. Va. (33). B B 
Hutchinson, Wm. M., M.D., 207 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (40). B 

Iden, Prof. Thomas M., Irvlngton, Ind. (39). 

lies, George, 7 Brunswick St., Montreal, Can. (31). I 



MEMBERS. liii 

Ingalls, Jas. M., Capt. Ist Art'y, U. S. A., Fortress Monroe, Va. (36). 
Ingham, Wm. A., 320 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). B I 

Jackson, Prof. Josiah, State College, Centre Co., Pa. (35). A 

Jackson, Thomas Moore, C.E., Morgantown, W. Va. (38). 

James, Bushrod W., M.D., N. E. cor. 18th and Green Sts., Philadelphia, 
Pa. (29). P 

James, Davis L., 131 West 7th St., Cincinnati, Ohio (80). P 

James, John N., U. S. Naval Observ., Washington, D. C. (40). B 

Janney, Reynold, Chillicothe, Ohio (30). B A 

Jefferis, Wm. W., 1886 Green St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). B 

Jenks, Wm. H., Brookville, Pa. (38). 

Jenner, Charles H., Prof, of Natural and Applied Sciences, Brockport, 
N. y. (41). ABD 

Jennings, Mrs. N. B., 140 Plymouth Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

Jennings, W. T., Chief Eng. Can. Pacific R'way, Toronto, Ontario, Can- 
ada (88). 

Jesunofsky, Lewis N., U. S. Weather Bureau, Charleston, S. C. (36). B 

Jewett, Franklin N., Fredonia, N. Y. (41). £ H 

John, J. P. D., D D., Greencastle, Ind. (39). 

Johnson, Arnold Bnrges, Chief Clerk Light House Board, Washington 
D. C. (36). B P I 

Johnson, Dr. Henry L. E., 1400 L St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). P 

Johnson, Lorenzo N., Ann Arbor, Mich. (89). F 

Johnson, Nels, Manistee, Mich. (41 >. A B 

Johnson, WiUard D., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (37). 

Jones, David Phillips, Chief Engineer U. S. Navy, U. S. N. Training Sta- 
tion, Newport, li. I. (35). D 

Jones, L. H., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 

Jones, Lewis R., Burlington, Vt. (41). 

Jones, Prof. Marcus E., Salt Lake City, Utah (40). 

Jones, Paul M., D.Sc, Nashville, Tenn. (40). B P 

Jones, William S., 109 Huron St., Cleveland, Ohio (37). 

Earslake, William J., Le Roy, Genesee Co., N. Y. (41). 

Kedzie, John H., Evanston, 111. (34). B 

Keep, Wm. J., Detroit, Mich. (37). 

Keffer, Frederic, 64 West 9th Ave., Columbus, Ohio (87). 

Kellerman, Prof. William A., Ohio Univ., Columbus, Ohio (41). P 

Kelley, Heniy S., 208 Wooster St., New Haven, Conn. (86). D C 

Kellogg, David S., M.D., Plattsburgh, N. Y. (29). H 

Kellogg, James H., 83 Meigs St., Rochester, N. Y. (29). I 

Kellogg, John H., M.D., Battle Creek, Mich. (24). P 

Kelsey, Russell C, M.D., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). H 

Kemper, Dr. And. C, 101 Broadway, Cincinnati, Ohio (30). P H C B 

I D B A 
Kendall, H. D., M.D., Grand Rapids, Mich. (35). P 



liV mCMRBRS* 

Kennedy, Dr. George Golding, Roxbnry, Mass. (40). F 

Kennedy, Prof. George T., Kings College, Windsor, N. S. (29). E O 

Kennedy, Harris, 284 Warren St., Roxbury, Mass. (40). B F 

Kern, Josiah Quincy, Ph.D., Treasury Dept., Washington, D. C. (40). I 

Kldd, G. W., HoQston, Texas (87). 

Kilbome, Dr. Fred L., Dept. of Agric., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Kinder, Miss Sarah A., 28 Lockerbie St., Indianapolis, lud. (39). 

King, A. F. A., M.D., 1315 Mass. Aye., N. W., Washington, D. C. (29). 

King, Miss Ada M., 8 Briggs Place, Rociiester, N. Y. (89). E I 

King, Charles F., Steelton, Pa. (83). O B 

King, Miss Harriet M., Salem, Mass. (28). 

King, Mrs. Mary B. A., 81 Madison St., Rochester, N. T. (15). F H 

King, W. M., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (87). 

King, Win. R., Director Honduras Botanical Gardens, Patnca, Republic 

of Honduras, "via Truxillo" (40). F 
Kinner, Hugo, M.D., 1517 South Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo. (21). F H 
Kinyoun,. Joseph J., M.D., U. 8. Marine Hospital Service, Washington, 

D. C. (40).F 

Kirk, Hyland C, 718 Broadway, New York, N. T. (40). B F H 

Kittredge, Miss H. A., North Andover, Mass. (87). F 

Klie, G. H. Carl, 6100 No. Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. (39). CF 

Knickerbacker, John, C.E., Troy, N. Y. (36). 

Knight, Albert B., P. O. Box 211, Butte City, Silver Bow Co., Montana 
(86). D 

Knight, Chas. H., M.D., 20 W. Slst St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Knight, Prof. Charles M., 219 So. Union St., Akron, Ohio (29). O B 

Knorr, Aug. £., 1109 14th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). G 

Knowlton, Frank H., Dep't of Botany, U. S. National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (83). F 

Knox, Wilm, care C. O. Child, Puinesville, Ohio (38). 

Kober, Geo. Martin, M.D., 1819QSt.,N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Kocherspergee, Miss Nellie, 934 Kurtz St., Philadelphia, Pa. (40). 

Kohler, Elmer P., Ph.D., Egypt, Lehigh Co., Pa. (41). O 

Kost, John, LL.D., Adrian, Mich. (84). E 

Koues, Miss Elizabeth L., 10 E. 76th St., New York, N. Y. (41) I 

Kr6csy, Prof. B61a, Royal States High School, Kecskemet, Hungary 
(41). C 

Krug, Wm. H., Ass*t Chem. Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Kubel, S. J., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Kuhne, F. W., 19 Court St., Fort Wayne, Ind. (38). A F 

Lacoe, R. D., Pittston, Pa. (31). B F 

Ladd, G. E., Bradford, Mass. (39). E 

Lamb, Daniel S., M.D., 800 10th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Lambert, Preston A., 422 Walnut St., South Bethlehem, Pa. (41). A 

Lamborn, Robert H., Ph.D., 82 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (28). H B F 

Lampard, Henry, 102 Shuter St., Montreal, Can. (40). 



MEMBERS. Iv 

Langenbeck, Karl, 27 Orchard St., Zanesville, Ohio (39). O 

Langmann, Gustav, M.D., 115 W. 67th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Lasch6, Alfred, 688 W. Chicago Ave., Chicago, III. (39). O F 

Latham, Miss Yida Annette, F.R.M.S., 58 £. University St., Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich. (89). 

Latta, Prof. William C, LaFayette, Ind. (37). 

Lawrance, J. P. S., Past Ass't Engineer, U. S. N., Navy yard, Norfolk, 
Va. (35). D 

I-each, Hamilton E., M.D., 716 13th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Le Comte, Jos., 216 Front St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Ledyard, T. D., 57 Colborne St., Room 3, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (38). 

Lee, Wm., M.D., 2111 Penna. Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. (29). 

Lee, Mrs. William, care Lee & Siiepard, 10 Milk St., Boston, Mass. (36). 

Leeds, James S., 109 Produce Exchange, New York, N. Y. (41). 

Leete, James M., M.D., 2912 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (27). 

Leiter, L. Z., 1500 20th St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Lemp, William J., cor. Cherokee and 2nd Carondelet Avenue, St. Louis, 
Mo. (27). 

Lennon, William H., Brockport, N\ Y. (31). F O 

Leonard, Miss Georjijia L., Bri^htwood, D. C. (40). H 

Leoser, Charles McK., 34 Beaver St., New York, N. Y. (32). A 

Leslie, Geo. L., Box 515, Santa Barbara, Cal. (40). 

Letch worth, Josiah, Buflklo, N. Y. (25). 

Lewis, Elias,,ir., Ill St. Mark's Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (23). B H 

Lewis, John £., Ansonia, Conn. (40). ABB 

Lewis, Wm. J., M.D., 30 Gillett St., Hartford, Conn. r33). F B 

Liebig, Dr. G. A., 26 South St., Baltimore, Md. (30). 

Lilley, Geo., LL.D., Brookings, So. Dakota (40). A I 

Lincoln, Prof. David F., M.D., Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. (41). 

Lincoln, Nathan S., M.D., 1514 H St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Lindenkohl, Adolphus, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 
D. C. (40). B 

Lindsay, Alexander M., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

Lindsay, Prof. Wm. B., Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. (41). O 

Line, J. Edw., D.D.S., 50 Rowley St., Rochester, N. Y. (39). F 

Linebarger, Charles E , Evanston, 111. (41). 

Livermore, Mrs. M. A. C. 24 North Avenue, Cambridge, Mass. (29). F 

Locke, James, Buffalo, N. Y. (41). O 

Loewy, Benno,206 and 208 Broadway, N. Y. (41V 

Logan, Walter S., 58 William St., New York. N. Y. (36). 

Lomb, Adolph, P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (41). 

Lomb, Carl F., 643 No. St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. (29). 

Lomb, Henry, P. O. Drawer i033, Itochester, N. Y. (41). 

Long, Prof. John H., 40 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. (41). 

Lonsdale, Elston H., Ass't Missouri Geol. Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 
(41). B 

Loomis, Prof. Horatio, 43 Williams St., Burlington Vt. (31). 



Ivi MEMBERS. 

Lord, Benjamin, 34 W. 28th St., New York, N. Y. (86). 

Lowe)), Aug., 60 State St., Boston, Mass. (29). 

Lowe)), Ferciva), 53 State St., Boston, Mass. (36). A 

Lowman, John H., M.D., 345 Prospect St., Cleve]and, Ohio (37). 

Lowman, Oscar, Ph.D., 185 Jefferson Ave., Detroit, M)ch. (39). C 

Lacas, John, 141 N. 4th St., Philade)phia, Pa. (33). C 

Ludlow, Wm., Bv't Lt. Co). U. S A., U. S. Light Uoase Eng., 9th and 

nth Districts, Detroit, Mich. (33). D B 
Lnflcin, Albert, Newton, Iowa (81). D B 

Lummis, Wm., 8 Broad St., Drezel Bailding, New York, N. Y. (36). 
Lusit, James T. (37). F H 

Lyford, Edwin F., Springfle)d, Mass. (33). BOH 
Lyman, Bbnj. Smith, 708 locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. (15). E 
Lyman, Henry H., 74 McTavish St., Montrea), P. Q., Can. (29). FBI 
Lyon, Edmund, 110 So. Fltzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 
Lyon, James, 477 N. Penn St., Indianapolis, Ind. (89). H 

Mc Andrew, George J., Phittsburgh, N. Y. (40). H 

MacArthur, Charles L., Troy, N. Y. (39). 

McCammon, Gen. Joseph K., 1420 F St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

McCarthy, Gerald, N. C. Agrlc. Exper. Station, Raleigh, N. C. (41). 

McCartney, Dr. James H., 138 East Main St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). B 

McClellan, E. S., M.D., 245 Ninth Ave., New York, N. Y. (39). I 

McClluiock, A. H., Wilkes Barre, Pa. (33). H 

McCllntock, Charles T., Lexington, Ky. (39). P 

McCorkle, Spencer C, Ass't U. S. Coast and G. Survey, Sub-office, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. (33). A B 

McCowen, Dr. Jennie, Davenport, Iowa (39). 

McCulloch, C. C, Ph.D., M.D., Waco, Texas (39). B 

McCurdy, Chas. W.,.Sc.D., Winona, Minn. (35). F B 

McDonnell, Prof. Henry B., College Park, Md. (40). O 

McEiroy, K. P., 2nd Ass't Chem. Div., Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, 
D. C. (40). 

McFadden, Prof. L. H., Westervllle, Ohio (32). B O 

McFarland, Robert W.,LL.D., Oxford, Ohio (33). A 

McGee, Mrs. Anita Newcomb, 2026 Hillyer Place, Washington, D. C. 
(37). H 

McGee, Miss Emma R., Farley, Iowa (33). H 

McGee, W. L., Agricultural College, Miss. (40). F 

McGowan, Rev. Chas. E., M.D., Montvllle, Conn. (38). B 

McHenry, Prof. B. F., Union Christian College, Merom, Ind. (39). A 

McKeever, Chauncey, Brig. Gen. U. S. Array, Adj. Generars Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (40). 

MacKenzie, John J., Univ. College, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (37). 

McLean, Rev. John, Moosejaw, Asslnlboia, Can. (38). 

McLean, T. C, Lieut. U. S. N., Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I. (33). 

McMillan, Smith B., Signal, Columbiana Co., Ohio (37). 



MEMBERS. Ivii 

McMillin, Emerson, Colambns, Ohio (87). 

McNeal, Albert T., Bolivar, Tenn. (26). I 

McWhorter, Tyler, Aledo, 111. (20). B 

Macdou^all, Alan, 80 East Adelaide St., Toronto, Ontario, Can. (38). 

D H 

Macfaiiane, Dr. John M., Landsdowne, Del. Co., Pa. (41). F 
Magruder, Wm. T., Vanderbllt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. (87). 
Mallinckrodt, Edw., P. O. Sub-station A, St. Loais, Mo. (29). O 
Mallory, Maitland L., M.D., 69 North Fitzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. 

(39). F 
Mann, Abram S., Rochester, N. Y. (89). B 
Manning, Charles H., U. S. N., Manchester, N. H. (85). D 
Manning, Miss Sara M., Lake City, Minn. (88). F 
Manning, Warren H., Brookline, Mass. (81). F H B 
Mapes, Charles Victor, 60 W. 40th St., New York, N. Y. (87). O 
Marblb, Manton, 682 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (86). 
Marble, J. Russel, Worcester, Mass. (31). C B 
Marble, Miss Sarah, Woonsocket, R. I. (29). O 
Marbut, Curtis Fletcher, Ass't Missouri Geol. Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 

(41). B 
Marindin, Henry Louis, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 

D. C. (40). E 
Mark, Prof. E. H., Louisville, Ky. (39). B 
Markley, Joseph L., Ph.D., Ann Arbor, Mich. (40). 
Marlatt, Charles L., 1519 Rhode Island Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

(40). F 
Marmion, William Vincent) M.D., 1108 F St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

(40). 
Marple, Charles A., 717 W. Chestnut St., Louisville, Ky. (89). B 
Marsden, Samuel, 1015 North Leffenwell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (27). 

AD 

Marsh, Prof. C. Dwight, Ripon, Wis. (84). F B 
Marvin, Frank 0., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas (85). D 
Mateer, Horace N., M.D., Wooster, Wayne Co., Ohio (86). F E 
Mathews, Miss Mary Elizabeth, Lake Erie Seminary, PainesvlUe, Ohio 

(41). F 
Matlack, Charles, 924 N. 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. (27). I 
Mattison, Joseph G., 20 West 14th St., New York, N. Y. (80). O 
Maxwell, Walter, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (40). O 
May, John J., Box 2848, Boston, Mass. (29). D I 
Maynard, Geo. C, 1227 19th St., Washington, D. C. (86). B D 
Maynard, Prof. Samuel T., Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. (88). 
Maynard, Washburn, Lieut. Com'd U. S. N., Bureau of Ordnance, Navy 

Dep*t, Washington, D. C. (83). B 
Mead, Walter H., 66 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (29). F B 
Means, John H., Geol. Survey, Little Rock, Ark. (88). B 
Meehan, Mrs. Thos., German town, Pa. (29). 



Iviii MBXBKBS. 

Mell, Prof. P. H., Polytechnic Inst., Aabnrn, Ala. (89). S 

Mellor, ChA8. C, 77 Fifth Ave., PittHburgh, Pa. (88). 

Mercer, H. C, Doylestown, Backs Co., Pa. (41). 

Merrick, Hon. Edwin T., P. O. Box 606, New Orleans, La. (29). S A 

Merrill, Mrs. Winifred Edgerton, Ph.B., 2 Spragae Place, Albany, N. Y. 

(86). A 
Merritt, George, Indianapolis, Ind. (89). I 

Merriit, Worth, 411 W. Washington St , Indianapolis, Ind. (89). I 
Merry weather, George N., cor. 6th and Race Sts., Cinciunati, Ohio (80). 

PH 

Merwln, Orange, Bridgeport, Conn. (88). B 

Mbtcalf, Orlando, Vice President Colorado Mid. R. R. Co., Colorado 

Springs, Col. (35). D 
Metcalf, William, Pittsburgh, Pa. (88). 
Meyncke, O. M., Brookviile, Ind. (89). F 
Miller, Clifford N., 604 Greenup St., Covington, Ky. (87). D 
MiLLRR, Edgar G., 218 E. German St., Baltimore, Md. (29). B F A 
Miller, John A., 2500 Park Ave., Cairo, 111. (22). D 
Mills, Andrew G., Cotton Exchange, Galveston, Texas (SS), I 
Mills, James, M.A., Guelph, Ontario, Can. (81). I O 
Mindeleff, Cosmos, Bareaa of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. (88). H 
Mindeleff, Mrs. Julie, 1401 Stoughton St., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Minns, Miss S., 14 Lonisbnrg Square, Boston, Mass. (82). 
Mitivier, Dr. M. M., 206 High St., Holyoke, Mass. (40). 
Mitting, Ebenezer K., 423 Superior St., Chicago, 111. (40). 
Mixer, Fred. K., 427 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. (35). B 
Mohr, Dr. Charles, Mobile, Ala. (40). 
Moler, Geo. S., 106 University Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. (88). 
Molson, John H. R., Montreal, P. Q., Can. (81). 
Montgomery, Prof. J. H., Meadville, Pa. (89). B 
Moody, Mrs. Mary B.» M.D., Fair Haven Heights, New Haven, Conn. 

(25). B F 
Moore, Burton E., 508 W. 4th St., South Bethlehem, Pa. (41). 
Moore, Geo. D., Ph.D., Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass. (40). 
Moore, Joseph, LL.D., Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. (89). 
Moran, Jno. F., M.D., 2420 Pennsylvania Ave.,N. W., Washington, D. C. 

(40). 
Morey, Prof. William C, Rochester, N. Y. (41). H I 
Morgan, Wm. F., 171 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (27). 
Morrill, Prof. A. D., Hamilton College, Clinton, Oneida Co., N. Y. (37). 
Morse, Mrs. Mary J., 57 Jackson St., Lawrence, Mass. (29). O 
Mortimer, Capt. John H., care of Alex. Campbell & Co., 26 Pine St., New 

York, N. Y. (81). 
Moseley, Edwin L., A. M., High School, Sandusky, Ohio (84). 
Moss, Mrs. J. Osborne, Sandusky, Ohio (85). F 
Mowry, Wm. A., 97 Federal St., Salem, Mass. (29). I 
Muir, John, Martinez, Cal. (22). 



MEMBERS. lix 

Mnnson, Prof. Welton M., Maine State College, Orono, Me. (41). 
Marphy, Edward, M.D., New Harmony, lud. (39). O 

Nagle, James C, A. & M. College Station, Texas (40). D B 

Naylor, Prof. J. P., Univ. of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind. (36). 

Neff, Peter, 361 Russell Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (87). 

Neff, Peter, Jr., 861 Russell Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (84). B 

Nelson, Wolft-ed, CM., M.D., 1 Gramercy Park, New York, N. Y. 

(85). H E 
Nesraith, Henry E., jr., 28 South St., New York, N. Y. (30). B F O 
Nettleton, Chas., 115 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (30). H E F 
Neumoegen, Berthold, Box 2581, New York, N. Y. (40). P 
Newell, F. H., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). 
Newell, William Wells, Sec'y Am. Folk Lore Society and Editor of the 

Journal, 175 Brattle St,, Cambridge, Mass. (41). H 
Newton, Rev. John, Pensacola, Fla. (7). A-I 
Nichols, A. B., Rosemont, Pa. (83). D 
Nichols, Austin P., 4 Highland Ave., Haverhill, Mass. (37). 
Nichols, Ernest Fox, Hamilton, N. Y. (41). B 
Nlmmo, Miss Mary P., 922 15th St., McPherson Square, Washington, 

D. C. (40). HI 
Noble, R. W. P., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). O 

Northrop, Dr. Katharine, 809 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (85). F 
Norton, Prof. Wm. H., Mt. Vernon, Iowa (39). E 
Nunn, R. J., M.D., 119 York St., Savannah, Ga. (33). 

O'Connor, Joseph, 146 Frank St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). 
0*Hara, Michael, M.D., 31 South 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). F 
Olds, Prof. George D., Amherst, Mass. (88). A 
Oliver, Jos. Giammnsso, Mining Engineer, Racalmuto, Sicily (39). 
Orleman, Miss Daisy M., M.D., 808 E. Capitol St., Washington, D. C. 
. (40). B O F 

Orm, John, Paducah, McCracken Co., Ky. (27). D 
Orndorff, Dr. William Ridgely, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). O 
Orr, William, jr., 188 Cathanne St., Springfield, Mass. (89). P B 
Osborne, Mrs. Ada M., WatervlUe, Oneida Co., N. Y. (19). E 
Osborne, Amos O., Waterville, Oneida Co., N. Y. (19). E 
Osgood, Joseph B. F., Salem, Mass. (81). 

O'SuUivan, Rev. Denis T., S.J., Woodstock, Howard Co., Md. (40). B A 
Oviatt, David B., Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. (40). D 
Owen, Prof. D. A., Franklin, Ind. (84). E 

Page, Dr. D. L., 46 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. (33). F 
Paine, Sidney B., Edison Electric Light Co., Boston, Mass. (30). D B 
Palmer, Dr. Edward, care Dr. Geo. Vasey, Dep*t of Agric, Washington, 
D. C. (22). H 



Ix MKMBKR8. 

Pardee, Walter S., Minneapolis, Minn. (82). 

Pardo, Carlos, 150 Fiftli Ave., New York, N. Y. (36). A 

Parker, Alexander Tennant, Lexington, Kjr. (87). 

Parker, J. D., Ctiaplain, SanDiego* Cal. (34). H 

Parks, Prof. R. M., Bedford, Ind. (39). O 

Parks, Prof. William B., Thorp's Spring, Hood Co., Texas (40). B P 

Parsons, Prof. C. Lathrop, Hanover, N. H. (41). 

Parsons, J no. £. (86). 

Patton, Horace B., Hon<i^hton, Mich. (87). B 

Paul, Caroline A., M.D., Vineland, Cumberland Co., N. J. (23). 

Payne, Frank Fitz, Meteorological Office, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (88). 

Peale, Albert C, M.D., U. S. Oeol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (36). B 

Pearce, James H., 226 Beverly St., Toronto, Ontario, Can. (88). F 

Peary, Robert E., C.E., U. S. N., United States Navy Yard, League Island, 

PhiladWphia, Pa. (86). D 
Peck« Mrs. Emma J., 185 W. Chester Park, Boston, Mass. (40). 
Peck, Mrs. John H., 8 Irving Place, Troy, N. Y. (28). 
Peck, W. A., C.E., 1061 Clarkson St., Denver, Col. (19). B 
Peckham, Wheeler H., Drexel Building, Wail St., New York, N. Y. (86). 
Pedrick, Mrs. Wm. R., Lawrence, Mass. (88). 
Peffer, George P., Pewaukee, Wis. (32). D I 

Peirce, Cyrus N., D.D.S., 1416 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (81). F 
Peirce, Harold, 331 Walnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa. (33). H I 
Pell, Alfred, Highland Falls, N. Y. (36). 
Pendleton, Dr. Hunter, Lexington, Va. (40). 
Pkrkins, Arthur, 14 State St., Hartford, *Conn. (81). B A 
Perrin, John, care W. McGlbbon, Mount Royal Park, Montreal, P. Q. (88). 
Perrine, Fred. A. C, A.B., Trenton, N. J. (88). B A 
Peters, Mrs. Bernard, 88 Lee Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (86). 
Petitdidier, O. L., Mt. Carmel, 111. (39). A BD 
Pettee, Prof. C. H., Hanover, N. H. (31). A 
Pettee, Rev. J. T., Meriden, Conn. (39). 
Pfeiffer, Prof. Geo. B., Washington High School, Westwood, Prince 

George Co., Md. (40). B O 
Phillips, Prof. A. E., La Fayette, Ind. (39). D 
Phillips, Dr. Wm. A., Evanston, 111. (41). H 

Phillips, W. Hallett, 603 Louisiana Ave., Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Picket, H; E., 241 N. Delaware St., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). B O 
Pickett, Dr. Thos. E., Maysville, Mason Co., Ky. (25). H F 
Pickett, W. D., Arland, Big Horn Co., Wyo. (41). D I 
Pierce, Joslah, jr., 806 17th St., Washington, D. C. (40) B 
Pierce, Perry Benj., U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (40). H 
Pike, J. W., Mahoning, Portage Co., Ohio (29). EOF 
Pilling, J. W., 1301 Mass. Ave., Washington, D. C. (40). 
PiUsbury, J. E., Lieut. U. S. N., 225 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 

(SS), B B 
Pinkerton, T. H., M.D., P. O. Box 11, Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. (27). 



MEMBERS. Ixi 

Pitkin, Lucius, 188 Pearl St., New York, N. Y. (29). 

Pitt, Prof. William H., 2 Arlington Place, Buffalo, N. Y (26). 

Place, Edwin, Terre Haute, Ind. (88). B 

Pope, Edward S., 235 Blackford St., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 

Porteous, John, 176 Falmouth St., Boston, Mass. (22). 

Porter, Edna, 77 Biyant St., Buffalo, N. Y. (41). F Q 

Post, Prof. Charles M., Alft-ed Centre, N. Y. (89). B 

Poteat, Prof. William L., Wake Forest, N. C. (40). P 

Potter, Mrs. Charles B., Ill Spring St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). H 

Potter, Rev. Henry C, 804 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (29). 

Potter, Henry Noel, 111 Spring St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). B 

Potter, Jotham, 104 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (38). B D 

PoTTKR, O. B., 26 Lafayette Place, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Potts, Alfred F., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 

Powell, Thomas, 16 S. Main St., Fort Scott, Kansas (41). 

Prang, Louis, 46 Centre St., Roxbury, Mass. (29). D 

Preswlck, E. H., Ithaca, N. Y. (36). O 

Price, J. Sergeant, 709 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). 

Priest, Geo. A., Census OfBce, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Prince, Gen. Heniy, U. S. A., Fltchburg, Mass. (22). 

Prosser, Col. Wm. F., North Yakima, Yakima Co., Washington (26). B I 

Pruyn, John V. L., jr., Albany, N. Y. (29). 

Pulslfer, Mrs. C. L. B., Newton Centre, Mass. (88). 

Purinton, Prof. George D., Columbia, Mo. (31). O F 

Putnam, Chas. P., M.D., 63 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (28). 

Quick, Prof. Walter J., Fort Collins, Col. (40). 
Quinche, Miss Helen M., Columbus, Miss. (40). O 

Raenber, Edward G., 688 W. Chicago Ave., Chicngo, 111. (39). C F 
Rand, C. F., M.D., 1228 15lh St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (27). B H 
Randolph, L. S., Engineer of Tests, B. & 0. R. R. Co., Baltimore, Md. 

(83). D 
Ray, P. H., Capt. U. S. Army, Omaha, Nebraska (40). 
Read, Edmund E., jr., 604 Cooper St., Camden, N. J. (39). AB 
Reber, Prof. Louis E., State College, Centre Co., Pa. (35). D 
Rfeche, Miss Eug6nie M., 31 Howell St., Rochester, N. Y. (41). B H 
Redding, Prof. Allen C, 1000 No. Cory St., Flndlay, Ohio (39). O 
Reed, Charles J., 224 High St., Orange, N. J. (34). O B 
Reed, Taylor, Princeton, N. J. (38). A 
Reichel, Rev. George V., Brockport, N. Y. (41). F H 
Reid, Prof. Henry F., Case School Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio 

(86). B 
Remington, Cyrus K., 11 E. Seneca St., Buffalo, N. Y. (36). B 
Renninger, John S., M.D., Marshall, Minn. (31). O F 
Reyburn, Robert, M.D., 2129 F St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (33). p 
Reynolds, Sheldon, Wilkes Barre, Pa. (83). H 
Rich, Jacob Monroe, 60 W. 88th St., New York, N. Y. (33). B A 



Ixii MSMBKBfl. 

Rich, Michael P., 50 W. 88th St., New York, N. T. (40). 

Hicketto, Col. R. Brace, Wilkes Barre, Pa. (88). B 

Rldeoat, Bates S., Norway, Me. (81). E H 

Rldpath, John Clark, Greencastle, Ind. (89). H 

Ries, Ellas £., 480 South Broadway, Baltimore, Md. (88). BID 

Rles, Helnrleh, Ph.B., 102 W. Gist St., New York, N. Y. (41). E 

Riggs, Cliauncey Wales, care of H. C. Warlnner, 14 Madison St., Mem- 
phis, Tenn. (41). H 

RIgSS, Qeo. W., Ridgetield, Conn. (26). O 

Riggs, Lawrason, 814 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. (86). 

Ritter, Homer P., U. S. C. and O. Survey, Wasliin;(ton, D. C. (40). 

Ritter, W. F. McK., P. O. Box 60, Mlltou, Pa. (40). 

RiVKKA, Josib DR (29). 

Robbiiis, A. J., M.D., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Bobbins, £. P., Room 12, Apollo Building, N. W. cor. Walnat and Fifth 
Sts., Cincinnati, Ohio (80). D B 

Robertson, Charles, Carlinville, 111. (89). F 

Robertson, James D., Ass't Missouri Qeol. Survey, Jefferson City, Mo. 
(41). E 

ROBKKTSON, Thomas D., Rockford, III. (10). B H 

Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln, Curator Harvi^ Herbarium, Cambridge, 
Mass. (41). F 

Robinson, Prof. Norman, Tallahassee, Florida (40). 

Robinson, Prof. Otis Hall, 273 Alexander St., Rochester, N. T. (28). B A 

Rochester, DeLancey, M.D., 469 Franklin St., Buffiilo, N. Y. (85). F 

Rock wood, Ciiarles G., Newark, N. J. (36). 

Roessler, Franz, 73 Plue St., New York, N. Y. (89). 

Rogen», Frederick J.-, Ithaca, N. Y. (40). 

Rojfers, John, Port Sandfleld, Muskoka, Ontario, Can. (88). D 

Rolfe, Ciiarles W., Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, 111. (32). 

Rolfs, P. H., Florida Agricultural College, Lake City, Fla. (41). 

Roosevelt, Hon. Robert B., 33 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (33). B F 

Roosevelt, Mks. Marion T., 67 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (31). H I 

Rosa, Edward Bennett, Associate Prof, of Physics, Wesleyan Univ., Mid- 
dletown. Conn. (39). A B 

Rose, Jos. N., A8S*t Botanist, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Rostfbrugh, A.M., M.D., Church Street, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (88). 

Rosell, Claude A. O., 1131 9th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Ross, Denman Waldo, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. (29;. 

Ross, Prof. Edward A., Cornell Univ., Iihaca, N. Y. (41). I 

Rotcli, A. Lawrence, Readville, Mass. (39). 

Roth, FlUbert, 62 Packard St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (89). P 

Rowell, Chas. E., M.D., Stamford, Conn, (83). F H 

Rowlee, W. W., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). F 

Runnels, Dr. O. S., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). F 

Runyan, Elmer G., Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (40). O 

Rupp, August, A.B., College of City of New York, New York, N. Y. (35). 



MSMBEB8. Ixiii 

Rupp, Philip, M.D., 68 Seventh St., New York, N. T. (36). 
Russell, A. H., Captain of Ordnance, U. S. A., 84 Huntington Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. (88). D 
Rnssell, H. L., Pli.D , Poynette, Wis. (41). 
Russell, Thomas, Signal Office, Wai*hington, D. C. (39). B 
Rnst, Horatio N., Colton, San Bernardino Co., Cat. (26). H 
Ryder, John A., care Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 
Ryker, J. N., U. S. Weather Bareaa, Lynchburg, Va. (41). 

Sabine, Wallace Clement, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. (89). B 

Sage, John H., Portland, Conn. (23). P 

Sander, Dr. Enno, St. Louis, Mo. (27). O 

Sargent, Erie Hoxsie, Medina, Ohio (87). P 

Saunders, Prof. Charles E., Central Univ., Richmond, Ky. (41), O 

Saville, James H., Attorney- at-Law, 1419 F St., N. W., Washington, 
1). C. (29). 

Saville, Marshall H., Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (89). H 

Sayler, Samuel M , Huntington, Pa. (41). p 

Say re, Robert H., South Bethlehem, Pa. (28). D 

SciiAFFRR, Chas., M.D., 1309 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). F £2 

SCHAFFER, Mrs. Mart 1'ownskkd Sharplbss, 1309 Arch St.« Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (88). P B 

Scharnr, Christian H., 2078 N. Main Ave., Scranton, Pa. (33). A D B 
' H 

Schneck, Jacob, M D., Mount Carmel, 111. (41). B P H 

ScHEKMKRHOUN, F. AuG., 61 University Place, New York, N. Y. (86). 

SciiEKMRRiiOKN, Wm. C, 49 W. 23d St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Scherzer, William, 510 Home Insurance Building, Chicago, 111. (89). 

Schobinger, John J., 2101 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. (34). B 

Schofleld, Gen. J. M., Headquarters of the Array, Washington, D. C. (86). 

Schoney, Dr. L., 68 East 104th St., New York, N. Y. (29). P 

Schuette, J. H., Green Bay, Wis. (34). P B B 

Schultz, Carl H., 430-440 First Ave., New York, N. Y. (29). 

Schurman, Jacob G., Pres. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (41). H 

Schuyler, Pliilip N., Bellevue, Huron Co., Ohio (37). 

Schwarz, E. A., U. S. Dep't of Agric, Washington, D. C. (29). P 

Scott, Dr. James F., Columbia Hospital, Washington, D. C. (40). F H 

Scott, John B., 1620 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). O 

Scott, Martin P., M.D. (81). 

Scott, W. J., M.D., 637 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio (87). 

Scoville, S. S., M.D., Lebanon, Ohio (80). B P 

Scull, Miss Sarah A., 1100 M St., Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Seamon, Prof. William H., Eng., Aurora, Mo. (88). 

Searing, Anna H., M.D., 62 East Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (41). P 

Sebert, William F., 863 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (41). A B 

Sellhausen, Ernest A., M.D., 640 G St., N. W., Washington, D C. (40). 

Serrell, Lemuel W., 140 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. (86). 



Iziv MKllBBRfl* 

Shannon, W. P., Qreensburg, Ind. (89). F 

Shbafru, a. W., Pottsvllle, Pa. (28). 

Shelton, Prof. Edward M., Dep*t of Agric, Brisbane, Qaeensland, Aiis- 

traHa (32). F 
Shepherd, Elizabeth, 263 W. 128th St., New York, N. Y. (89). 
Sherman, Orray Taft, 879 Harvard St., Cambridge, Mass. (89). 
Shonnard, Hon. Frederic, Yonkers, N. Y. (89). B F H 
Shaltz, Charles S., Hoboken, N. J. (81). F 
Siebel, John E., Director Zymotechnic Inst., 242 Borling St., Chicago, 111. 

(89). CBFE 
Sleroon, Uudolph, 191 Calhonn St., Fort Wayne, Ind. (40) AF 
Sigerfoos, Charles P., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. (39). P H 
SiLVKR, L. B., 172 Summit St., Cleveland, Ohio (87). 
Simon, Dr. Wm., 1348 Block St., Baltimore, Md. (29). O 
Skinner, Aaron N., U. S. Naval Observ., Washington, D. C. (40). A 
Slade, Ellsha, Somerset, Bristol Co., Mass. (29). F 
Slattery, M. M. M., 802 W. Wa<«hlngton St., Fort Wayne, Ind. (89). 
Slocam, Chas. E., M.D., Defiance, Ohio (84). F 
Smedley, Sam'l L., Chief Eng., City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. (88). D 
Smlllie, Thomas W., U. S. National Museom, Washington, D. C. (40). F 
Smith, Prof. Albert L., Box 268, Englewood, III. (41). O 
Smith, Andrew J., M.D., 66^ N. Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 
Smith, BenJ. 6., 11 Fayerweather St., Cambridge, Mass. (29). I 
Smith, Charles H., 5484 Monroe Ave., Chicago, 111. (38). D 
Smith, De Cost, Skaueateles, N. Y. (38). H 
Smith, D. T., M.D., Louisville, Ky. (89). 
Smith, E. Reuel, Skaueateles, N. Y. (88). 
Smith, Geo. Gregory, St. Albans, Vt. (86). 
Smith, Harlan I., East Saginaw, Mich. (41). H 
Smith, Henry L., 149 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (26). 
Smith, Mrs. Henry L., 149 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (26). 
Smith, Prof. Herbert S. S., Coll. of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (29). 

D 

Smith, James Hervey, Baldwin Univ., Berea, Ohio (40). 

Smith, Mrs. J. Lawrence, Louisville, Ky. (26). 

Smith, Miss Jane, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (29). H 

Smith, Mrs. Marshall E., 4011 Baring St., Philadelphia, Pa. (40) H I 

Smith, MIddleton, P. O. Box 672, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Smith, Robert D., Pres. Columbia Athenaeum, Columbia, Tenn. (89). 

Smith, Theodore W., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 6 

Smith, Usklma C, 707 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (38). F 

S mucker, Isaac, Newark, Ohio (29). H 

Smyth, C. H., jr., Clinton, N. Y. (88). 

Smyth, Prof. Jas. D., Burlington, Iowa (28). I 

Snell, Merwln Marie, Calbolic Univ. of America, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Snow, B. W., Ass't Statistician, Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Snow, Julia W., La Salle, III. (39). P 



MEMBERS. Izy 

Soule, Wm., Ph.D., Alliance, Ohio (33). BOB 

Southwick, E. B., Arsenal Building, Central Park, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Southworth, Miss Effle A., Forestville, N. Y. (35). F 

Soavielle, Mathleu, M.D., Box 335, Jacksonville, Fla. (36). B E F 

Souvielle, Mrs. M., Box 836, Jacksonville, Fla. (24). A B F 

Spear, Gen. Ellis, 1003 F St., N.W., Washington, D. C. (40). I 

Speck, Hon. Charles, 1206 Morrison Aye., St. Louis, Mo. (27). 

Spencer, Arthur Coe, B.S., East End, Cleveland, Ohio (41). "E 

Spencer, Geo. S., St. Cloud, Minn. (32). B 

Sfenzer, John G., M.D., 368 Central Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (37). O 

Speyers, Clarence L., Colatnbia, Mo. (36). O 

Spilsbuiy, E. Gybbon, 13 Burling Slip, New York, N. Y. (33). B D 

Spofltord, Paul N., P. O. Box ft67, New York, N. Y. (36;. 

Spraoub, C. H., Maiden, Mass. (29). 

Sprague, Frank J., 182 West End Ave., New York, N. Y. (29). 

Squibb, Edward Hamilton, M.D., 148 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(41). F 
Stam, Colin F., Chestertown, Md. (33). O F 

Starek. Emil, £. M., 222 Indiana Ave., Washington, D. C. (40). O D B 
Stark, Prof. Wm. B., State College, Lexington, Ky. (39). P 
Starr, Dr. Charles S., 96 North Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (31). 
Steiger, George, 1636 loth St., Washington, D. C. (40). O B B 
Steinmetz, Chas: Proteus, 124 Waveriy Place, Yonkers, N. Y. (40;. 
Stejneger, Leonhard, Curator Dept. of Reptiles, National Museum, Wasli* 

ingtou, D. C. (40). P 
Stevens, Alvlso B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (40). C 

Stevens, Geo. T., M.D., 33 West 33d St., New York, N. Y. (28). B F 
Stevens, Prof. Moses C, La Fayette, lud. (39). A 
Stevens, Mrs. Sarah C, Mankato, Minn. (40). 
Stevenson, Mrs. Cornelius, 237 S. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 
Stevenson, Mrs. Matilda C, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

(41). H 
Stieglitz, Dr. Julius, 14 E. 60th St., New York, N. Y. (89). O 
Stiles, Dr. Clias. W., Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (40). P 
StlUman, Prof. John M., Palo Alto, Cal. (41). 
Stlne, Prof. W. M., Ohio Univ., Athens, Ohio (37). A O 
Stockbridge, Horace E., Fargo, No. Dakota (31). 
Stock, H. H., Lehigh Univ., So. Bethlehem, Pa. (40). E 
Stoller, Pr»f. James H., Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. (36). B F 
Stone, D. D., Lansing, N. Y. (39). F 
Stone, Lincoln R., M.D., Newton, Mass. (81). 
Stoops, H. M., Brookville, Ind. (39). H 
Stowell, John, 48 Main St., Charlestown, Mass. (21). 
Stradling, Prof. George F., Uatboro, Montgomery Co., Pa. (41). 
Streeruwitz, W. H. von, Austin, Texas (40;. 
Stnbbs, W. C, Andubon Park, New Orleans, La. (40). 
Studebaker, Clem, South Bend, Ind. (89). I 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLI. E 



Ixvi MEMBKB8. 

Studley, Prof. Duane, 410 E. Main St., Crawfordsvllle, Ind. (41). A 
Sud worth, George B., Dcpt. of Agric, Forestry Dlr., Washington, D. C. 

(41)) P 
Sullivan, J, A., care Dr. Salllvan, 810 Main St, Maiden, Mass. (27). A 
Sullivan, J. C, M.D., Cairo, 111. (40). A 
Swasey, Oscar F., M.D., Beverly, Mass. (17). 
Sweet, Henry N., 89 State St., Boston, Mass. (40). H D 
Sweetnam, Geo. Booker, 39 St. Viucent St., Toronto, Ontario, Can. (38). 



Taft, Charles E., care Census Bureau, Wa8hins:ton, T>. C. (37). 

Taft, Mrs. Charles E., care Census Bureau, Washington, D. C. (37). B 

Taft, Elihu B., Burlington, Vt. (86). H 

Talbott, Mrs. Laura Osborne, 927 P St., Washington, D. C. (36). 

Talbott, Dr. Thomas M., 927 P St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Talmage, Prof. James E., D.S.D.. Ph.D., Curatof Deseret Museum, Salt 
Lake City, Utah (41). OP 

Taylor, Edward Randolph, Cleveland, Ohio (39). O 

Taylor, F. B., Box 2019, Fort Wayne, Ind. (89). 

Taylor, Prof. Jas. M., Hamilton, Madison Co., N. Y. (33). A D 

Taylor, Robert S., Box 2019, Fort Wayne, Ind. (39). 

Taylor, William Alton, 1228 14th St., Washington, D. C. (40). 

Teller, George L., Fayetteville, Washington Co., Ark. (40). O 

Thaw, Mrs. Mary Copley, Pittsburgh, Pa. (41). H 

Thi'ilmann, Emil, Appleton City, Mo. (41). 

Thomas, Prof. M. B., Crawfordsville, Ind. (41). P 

Thompson, Alton Howard, 721 Kansas Ave., Topeka, Kan. (33). H P 

Thompson, Daniel G., 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (29). 

Thompson, Mrs. Ellen P., 1729 12th St., Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Thompson, Mrs. Frank, 233 South 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 

Thompson, Fked'k F., 283 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Thompson, J. L., M.D., Indianapolis, Ind. (89). F 

Thompson, Joseph Osgood, Haverford College, Pa. (41). 

Thruston, R. C. Ballard, Louisville, Ky. (36). B 

Thurtle, J. G., Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 

Tiffany, Asa S., 901 West 6th St., Davenport, Scott Co., Iowa (27). B H 

Tight, Prof. William George, Granville, Ohio (89). P 

Tindall, Willoughby C, Associate Prof, of Math., Univ. of Missouri, Col- 
umbia, Mo. (40). 

Todd, Albert M., Nottawa, Mich. (37). O 

Townsend, Prof. Charles O., Macon, Ga. (41). p 

Townsend, Clinton P., Donaldson vllle, La. (40). C 

Townsend, Franklin, 4 Elk St., Albany, N. Y. (4). 

Townsend, Henry C, 709 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (S3). I 

Treat, Erastus B., Publisher and Bookseller, 5 Cooper Union, cor. 4th Ave. 
and 8th St., New York, N. Y. (29). P I 

Trenholm, Hon. W. L., Pres. Amer. Surety Co., 160 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. (36). 



MEMBERS. Ixvii 

Trescot, T. C, 1418 L St., Washington, D. C. (40). C 
Trowbridge, Luther H., 266 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. (29). 
Trowbridge, Mrs. L. H., 266 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. (21). 
Tryon, F. M., Room 120, Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (40). 
Tador, Prof. Joseph H., Florence, N. J. (39). 
Tallock, Aionzo J., Engineer, Leavenworth, Kansas (35). D 

Ulrey, Albert B., North Manchester, Ind. (39). F 
Updegraff, Milton, Observatory, Columbia, Mo. (40). A 

Vail, Prof. Hngh D., Santa Barbara, Cal. (18). 

Valentine, Beuj. B., Richmond, Va. (33). H 

Valentine, Edw. P., Richmond, Va. (33). H 

Van Bkuren, Fredeuick T., 21 W. 14th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Van Brunt, Cornelius, 819 E. 57th St., New York, N. Y. (28). 

Van Siyke, Lucius L., Agrlc. Exper. Station, Geneva, N. Y. (41). 

Van Vleck, Frank, Pacific Railway Co., Los Angeles, Cal. (35). D 

Varney, Miss May, Simon, Wayne Co., Pa. (40). 

Vaux, Geo., jr., 404 Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (33). B A 

Veeder, Major Albert, M.D., Lyons, Wayne Co., N. Y. (36). 

Vermyn6, J. J. B., M.D., 2 Orchard St., New Bedford, Mass. (29). F 

ViUard, Fanny G., Dobbs Ferry, N. Y. (36). 

Vlnal, W. Irving, 1106 East Capitol St., Washington, D. C. (40). B 

Voorhees, Chas. H., M.D., P. O. Lock Box 120, New Brunswick, N. J. 

(29). P H 
Vredenburgh, Edw. H., 122 So. Fltzhugh St., Rochester, N. Y. (29). 
Wadsworth, H. L., 1209 17th St., Denver, Col. (39). D 
Wagenhftls, Samuel, Box 382, Fort Wayne, Ind. (40). H 
Wagner, Frank C, care Wm. Wagner, Ann Arbor, Mich. (34). D 
Waite, M. B., Dep't of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (37). 
Wales, Salem H., 25 E. 55th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Walker, Byron Edmund, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (38). B 
Walker, George C, 228 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. (17). 
Wall, John L., 338 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (27). F 
Walter, Robert, M.D., Walter's Park P. O., Wernersville, Pa. (33). F H 
Walton, Jos. R., M.D., 1921 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D. C. (40). 
Walworth, Rev. Clarence A., 41 Chapel St., Albany, N. Y. (28). B 
Wanamaker, John, Postmaster General, Washington, D. C. (33). 
Wappenhaus, C. F. R.,U. S. Weather Bureau, Indianapolis, Ind. (39). B 
Ward, Frank A., 16-26 College Ave., Rochester, N. Y. (40). 
Ward, J. Langdon, 120 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (29). I 
Ward, Samuel B., M.D., Albany, N. Y. (29). F O A 
Ward well, George J., Rutland, Vt. (20). D B 
Ware, Wm. R., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (36). 
Waring, John, Manchester, Conn. (83). D B 
Warner, Hulbert H., Rochester, N. Y. (31). A 
Warren, Eugene C, 611 W. Main St., Louisville, Ky. (37). 



Ixviii MEMBERS. 

Warren, Mrs. Sasan E., 67 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. (29). 

Warrington, James N., 127 Park Ave., Chicago, 111. (84). DAB 

Waterhoase, A., M.D., 42 Allen St., Jamestown, N. Y. (29). F 

Waterman, L D., M.D., Indianapolis, Iiid. (39). F 

Waters, Edwin F., 131 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. (29). 

Watkus, Gko. F., 6 Somerset »t., Boston, Mass. (29). B F H E D 

Watltins, Jolin E., C. E., National Museum, Washington, D. C. (40) D 

Watlcins, L. D., Manchester, Mich. (84). O 

Watson, Miss C. A., Salem, Mass. (31). D 

Watters, William, M.D., 26 So. Common St., Lynn, Mass. (40). 

Weaver, Gerrit E. Hambletou, A.M., 300 So. SS St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(38). F 
vWeed, H. £., Agricultural College, Miss. (40). F 
Weed J., N., 71 Water St., Newburgh, N. Y. (87). B I 
Weeden, Hon. Joseph E., Randolph, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y. (31). 
Weeks, Joseph D., Editor American Manufacturer, Pittsburgh, Pa. (35). 

D 

Wells, Mrs. C. F., 776 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (31). H F I D B 

Wells, Samuel, 81 Pembertou Square, Boston, Mass. (24). H 

Wells, William U., Jr., 274 Ashland Ave., Chicago, III. (39). E 

\Werum, Jno. H., Toledo, Ohio (40). 

West, Miss Nellie B., 875 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. (88). E 

Westbrook, Benj. F., M.D., 174 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (38). 

Wetzler, Jos., Room 176, Potter Building, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Wheeler, Herbert A., Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. (83). E I 

Wheeler, T. B., M.D., 194 Mountain St., Montreal, P. Q., Can. (11). 

Wheeler, William, C. £., Concord, Mass. (41). 

Wheildon, Miss Alice W., Concord, Mass. (31). 

Whelen, Edw. S., 1620 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). 

Whetstone, John L., Summit Ave., Mt. Auburn, Clucinuati, Ohio (30). D 

White, Charles H., Med. Inspector U.S.N , care A. B. Gllman, Bradford, 

Mass. (34). O 
White, David, U. S. Natl. Museum, Washington, D. C. (40). E F 
White, James G., 29 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (34). B A 
White, LeRoy S., Box 324, Waterbury, Conn. (23). 
White, Loomls L., 7 E. 44th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Whitehead, John M., Att*y at Law, Jauesville, Rock Co., Wis. (41) I 
Whitfleld, Thomas, Ph.D., 240 Wabash Ave., Chicago, III. (41). C 
Whiting, Mrs. Francis, Jeffersonvllle, Montgomery Co., Pa. (40). 
Whiting, S. B., 11 Ware St., Cambridge, Mass. (38). D 
Whitlock, Prof. Roger H., Coll. Station, Brazos Co., Texas (36). A B D 
Whitney, E. R., 20 North St., BIngliamton, N. Y. (41). 
Whitney, Joseph T., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (40). 
Wickersham, Jas. A.^ Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, Ind. (39). H 
Wilbor, Rev. Wm. C, Ph.D., 498 W. Ferry St., Buffalo, N. Y. (39). P 
Wilbour, Mrs. Charlotte B., Little Comptou, R. I. (28). 
Wilcox, Miss Emily T., 86 Second St., Troy, N. Y. (83). B A 



MEMBERS. Ixiz 

Wilder, Alex., M.D., 5 No. 11th St., Newark, N. J. (29). H F I 
Wilkinson, Ernest, Washington, D. C. (40). 

Wilkinson, J. Henderson, 820 E. Capitol St., Washington, D. C. (36). B 
Wilkinson, Mrs. L. V., Seventy Six P. O., Perry Co., Mo. (30). 
Wllletts, Joseph C, Skaneateles, N. Y. (29). E P H 
Williams, Prof. Edward H., jr., Box 463, Betlilehem, Pa. (26). B D 
Williams, H. Smith, M.D., Randall's Island, New York, N. Y. (84). F 
Williams, Rev. Theodore B., Mendon, Monroe Co., N. Y. (41). 
Willits, Edwin, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (40). I 
Willitts, George E., 210 No. Larch St., Lansing, Mich. (39). P 
WiiJtfARTH, Mrs. Henry D., 61 Eliot St., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (40). 
Wilmot, Thos. J., Commercial Cable Co., WatervlUe, County Kerry, Ire- 
land (27). B 
Wlndle, Prof. W. S., College Springs, Iowa (39). F 
Wingate, Miss Hannah S., 2101 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. (31). B I 
Winterhalter, A. G., Lt. U. S. N., care Navy Dept., Washington, D. C. 

(37). A 
Wisser, John P., Ist Lt. 1st Artillery, U. S. A., West Point, N. Y.(33). O 
Witt, Carl C, Indianapolis, Ind. (39). 
Wolcott, Mrs. Henrietta L. T., Dedham, Mass. (29). 
Wolflr, Dr. J. E., 16 Story St., Cambridge, Mass. (36). 
Wood, Alvinus B., 980 JeflTerson Ave., Detroit, Mich. (34). B 
Wood, Dr. Robkrt W., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (29). 
Wood, Walter, 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). F I 
Woodland, Jesse E., Havana, N. Y. (41). F 
Woodworth, Chauncey C, Rochester, N. Y. (41). I 
Wrenshall, John C, Baltimore, Md. (40). H 
Wright, Carroll D., Dept of Labor, Washington, D.^C. (41). I 
Wiirtele, Miss Minnie, Acton Vale, P. Q., Can. (32). H 
Wyman, Walter, M.D., Supervising Surg. Gen., U. S. Marine Hospital 

Service, Washington, D. C. (40). I 
Wyman, Walter Channlng, 168 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. (34). H 

Yeates, W. S., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (40). 

York, Mrs. Margaret M., 937 Westminster St., Washington, D. C. (40). H 

Youmans, Mrs. Cella G., Mount Vernon, N. Y. (36). 

Young, Prof. A. Harvey, Hanover College, Hanover, Ind.' (80;. F O 

Yowell, Everett I., Station "C," Cincinnati, Ohio (41). A 

Zeng, Miss Nellie E. de, Clyde, Wayne Co., N. Y. (41). B H 

[1251 Patrons, CoBRSSPONDiNa Members and Members.] 

Note.— Tlie omission of an address in the foregoing list indicates that letters 
directed to that last printed were returned as uncalled for. Information of the present 
address of the members so Indicated is requested by the Permanent Secretary. 



IZX FXLLOW8. 



HONOBABY FELLOWS.* 

K0OKR8, WiLUAM B., Boston, Mass. (1). 1881. (Born Dec. 7, 1804. Died 

May 80, 1882.) B E 
Chevreul, Michsl Eugene, Paris, France (85). 1886. (Bom Aug. 31, 

1786. Died April 9, 1889.) O 
Gknth, Dr. F. a., 8937 Locnst St., Philadelphia, Pa. (24). 1888. C B 
Haix, Prof. James, Albany, N. Y. (1). 1890. E 7 

FELLOWS.' 

Abbe, Professor Cleveland, Meteorologist, Weather Bureau, Dept. of 

Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (16). 1874. B A 
Abbe, Robert, 11 W. 50th St., New York, N. Y. (86). 1892. 
Abbott, Dr. Chas. C, Trenton, N. J. (29). 1883. F H 
Abert, S. Thayer, 1108 O St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (30). 1891. 

ABDEI 
Alden, Prof. Geo. I., Worcester, Mass. (88). 1885. D 
Alexander, John S., Texas NaVl Bank, San Antonio, Texas (20). 1874. 

BCD 
Allen, Joel A., American Museum of Natural History, 77th St. and 8th 

Ave., New York, N.Y. (18). 1875. F 
Allen, Dr. T. F., 10 E. 36th St., New York, N. Y. (35). 1887. F 
.Alvord, Major Henry E., College Park, Prince George's Co., Md. (29). 

1882. I 
Alwood, Prof Wm. B., Agricultural and Mechanical College and Experi- 
ment Station, Blacksburg, Ya. (39). 1891. F 
Andrews, Prof. Launcelot W., Iowa Cltyi Iowa (89). 1891. O 
Anthony, Prof. Wm. A., Manchester, Conn. (28). 1880. B 
Antlsell, Thomas, M.D., 1311 Q St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (33). 1890. 

CE 
Arey, Albert L., Free Academy, Rochester, N. Y. (85). 

Arthur, J. C, La Fayette, Ind. (21). 1883. F 

Ashmead, Wm. H., 1833 M St., N. W., Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. P 
Atkinson, Edward, 31 Milk St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1881. 1 D 
Atkinson, George F., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (39). 1892. 
Atwater, Prof. W. O., Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, Conn. (29). 1882. C 
Atwell, Charles B., 1038 Sherman St., Evanston, 111. (36). 1890. F 
Auchincloss, Wm. S., 209 Church St., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 1886. D A 
Avery, Elroy M., Ph.D., Woodland Hills Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (37). 

1889. B 
Ayres, Prof. Brown, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, La. (31). 1885. B 

> See Article VI of the Constitution. * See Article IV of the Constitution. 

*0* Tbe number in parenthesis indicates the meeting at which the member joined 
the Association ; the date following is the year when made a Fellow ; tbe black letters 
at end of line are those of the sections to which the Fellow belongs. 

When the name is given in small capitals, it designates that the Fellow is also a 
Life Member, and is entitled to the Annual Volume of Proceedings. 



FELLOWS. Ixxi 

Babcock, S. Moalton, Madisan, Wis. (S3). 1885. O 

Bailey, E. H. S., Lawrence, Douglas Co., Kan. (25). 1889. C E 

Bailey, Prof. Liberty H., Ithaca, N. Y. (34). 1887. F 

Bailey, Prof. Lorinj? W., University of Frederlcton, N. B. (18). 1875. 

Bailey, Prof. W. W., Brown University; residence, 6 Gushing St., Prov 

idence, R. L (18). 1874. F 
Baker, Frank, M.D., 1315 Corcoran St., Washington, D. C. (31). 1886. 

FH 
Baker, Marcus, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (30). 

1882. A 

Baldwin, Judge Charles C, 1264 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (37). 

1891. H I 
Ballard, Harlan H., 50 South St., Pittsfleld, Mass. (31). 1891. E F 
Barkbr, Prop. G. F., 3909 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. (13). 1875. B O 
Barnard, Edward E., Lick Observ., San Jos4, Cal. (26). 1883. A 
Barnes, Prof. Chas. R., Madison, Wis. (33). 1885. F 
Bartlett, Prof. Edwin J., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (28). 

1883. C 

Bartlett, John R., Commander U. S. N., Lonsdale, R. I. (30). 1882. E B 
Barus, Carl, Ph.D., U. S. Geol. Surviey, Washington, D. C. (33). 1887. B 
Bassett, Homer F., Waterbury, Conn. (23). 1874. F 
Bates, Henry H., Ph.D., U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (33). 

1887. B A C D 
Battle, Herbert B., Ph.D., Director N. C. Agric. Exper. Station, Raleigh, 

N. C. (33). 1889. C 
Bauer, Louis A., U. S. C. and G. Sui^vey, Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. 

A 

Baur, George, Univ. of Chlcflgo, Chicago, 111. (36). 1889. 

Bansch, Edward, P. O. Drawer 1033, Rochester, N. Y. (26). 1883. A B 

C F 
Beal, Prof. Wm. James, Agricultural College, Ingham Co., Mich. (17). 

1880. F 
Beardsley, Prof. Arthur, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Del. Co., Pa. 

(33). 1886. D 
Beauchamp, Rev. Wm. M., Baldwinsville, N. Y. (34). 1886. H 
Becker, Dr. Geo. F., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (36). 1890. 

E 
Bell, Dr. Alex. Graham, Scott Circle, 1331 Connecticut Ave., Washing- 
ton, D. C. (26). 1879. B H I 
Bell, Alex. Melville, 1625 35th St., Washington, D. C. (31). 1885. H 
Bell, Robert, M.D., Ass't Director Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ontario, 

Can. (38). 1889. E F 
Beman, Wooster W., 19 So. 5th St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (34). 1886. A 
Benjamin, Marcus, care D. Appleton & Co., 1 Bond St., New York, N. Y. 

(27). 1887. C 
Benjamin, Rev. Raphael, M.A., 178 E. 70th St., New York, N. Y. (84). 

1887. F A B D E H I 



Izzii FKLLOW8. 

Bessey, Prof. Charles B., UniT. of Nebraska, LIdcoId, Neb. (21). 1880. 

F 
Bethane, Rev. C. J. S., Trinity College School, Pt. Hope, Ont., Can. (18). 

1875. F 
Beyer, Dr. Henry 0., U. S. N., U. S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. (81). 

1884. F 

Bickmore, Prof. Albert S., American Masenm of Natural History, 8th 

Ave. and 77th St., Central Park, New York, N. Y. (17). 1880. H 
BIgelow, Prof. Frank H., Naat. Almanac, Washington, D. C. (36). 1888. 

A 
Billings, John S., SnrgeonU. S. A., Surg. Generars Office, Washington, 

D. C. (82). 1888. F H 
BiXBY, Wm. H., Cap*t of Bng. U. S. A., Newport, R. I. (84). 1892. D 
Blackham, George £., M.D., Dunkirk, N. Y. (25). 1883. F 
Blake, Clarence J., M.D., 226 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (24). 

1877. B F 
Blake, Prof. Eli W., Brown Univ., Providence, R. I. (15). 1874. B 
Blake, Francis, Auburndale, Mass. (28). 1874. B A 
Blue, Archibald, Director of the Bureau of Mines, Toronto, Ontario, 

Can. (85). 1890. I 
Boardman, Mrs. William D., 88 Kenilworth St., Rozbury, Mass. (28). 

1885. E H 

Boas, Dr. Franz, Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. (36). 1888. H 
Boerner, Chas. G., Vevay, Switzerland Co., Ind. (29). 1886. ABE 
Bolton, Dr. H. Carrinoton, University Club, New York, N. Y. (17). 

1875. C 
Bond, Geo. M., care of The Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. (38). 

1885. D 

Bourke, John G., Capt. 3d Cavalry, U. S. A., War Dept., Washington, 

D. C. (38). 1885. H 
Bouv6, Thos. T., Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Boston, Mass. (1). 1875. E 
Bowditch, Prof. H. P., Jamaica Plain. Mass. (28). 1880. F B H 
Bowser, Prof. E. A., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (28). 1881. 
Brackett, Prof. C. F., College ofNew Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (19). 1875. B 
Brackett, Richard N., Associate Prof, of Chemistry, Clemson Agrlc. Col- 
lege, Fort Hill, S. C. (37). O B 
Bradford, Royal B., Commander U. S. N., care Navy Dept, Washington, 

1). C. (31). 1891. B D 
Branner, John C, Leland Stanford jr. Univ., Menlo Park, Cal. (34). 

1886. E F 

Brashear, Jno. A., Allegheny, Pa. (33). 1885. A B D 

Brewer, Prof. Wm. H., New Haven, Conn. (20). 1875. E F I 

Brewster, William, 61 Sparks St., Cambridge, Mass. (29). 1884. F 

Brlnton, D. G., M.D., Media. Pa. (33). 1885. H 

Britton, N. L., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (29). 1882. F E 

Broadhead, Garland Carr, University, Columbia, Mo. (27). 1879. E 

Brooks, Wm. R., Box 714, Geneva, N. Y. (85). 1886. A B D G 



FELLOWS. Izxiii 

Brown, Robert, care of Yale College Observatory, New Haven, Conn. 

(11). 1874. 
Brown, Mrs. Robert, New Haven, Conn. (17). 1874. 
Briihl, Gustav, cor. John and Hopkins Sts., CincinnaU, Ohio (28). 1886. 

H 
Brush, Charles F., Brush Electric Light Co., Cleveland, Ohio (36). 1886. B 
Brush, Pkop. George J., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (4). 1874. C B 
Buckhout, W. A., State College, Centre Co., Pa. (20). 1881. F 
Burgess, Dr. Thomas J. W., Med. Sup't, Protestant Hospital for the In- 
sane, Montreal, P.Q., Can. (38). 1889. P 
Burr, Prof. William H., 161 W. 74th St., New York, N. Y. (31). 1883. 
Burrill, Prof. T. J., Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, III. (29). 1882. F 
Butler, A. W., Brookville, Franklin Co., Ind. (30). 1886. F H 

Caldwell, Prof. Geo. C., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (23). 1876. O 
Calvin, Prof. Samuel, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (37). 1889. 

EF 
Campbell, Prof. Douglas H., Menlo Park, Cal. (34). 1888. F 
Canby, William M., 1101 Delaware Avenue, Wilmington, Del. (17). 

1878. F 
Carhart, Prof, Henry S., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (29). 

1881. B 

Carpenter, Louis G., Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Col. (32). 1889. 

A B 
Carpenter, Capt. W. L., U. S. A., Dunkirk, N. Y. (24). 1877. F E 
Carpmael, Charles, Director of Magnetic Observatory, Toronto, Ontario, 

Can. (31). 1883. B 
Carr, Lucien, Peabody Museum Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, 

Mass. (26). 1877. H 
Casey, Thomas L., Room 79, Army Building, 39 Whitehall St., New York 

N. Y. (38). 1892. F 
Chamberlain, Alexander F., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. (38). 1890. H 
Chamberlin, T. C, 6041 Madison Ave., Chicago, 111. (21). 1877. E B F H 
Chandler, Prof. C. F., School of Mines, Columbia Coll., East 49th St. 

cor. 4th Ave., New York, N. Y. (19). 1876. C 
Chandler, Prof. Charles Henry, Ripon, Wis. (28). 1883. A B 
Chandler, Seth C, jr., 16 Craigle St., Cambridge, Mass. (29). 1882. A 
Chandler, Prof. W. H., South Bethlehem, Pa. (19). 1874. C 
Chanute, O., 413 E. Huron St , Chicago, 111. (17). 1877. D I 
Chester, Prof. Albert H., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (29). 

1882. C F 

Chester, Prof. Fred'k D., Del. State Coll., Newark, Del. (33). 1887. E 
Chickering, Prof. J. W., jr., Deaf Mute College, Washington, D. C. (22). 

1877. FI 
Christie, Alexander Smyth, U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(39). 1891. ABD 
Chute, Horatio N., Ann Arbor, Mich. (34). 1889. BOA 



IXXIT FEIXOW8* 

Clapp, Miss Cornelia M., Mt. Holyoke Seminary, South Hadley, Mass. 

(31). 1883. P 
Clark, Alyan O., Cambridj^eport, Mass. (28). 1880. A B 
Clark, Prof. John £., 80 Trumbull St., New Haven, Conn. (17). 1875. A 
Clark, Wm. Bullock, Ph.D., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (37). 

1891. E 
Clarke, Prof. F. W., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (18). 

1874. O 
Claypole, Prof. Edw. W., 603 Buchtel Ave., Akron, Ohio (30). 1882. E F 
Clayton, H. Helm, Readville, Mass. (34). 1887. B 
Cloud, John W., 974 Rookery, Chicago, III. (28). 1886. A B D 
Coffin, Prof. Selden J., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (22). 1874. A I 
Cogswell, W. B., Syracuse, N. Y. (38). 1891. D 

Cole, Prof. Alfred D., Denlson Univ., Grunville, Ohio (39). 1891. B C 
CoUett, Prof. John, Indianapolis, Ind. (17). 1874. B 
Collin, Prof. Alonzo, Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa (21). 1891. 

BC 

CoUingwood, Francis, Elizabeth, N. J. (36). 1888. D 

Colvin, Yerplauck, Supt. K. Y. State Adirondack Survey, Albany, N. Y. 

(28). 1880. E 
Comstock, Prof. Geo. C, Washburn Observ., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, 

Wis. (84). 1887. A 
Comstock, J. Henry, 48 East Ave., Ithaca, $r. Y. (28). 1882. F 
Comstock, Milton L., 641 Academy St., Gulesbur^, III. (21). 1874. A 
Comstock, Prof. Theo. B., Director School of Mines, Univ. of Arizona, 

Tucson, Arizona (24). 1877. DEB 
Cook, Prof. A. J., Agricultural College, Mich. (24). 1880. P 
Cook, Chas. Sumner, Kvanston, 111. (36). 1889. B 
Cooley, Prof. Le Roy C, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (19). 1880. 

BC 
Cooley, Prof. Mortimer E., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. (33). 

1885. D 
Cope, Prof. Edward D., 2102 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. (17). 1875. F£ 
Corthell, Elmer L., *' The Temple," Chicago, 111. (34). 1886. D 
Coulter, Prof. John M.,Pres. Indiana Univ., Bloomlngton, Ind. (32). 1884. 

F 
Coulter, Prof. Stanley, La Fayette, Ind. (35). 1890. P 
Coville, Frederick v., Dept. of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (36). 1890. F 
Cox, Prof. Edward T., Gllsey House, New York,N. Y. (19). 1874. E 
Cox, Hon. Jacob D., Gllman Ave., Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati, Ohio (30). 

1881. F 
Coxe, Eckley B., Drlfton, Luzerne Co., Pa. (23). 1879. D E 
Cragin, Francis W., Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Col. (29). 1890. 

FBH 
CralghlU, Col. Wm. P., 9 Pleasant St., Baltimore, Md. (37). 1892. D 
Crampton, Chas. A., M.D., Office of Internal Revenue, Treasury Depart- 
ment, Washington, D.C. (36). 1887. C 



FELLOWS. IXXV 

Craiidall, Prof. A. R., Lexington, Ky. (29). 1883. E F 

Crawford, Prof. Morris B., Mlddletown, Conn. (30). 1889. B 

Crosby, Prof. Wm. O., Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 

(29). 1881. E 
Cross, Prof. Chas. R., Mass. Institute Technology, Boston, Mass. (29). 

1880. B 
Crozier, A. A., Ann Arbor, Mich. (36). 1891. F 

CuUn, Stewart, 127 South Front St., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). 1890. H 
Cuminings, John, Cummlngsvllle, Woburn, Mass. (18). 1890. P 
Cashing, Henry Piatt, 786 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio (33). 1888. E 

Ball, William H., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (18). 

1874. H P 
Dana, Edward Salisbury, New Haven, Conn. (23). 1876. B E 
Dana, Prof. James D., New Haven, Conn. (1). 1876. E 
Dancy, Frank B., A.B., Analytical and Consulting Chemist, Office and Lab- 
oratory, 133i FayettevUIe St., Raleigh, N. C. (33). 1890. O 
Davidson, Prof. Geo., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, San Francisco, 

Cal. (29). 1881. A B D 
Davis, Wm. Morris, Cambridge, Mass. (33). 1886. E B 
Dawson, Sir William, Principal McGlU College, Montreal, Can. (10). 

1876. E 
Day, David F., Buffalo, N. Y. (35). 1887. P 
Day, Fisk H., M.D., Wauwatosa, Wis. (20). 1874. E H P 
Dean, George W., P. O. Box 92, Fall River, Mjiss. (16). 1874. A 
Denton, Prof. James £., Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. (36). 1888. 

DBA 

Derby, Orville A., San Paulo, Brazil, S. A. (39). 1890. 

Dewey, Fred P., Ph.B., 621 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C. (30). 1886. 

CE 
Dlmmock, George, P. O. Box 16, Canoble Lake, N. H. (22). 1874. P 
Dodge, Charles R., 1336 Vermont Ave., Washington, D. C. (22). 1874. 
Dodge, Prof. James A., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (29). 

1884. C E 
Dodge, J. Richards, Washington, D. C. (31). 1884. I H 
Dolbear, A. Emerson, Tufts College, Mass. (20). 1880. B 
Doollttle, Prof. C. L., South Bethlehem, Pa. (26). 1885. A 
Dorsey, Rev. J. Owen, Box 79, Tacoma Park, D. C. (31). 1883. H 
Douglass, Andrew E., 63 Pine St., New York, N. Y. (31). 1885. H 
Dow, Capt. John M., 69 W. 71st St., New York, N. Y. (31). 1884. 

P H 
Draper, Dan'l, Ph.D., Director N. Y. Meteorological Observatory, Cen- 
tral Park, 64th St., Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (29). 1881. B D 
PA 
DroWn, Prof. Thos. M., Mass. Institute Technology, Boston, Mass. 

(29). 1881. O 
Du Bois, Prof. Aug. J., New Haven, Conn. (30). 1882. A B D 



IxZTi FELLOWS. 

Da Bois, Patterson, Ass't Editor S.S.T., 1031 Walnnt St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. (33). 1887. HOI 
Dadley, Charles B., Altoona, Pa. (28). 1882. O B D 
DuDLKY, Wm. L., Prof, of CheraUtry, Vanderbllt Univ., Nashyllle, Tenn. 

(28). 1881. O 
Dudley, Prof. Wm. R., Leland Stanford, Jr., Unl7.,^Palo Alto, Cal. (29). 

1888. P 
Damble, E. T., Austin, Texas (87). 1891. B 
Danham, Edw. K., 53 E. 30th St., New York, N. Y. (80). 1890. 
Dunnlngton, Prof. F. P., University Station, Charlottesville, Va. (26). 

1880. O 
Durand, Prof. W. F., Ph.D., Agricultural College, Mich. (37). 1890. B 
Dwight, Prof. William B., Vassar College, Ponghkeepsle, N. Y. (30). 

1882. E F 

Eastman, Prof. J. R., U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. (26). 

1879. A 
Eaton, Prof. D. O., 55 Pinespple St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (19). 1874. B B 
Eaton, Prof. James R., Liberty, Mo. (29). 1885. C B B 
Eddy, Prof. H. T., Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, Ind. (24). 1875. 

ABD 
Edison, Thos. A., Orange, N. J. (27). 1878. B 
Egleston, Prof. Thomas, 85 W. Washington Square, New York, N. Y. 

(27). 1879. CDB 
Elmbeck, William, U. S. C.and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (17). 1874. 

ABD 
Eldrld^e, Geo. H., care U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (87). 

1890. B 
Elkln, William L.. Yale Coll. Observ., New Haven, Conn. (83). 1885. A 
Ely, Theo. N., Sup*t Motive Power, Penn. R. R., Altoona, Pa. (29). 1886. 
Emerson, Prof. Benjamin K., Amherst, Mans. (19). 1877. B F 
Emerson, Prof C. F., Box 499, Hanover, N. H. ''22). 1874. B A 
Emery, Albert H., Stamford, Conn. (29). 1884. D B 
Emery, Charle8E.,Bennett Building, New York, N. Y. (84). 1886. DBA 
Emmons, S. F., XJ. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (26). 1879. B 
Engelmann, George J., M.D., 8003 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. (25). 

1876. F H 
Ernst, Carl W., Room 76, Post Office, Boston, Mass. (23). 1874. I H 
Evermann, Prof. Barton W., U. S. Fish Commission, Washington, D. C. 

(89). 1891. 
Eyerman, John, ''Oakhurst," Easton, Pa. (33). 1889. B C 

Fairbanks, Henry, Ph.D., St. Johnsbury, Vt. (14). 1874. B D A 
Falrchild, Prof. H. L., University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (28). 

1883. BF 

Fanning, John T., Consulting Eng., Kasota Block, Minneapolis, Minn. 
(29). 18<85. D 



FELLOWS* IxXVii 

Fargis, Rev. Geo. A., Georgetown College, Georgetown, D. C. (40). 1892. 
Farlow, Dr. W. G., 29 Holyoke House, Cambridge, Mass. (20). 1875. F 
Farmer, Moses G., Eliot, Me. (9). 1875. 
Farquhar, Henry, Coast Survey Office, Washington, D. C. (33). 1886. A I 

FB 
Fernald, Prof. M. C, State Agric. College, Orono, Me. (22). 1883. B A 
Fernow, Bernhard E., Chief of Forestry Division, Dep*t of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C. (31). 1887. F I 
Firmstone, F., Easton, Pa. (33). 1887. D 
Fiske, Thos. S., A.M., Ph.D., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (38). 

1891. A 
Fitch, Edward H., Jefferson, Ashtabula Co., Ohio (11). 1874. I E 
Fletcher, Miss Alice C, care Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (29). 

1883. H 
Fletcher, James, Dominion Entomologist, Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 

Ontario, Can. (31). 1883. F 
Fletcher, Dr. Kobert, Army Medlcal^Museum, Washington, D. C. (29). 

1881. FH 
Flint, Albert S., Washburn Observ., Madison, Wis. (30). 1887. A 
Flint, James M., Surgeon U. S. N., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 

D. C. (28). 1882. F 
Foote, Dr. A. E., 4116 Elm Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. (21). 1874. E O 
Forbes, Prof. S. A., Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, 111. (27). 1879. F 
Fox, Oscar C, U. S. Patent Office, Washington, D. C. (30). 1891. B D 
Foye, Prof. J. C, Lawrence Univ., Appleton, Wis. (29). 1884. O B 
Franklin, William S., Ames, Iowa (36). 1892. 
Frazbr, Dr. Pkksifor, Drexel Building, Room 1042, Philadelphia, Pa. (24). 

1879. EC 
Frazier, Prof. B. W., The Lehigh University, So. Bethlehem, Pa. (24). 

1882. E C 
Frear, Wm., State College, Centre Co., Pa. (33). 1886. C 
Freer, Prof. Paul C, Ann Arbor, Mich. (39). 1891. O 
French, Prof. Thomas, jr., Ridge way Ave., Avondale, Cincinnati, Ohio 

(30). 1883. B 

Frlsby, Prof. Edgar, U. S. N. Observ., Washington, D. C. (28). 1880. A 
Frost, Edwin Brant, Hanover, N. H. (38). 1890. A B 
Fuller, Andrew S., Rldgewood, Bergen Co., N. J. (24). 1882. F 
Fuller, Prof. Homer T., Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, Mass. (35). 1891. 
CE 

Gaffield, Thomas, 64 Allen St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1889. O B 

Gage, Simon Henry, Ithaca, N. Y. (28). 1881. F 

Galbraith, Prof. John, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (38). 1889. 

Galloway, B. T., Dep't of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (37). 1890 

F 
Gannett, Henry, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (33). 1884 

E I A 



IxXViil FELLOWS. 

Gardiner, Dr. Edward G., Massachasetts Institute Technology, Boston, 

Mass. (29). 1890. F 
Garland, Rev. Dr. L. C, Chancellor Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

Tenn. (26). 1877. B 
Garman, Samuel, Museum Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. (20}. 

1874. F E 
Gatschet, Dr. Albert 8., Box 833, Washington, D. C. (30). 1882. H 
Gibbs, Prof, J. Willard. New Haven, Conn. (83). 1885. B 
Gilbert, G. K., U. 8. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (18). 1874. 

E 
Gill, Prof. Theo., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. (17). 1874. P 
Gllman, Daniel C, President Johns Hopkius University, Baltimore, Md. 

(10). 1875. E H 
Goessman, Prof. C. A., Mass. Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. (18). 

1876. C 
Goff, E. S., 1113 University Ave., Madison, Wis. (86). 1889. 
Gold, Theodore 8., West Cornwall, Conn. (4). 1887. B O 
Goldschmidt, S. A., Ph.D., 43 Sedgwick St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (24). 1880. O 

EB 
Goldsmith, Edw., 658 No. 10th St., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 1892. O B 
Gooch, Frank A., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (25). 1880. C 
Goodale, Prof. G. L., Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, Muss. (18). 1875. 
Goode, G. Brown, Curator Nat*l Museum, Washington, D. C. (22). 1874. 
Goodfellow, Edward, Ass't U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 

D. C. (24). 1879. A H 
Gould, Dr. B. A., Cambridge, Mass. (2). 1875. AB 
Grant, Mrs. Mary J., Brooktield, Conn. (23). 1874. A 
Gratacap, L. P., Ph.B., 77th St. and 8th Ave., New York, N. Y. (27). 1884. 

O E F 
Gray, Ellsha, Sc.D., Highland Park, 111. (32). 1883. B 
Gray, Prof. Thomas, Terre Haute, Ind. (38). 1889. 
Green, Arthur L., La Fayette, Ind. (33). 1888. O 
Green, Traill, M.D., Easton, Pa. (1). 1874. C F 
Griffith, Ezra 11., 6666 Washington Ave., Chicago, 111. (39). 1892. 

BF 
Grimes, J. Stanley, No. 1, Tribune Building, Chicago, 111. (17). 1874. B H 
Grinnell, George Bird, 40 Park Row, New York, N. Y. (26). 1886. F E 
Gulley, Prof. Frank A., College Station, Texas (30). 1883. 

Hague, Arnold, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (26). 1879. 
Haines, Reuben, Hnines and Chew St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(27). 1889. C B 
Hale, Albert C, Ph.D., No. 661 Putnam Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (29). 1886. 

C B 
Hale, Geo. E., Director of the Observatory, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 

III. C87). 1891. ABC 
Hale, Horatio, Clinton, Ontario, Can. (30). 1882. H 



FELLOWS. Ixxix 

Hall, Prof. Asaph, 2715 N St., Georgetown, D. C. (25). 1877. A 
Hall, Asaph, jr., Univ. of Mich , Ann Arbor, Mich. (38). 1890. A 
Hall, Prof. C. W., 808 Univ. Ave. So., Minneapolis, Minn. (28). 1888. E 
Hall, Prof. Edwin H., 5 Avon St., Cambridge, Mass. (29). 1881. B 
Hall, Prof. Lyman B., Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. (31). 1884. O 
Hallowell, Miss Susan M.,Wellesley Coll., Wellesley, Mass. (33). 1890. P 
Halated, Byron D., New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, New 

Brunswick, N. J. (29). 1883. P 
Hambach, Dr. G., 1319 Lami St., St. Louis, Mo. (26). 1891. PB 
Hamlin, Dr. A. C, Bangor, Me. (10). 1874. G E H 
Hanaman, C. E., Troy, N. Y. (19). 1883. P 

Hardy, Prof. A. S., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (28). 1883. A 
Har^itt, Prof. Charles W., Syracuse, N. Y. (88). 1891. P 
Harknkbs, Puof. William, U. S. N. Observatory, Washington, D. C. 

(26). 1878. A B C D 
Harrington, H. H., College Station, Texas (36). 1889. C 
Harris, Uriah R., Lieutenant U. S. N., U. S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md. 

(34). 1886. A 
Harris, W. T., Lock Box 1, Concord, Mass. (27). 1887. H I 
Hart, Edw., Ph.D., Easton, Pa. (38). 1886. C 

Hasbrouck, Prof. I. E., 364 Carlton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. (23). 1874. DAI 
Hastings, C. S., Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College, New Haven, 

Conn. (25). 1878. B 
Haupt, Prof. Lewis M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(32). 1885. IDE 
Haworth, Prof. Erasmus, Pennsylvania College, Oskaloosa, Iowa (87). 

1890. B 
Hay, Prof. O. P., Irvington, Ind. (37). 1889. B P 
Haynes, Henry W., 239 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. (28). 1884. H 
Heal, Wm. E., Marlon, Ind. (39). 1891. A 

Heitzumiin, Dr. Charles, 39 W. 4oth St., New York, N. Y. (36). 1890. 
Hendricks, J. E., 1400 Court Ave., Des Moines, Iowa (29). 1885. A 
Henshaw, Henry W., Bureau of Ethnology, Washibgton, D. C. (24). 

1877. H 
Hering, Rudolph, Civil and Sanitary Engineer, 277 Pearl St., New York, 

N. Y. (S3). 1885. DEI 
Herrick, Clarence L., 12 Mason St., Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati, Ohio (31). 

1884. F £ 
Hervey, Rev. A. B., President St. Lawrence University, Canton, N.Y. (22). 

1879. P 
Hicks, l*rof. Lewis E., State University, Lincoln, Neb. (31). 1886. E P 
Hilgard, Prof. E. W., University of California, Berkeley, Cal. (11). 

1874. C E B 
Hill, Robert Thomas, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (86). 1889. 

E 
Himes, Prof. Charles F., Carlisle, Pa. (29). 1882. B C 
Hinrichs, Dr. Gustavus, 3132 Lafayette Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (17). 1874. 



IzXXii FBLL0W8. 

LaFlesche, Francis, Indian Boreao, Interior Dep't, Washington, D. C. 

(S3). 1886. H 
Landretb, Prof OUn H., Vanderbitt Univ., Nashyllle, Tenn. (28). 188S. 

D 
Langdon, Dr. F. W., 65 West 7th St., Cincinnati, Ohio (80). 1882. F H 
Langley, Prof. J. W., 136 First Ave., PItUburgh, Pa. (23). 1876. C B 
Langley, Prof. S. P., Secretary Smithsonian Instltntlon, Washington, 

D. C. (18). 1874. A B 
Lanza, Prof. Oaetano, Mass. Instltote of Technology, Boston, Mass. (29). 

1882. DAB 
Larkin, Edgar L., Director Knox College Observatory, Oalesbnrg, III. 

(28). 1888. A 
Lattimore, Prof. S. A., University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. (15). 

1874. O 
Landy, Louis H., Ph.D., School of Mines, Colombia College, New Yoik, 

N. Y. (28). 1890. O 
Lawrence, George N., 45 E. 21st St., New York, N. Y. (7). 1877. P 
Lazenby, Prof. Wm. R., Colnmbas, Ohio (80). 1882. B I 
Leavenworth, FrancU P., Haverford College P. O., Montgomery Co., Pa. 

(80). 1888. A 
LeConte, Prof. Joseph, Univ. of Cal., Berkeley, Cal. (29). 1881. E F 
Ledoux, Albert R., Ph.D., 9 Cliff St., New York, N. Y. (26). 1881. C 
Leeds, Prof. Albert R., Stevens lustltnte, Hoboken, N. J. (23). 1874. 

OP 
Lehmann, G. W., Ph.D., 412 East Lombard St., Baltimore, Md. (30). 1885. 

CB 
Lesley, Prof. J. Peter, State Geologist of Pennsylvania, 1008 Clinton St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. (2). 1874. E 
Leverett, Frank, Denmark, Iowa (37). 1891. E 
Libbey, Prof. William, Jr., Princeton, N. J. (29). 1887. E F 
Lilly, Gkn. Wm., Mauch Chunk, Carbon Co., Pa. (28). 1882. (Patron) 

FE 
Lindahl, Josna, Ph.D., State Geologist, Springfield, III. (40). 1892. F E 
Liiidenthal, Gustav, C.E., 46 Cedar St., New York, N. Y. (87). 1891. J 
Lintner, J. A., N. Y. State Entomologist, Room 27, Capitol, Albany, N. Y. 

(22). 1874. F 
Lloyd, John Url, Pharmaceutical Chemist, Court and Plum Sts., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio (38). 1890. C F 
Lloyd, Mrs. Rachel, Box 675, Lincoln, Neb. (31). 1889. O 
Lockwood, Samuel, Ph.D., Freehold, Monmouth Co., N. J. (18). 1875. F 

B A 
Locy, Prof. Wm. A., Lake Forest, 111. (34). 1890. F 
Loeb, Morris, Ph.D., 37 E. 38th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 1889. O 
Lord, Prof. Nat. W., State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (29). 1881. O 
Loud, Prof. Frank H., 1203 N. Tejon St., Colorado Springs, Col. (29). 

AB 
Loudon, Prof. James, Toronto, Ontario, Can. (25). 1881. B A 



FELLOWS. Ixxxiil 

Loughridge, Dr. R. H., Ass*t Prof. Agric. Chem. and Agrlc. Geol., XJnlv. 

of California, Berkeley, CaL (21). 1874. EC 
Love, Edward G., 69 E. 54th St., New York, N. Y. (24). 1882. O 
Low, Seth, Pres. Columbia ColL, New York, N. Y. (29). 1890. 
Lupton, Prof. N. T., Auburn, Lee Co., Ala. (17). 1874. O 
Lyon, Dr. Henry, 34 Monument Sq., Ctiarlestown, Mass. (18). 1874. 

McAdie, Alexander George, U. S, Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

(40). 1892, B 
McBride, Prof. Thomas H., Iowa City, Iowa (38). 1890. P 
McCauley, Capt. C. A. H., Ass't Q. M., U. S. A., 321 Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago, 111. (29). 1881. 
McCreath, Andrew S., 223 Market St., Harrisburg, Pa. (33). 1889. CE 
McGee, W J, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (27). 1882. E 
McGlU, John T., Ph.D., VanderbiltUniv., Nashville, Tenn. (36). 1888. 

O 

McGregory, Prof. J. F., Colgate Univ., Hamilton, N. Y. (36). 1892. 

McGuire, Joseph D., Ellicott City, Md. (30). 1891. H 

McMahon, James, Ithaca, N. Y. (36). 1891. A 

McMurtrie, William, 106 Wall St., New York, N. Y. (22). 1874. O 

McNeill, Malcolm, Lake Forest, 111. (32). 1885. A 

McRae, Austin Lee, RoUa, Mo. (39). 1891. B 

Mabery, Prof. C. F., Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

(29). 1881. C 
Macfarlane, Prof. A., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas (34). 1886. B A 
Macloskle, Prof. George, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (26). 

1882. P 
Magie, Prof. William F., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (36). 

1887. 
Mallery, Col. Garrick, U. S. Army, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 

D. C. (26). 1879. H 
MiiNN, B. PiCKMArN, 1918 Sunderland Place, Washington, D. C. (22). 

1874. I P 
Marcy, Oliver, LL.D., Evanston, 111. (10). 1874. E 
Marsh, Prof. O. C, Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (16). 1874. P H 
Martin, Artemas, U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. C. (38). 1890. 

A 
Martin, Prof. Daniel S., 286 West 4th St., New York, N. Y. (23). 1879. 

E P 
Martin, Prof. H. Newell, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. (27). 

1880. P H 
Martin, Miss LUlle J., Girls' High School, San Francisco, Cal. (32). 1886. 

P C 
Martin,-Prof. Wm. J., Davidson College, N. C. (31). 1884. O E 
Martindale, Isaac C, Camden, N. J. (26). 1890. F 
Marvin, C. F., Signal Office, Washington, D. C. (39). 1892. B 
Mason, Prof. Otis T., Natl Museum, Washington, D. C. (26). 1877. H 



IxZZiT FBLL0W8. 

Mason, Dr. William P., Prof. Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, N. T. 

(81). 1886. O 
Matthews, Dr. Washington, 1262 New Hampshire Ave,, cor. 21st St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C. (87). 1888. H 
Maxwell, Rev. Geo. M., Wyoming, Hamilton Co., Ohio (80). 1886. H E 
Mayer, Prof. A. M., Stevens Inst, of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. (19). 

1874. 
Meehan, Thomas, Germantown, Pa. (17). 1875 F 
Mees, Prof. Carl Leo, Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Hante, Ind. (24). 

1876. B O 
Mendenhall, Prof. T. C, U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (20). 

1874. B 
Menocul, Aniclto G., C.E., U. S. N., Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. (36). 

1888. D 
Merrill, Frederick J. H., Ph.B., Ass*t Director, New York State Musenm, 

Albany, N. Y. (86). 1887. E 
Merriman, C. C, 1910 Snrf St., Lake View, Chicago, 111. (29). 1880. F 
Merriman, Prof. Mansfield, So. Bethlehem, Pa. (82). 1885. A D 
Merritt, Ernest, Ithaca, N. Y. (83). 1890. 

Metz, Charles L., M.D., Madisonvllle, Hamilton Co., Ohio (80). 1885. H 
Michael, Mrs. Helen Abbott, Torwood, Boncharch, Isle of Wight, Eng- 
land (88). 1885. C F 
Mlchelson, A. A., Master U. S. N., 7 Rockwell St., Cleveland, Ohio (26). 

1879. B 
liflles, Prof. Manly, Lansing, Mich. (29). 1890. F 
Mills, Wesley, Montreal, P. Q., Can. (81). 1886. F H 
Mlllspaagh, C. F., M.D., Morgantown, W. Va. (40). 1892. P 
Minot, Dr. Charles Sedgwick, Harvard Medical Sthool, Back Bay, Bos- 
ton, Mass. (28). 1880. F 
Mlhot, Francis, M.D., 65 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1884. 
MIxter, Prof. Wra. G., New Haven, Conn. (30). 1882. C 
Moody, Robert O., Fair Haven Heights, New Haven, Conn. (35). 1892. F 
Mooney, James, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. (88). 1890. H 
Moore, Ellaklm Hastings, 5311 Washington Ave., Chicago, 111. (39). 1891. 

A 
Moore, Prof. J. W., M.D., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (22). 1874. B 

D A 
Moore, Veranus A., M.D., Bureau of Animal Industry, Dept. of Agrlc, 

Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. P 
Moorehead, Warren K., Xenia, Ohio (38). 1890. H 
Morley, Prof. Edward W., 23 Cutler St., Cleveland, Ohio (18). 1876. 

C B E 
Morong, Rev. Thomas, Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (86). 1887. F 
Morse, Prof. E. S., Salem, Mass. (18). 1874. F H 
Morton, H., Stevens Institute Technology, Hoboken, N. J. (18). 1875. 

BG 
Moser, Lieut. Jeflf. F., U. S.N., Slating ton, Lehigh Co., Pa. (28). 1889. £ 



FELLOWS. IXXXV 

Moses, Prof. Thomas F., Urbana University, Urbana, Ohio (26). 1883. 

H P 
Manroe, Prof. C. E., Columbian Univ., Washington. D. C. 1874. O 
Murdoch, John, Rock, Plymouth Co., Mass. (29). 1886. F H 
Murtfeldt, Miss Mary E., Kirkwood, Mo. (27). 1881. P 
Myers, John A., Agrlc. Exper. Station, Morgantown, W. Va. (30). 1889. O 

Nason, Frank L., 5 Union St., New Brunswick, N. J. (36). 1888. E 
Nason, Prof. H. B., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. (13). 

1874. C E 
Nef, J. U., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. (39). 1891. O 
Nelson, Prof. A. B., Centre College, Danville, Ky. (30). 1882. ABB 
Newberry, Prof. J. S., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (6). 1876. 

E F H I 
Newberry, Prof. Spencer Baird, Ithaca, N. Y. (33). 1887. O 
Newcomb, Prof. S., Navy Dep't, Washington, D. C. (13). 1874. A B 
Newton, Hubert A., New Haven, Conn. (6). 1874. A 
Nichols, E.L., Ph.D., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (28). 1881. B C 
Nicholson, Prof. H. H., Box 676, Lincoln, Neb. (36). 1888. 
Nlles, Prof. W. H., Cambridge, Mass. (16). 1874. 
Nlpher, Prof. F. E., Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. (24). 1876. B 
Nolan, Edw. J., M.D., Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(29). 1890. F 
Norton, Lewis M., Ph.D., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

(29). 1884. C 
Norton, Pkop. Thomas H., Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (36). 

1887. O 
Novy, Dr. Frederick G., University of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. (36). 1889. 

C 
Noyes, Prof. Wm. A., Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, Ind. (32). 

1885. C 
Nuttall, Mrs. Zella, care Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (35). 1887. 

H 
Nutting, Prof. Charles C, State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (40). 

1892. F 

Ogden, Herbert G.,U. S. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (38). 1891. 

E 
Oliver, Charles A., M.D., 1607 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 1886. 

FHB 

Oliver, Prof. James E., 7 Central Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. (7). 1875. A B I 
Ordway, Prof. John M., Tulane University, New Orleans, La. (9). 1876. 

C 
Orton, Prof. Edward, President Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, 

Columbus, Ohio (19). 1875. E 
Osbom, Henry F., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (29). 1888. 



IzZZVi VBLLOWS* 

Osborn, Herbert, Ames, Iowa (89). 1884. 7 

Osmond, Prof. I. Thornton, State College, Centre Co., Fa. (9S), 1889. 
BAG 

Packard, Dr. A. S., 116 AngcU St., ProTidence, R. I. (16). 1875. F S 
Paine, Cyms P., 805 Ellwanger & Barry Ballding, Rochester, N. T. (12). 

1874. B A 

Paine, Nathaniel, Worcester, Mass. (18). 1874. H 

Palfhiy, Hon. Charles W., Salem, Mass. (21). 1874. 

Palmer, Chase, Ph.D., Missoari School of Mines, Rolla, Mo. (38). 1889. 

O 
Pammel, Prof. L. H., Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa (d9). 1892. 
Parke, John O., Gen. U. S. A., 16 Lafayette Square, Washington, D. C. 

(29). 1881. D 
Pabkhurst, Henry M., 178 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. T. (23). 1874. A 
Patrick, Geo. £., Ames, Iowa (36). 1890. O 
Patterson, Harry J., College Park, Prince George's Co., Md. (36). 1890. 

C 

Paul, Prof. Henry M., U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. (33). 

1885. A B 
Peabody, Seltm H., 608 Rand McNally Building, Chicago, lU. (17). 1885. 

DBF 
Pedrick, Wm. R., Lawrence, Mass. (22). 1875. 

Penrose, Dr. R. A. F., 1331 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. (38). 1890. B 
Perkins, Prof. George H., Burlington, Vt. (17). 1882. H F S 
Peter, Alfred M., 171 Rose St., Lexington, Ky. (29). 1890. C 
Peter, Dr. Robert, Kentucky Geol. Survey, Lexington, Ky. (29). 1881. C 
Peters, Edw. T., P. O. Box 265, Washington, D. C. (33). 1889. I 
Pettee, Prof. William H., 52 Thompson St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (24). 1875. 

E 

Phillips, Prof. A. W., New Haven, Conn. (24). 1879. 

Phillips, Prof. Francis C, 59 Sherman Ave., Allegheny, Pa. (36). 1889. C 

Phillips, Henry, Jr., 1811 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (32). 1887. H I 

Phlppen, Geo. D., Salem, Mass. (18). 1874. F 

Pickering, Prof. E. C, Director of Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (18), 

1875. A B 

Pining, James C, Box 591, Washington, D. C. (28). 1882. F H I 
PlUsbury, Prof. John H., Smith College, Northampton, Mass. (28). 1885. 

• FH 
Piatt, Franklin, Ass't Geologist, 2nd Geol. Survey of Pa., 1319 Walnut St. , 

Philadelphia, Pa. (27). 1882. E 
Plumb, Charles S., Purdue Univ., La Fayette, Ind. (86). 1890. 
Pohlman, Dr. Julius, Buffalo, N. T. (32). 1884. E F 
Porter, Thos. C, LL.D., Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. (33). 1887. F 
Potter, William B., Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. (26). 1879. 
Powell, Major J. W., U. S. Geologist, 910 M St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

(23). 1875. EH 



FSLL0W8. IxXXVii 

Power, Prof. Frederick B., 223 Gregory Ave., Passaic, N. J. (31). 1887. O 
Prentiss, Prof. A. N., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (86). 1887. F 
Prentiss, D. Webster, M.D., 1101 14th St. N- W., Washington, D. C. (29). 

1882. F 
Prentiss, Robert W., Prof, of Mathematics and Astronomy, Rutgers Col- 
lege, Nev7 Brunswiclc, N. J. (40). 1891. A 
Prescott, Prof. Albert B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (28). 1876. 
Preston, E. D., Ass't U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. 

r37). 1889. A E 
Prltchett, Henry S., Director Observatory Washington University, St. 

Louis, Mo. (29). 1881. A 
Prosser, Charles S., Prof, of Geology, Washburn College, Topeka, Kan. 

(33). 1891. EF 
Pulslfer, Wm. H., Newton Centre, Mass. (26). 1879. A H 
Pumpelly, Prof. Raphael, U. S. Geological Survey, Newport, R. I. (17). 

1876. E I 
Putnam, Prof. F. W., Curator Peabody Museum American ArchsBology and 

Ethnology, Cambridge, Mass. (Address as Permanent Secretary 

A. A. A. S., Salem, Mass.) (10). 1874. H 
Pynchon, Rev. T. R., Trinity Coll., Hartford, Conn. (28). 1876. 



Quincy, Edmund, 88 Clinton St., Boston, Mass. (11). 1874. 

Rathbun, Richard, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. 

F 
Ran, Eugene A., Bethlehem, Pa. (33). 1890. F 
Ranch, Dr. John H., Springfield, 111. (11). 1876. 
Raymond, Rosslter W., 17 Burling Slip, New York, N. Y. (16). 1876. 

EI 
Redfleld, J. H., 216 W. Logan Square, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). 1874. F 
Rees, Prof. John K., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (26). 1878. A 

EB 
Reese, Charles L., 1801 Linden Ave., Baltimore, Md. (39). 1892. C 
Reese, Jacob, 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 1891. D B 
Remsen, Prof. Ira, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (22). 1876. C 
Rice, John M., Northborough, Mass. (26). 1881. A D 
Rice, Prof. Wm. North, Wesleyan University, Mlddletown, Conn. (18). 

1874. E F 
Richards, Prof. Charles B., 137 Edwards St., New Haven, Conn. (33). 

1886. D 
Richards, Edgar, 113 E. 80 St., New York, N. Y. (81). 1886. C 
Richards, Prof. Robert H., Mass. Inst. Tech., Back Bay, Boston, Mass. 

(22). 1876. D 
Richards, Mrs. Robert H., Prof. Mass. Inst, of Tech., Back Bay, Boston, 

Mass. (23). 1878. C 



IxXXVlii F£LLOVr8. 

BichardBOD, ClUTordf Office of the Ensineer Commissioner, Washlng^u, 

D. C. (80). 1884. O 
Rfcketu, Prof. Palmer C, 17 1st St., Troy, N. Y. (»3). 1887. D A 
Ricketts, Prof. Pierre de Peyster, 104 John St., New York, N. Y. (26). 

1880. CDS 
RiLBY, Prof. C. V., U. 8. Entomolos^ist, U. S. National Maseam, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (17). 1874. F H I 
Rlsteen, Allen D., Hartford, Conn. (38). 1890. A B D 
Ritchie, E. S., Newton Highlands, Mass. (10). 1877. B 
Roberts, Prof. Isaac P., Ithaca, N. Y. (83). 1886. I 
Robinson, Prof. Franklin C, Bowdoln College, Bmnswick, Me. (29). 

1889. C D 
Robinson, Prof. S. W., 1358 Highland St., Colambas, Ohio (30). 1883. 

DBA 
Rockwell, Gen. Alfred P., Manchester, Mass. (10). 1882. S 
Rockwell, Chas. H., Box 293, Tarrytown, N. Y. (28). 1883. A D 
Rock wood. Prof. Charles 6., Jr., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. 

(20). 1874. A S B D 
Rogers, Falrman, Newport, R. I. (11). 1874. 

Rogers, Prof. W. A., Colby Univ., WatervIUe, Me. (16). 1875. A B D 
Rominger, Dr. Carl, Ann Arbor, Mich. (21). 1879. £ 
Rood, Prof. O. N., Columbia College, New York, N. Y. (14). 1876. B 
Ross, Waldo O., 1 Chestnut St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1882. 
Rowhind, Prof. Henry A., Baltimore, Md. (29). 1880. B 
Ruukle, Prof. J. D., Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. (2). 

1876. AD 
Rusby, Heni-y H., M.D., College of Pharmacy, 211 £. 23d St., New York, 

N. Y. (36). 1890. F 
Russell, I. C, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (25). 1882. E 
Ryan, Harris J., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (38). 1890. B 

Sadtler, Sam'l P., Ph.D., 1042 Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (22). 

1876. O 
Saegmuller, 6. N., 132 Maryland Ave., S. W., Washington, D. C. (38). 

1891. A B 
Safford, Dr. James M., Nashville, Tenn. (6). 1876. EOF 
Safford, Prof. Truman H., Wllllamstown, Mass. (41). 1892. A 
Salisbury, Prof. R. D., Chicago Univ., Chicago, 111. (37). 1890. B B 
Salmon, Daniel E., Dep't of Agric, Washington, D. C. (31). 1886. F 
Saunders, William, Director Canadian Experimental Farms, Ottawa, 

Ontario, Can. (17). 1874. F 
ScHAEBERLE, J. M., Astronomcr in the Lick Observatory, San Jos6, CaL 

(34). 1886. A 
Schanck, Prof. J. Stlllwell, Princeton, New Jersey (4). 1882. B H 
Schott, Charles A., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, 

D. C. (8). 1874. A 



FELLOWS. IxXXix 

Schweinitz, Dr. E, A. de, Dep't of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (36). 
1889. C 

Schweitzer, Prof. Paul, State University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (24) . 
1877. B 

Scovell, M. A., Director Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lex- 
ington, Ky. (86). 1887. 

Scribner, F. Lamson, Director Tenn. Agricultural Exper. Station, Knox- 
ville, Tenn. (34). 1887. F 

ScuDDKR, Samuel H., Cambridge, Mass. (13). 1874. F 

Seaman, W. H., Chemist, 1424 11th St. N. W., Washington, D. C. (23). 
1874. O P 

Searle, Prof. Geo. M., Catholic Univ., Washington, D. C. (39). 1891. A 

See, Horace, 1 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (34). 1886. D 

Seller, Carl, M.D., 1346 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). 1882. P B 

Seymour, Arthur Bliss, Cambridge, Mass. (36). 1890. P 

Seymour, William P., M.D., 106 Third St., Troy, N. Y. (19). 1888. H 

Sharpies, Stephen P., 18 Broad St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1884. C 

Shimer, Porter W., E.M., Easton, Pa. (38). 1889. O 

Shufeldt, Dr. K. W., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (40), 
1892. P 

Shutt, Frank T., M.A., F.E.C., F.C.S., Chief Chemist Canadian Experi- 
mental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Can. (38). 1889. C 

Sias, Solomon, M.D., Schoharie, Schoharie Co., N. Y. (10). 1874. 

Sigsbee, Chas. D., Comd'r U. S. N., U. S. Naval Acad., Annapolis, Md, 
(28). 1882. DE 

Silliman, Prof. Justus M., Lafayette Coll., Easton, Pa. (19). 1874. D B 

Sim onds. Prof. Frederic W., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas (26). 1888 
EP 

Skinner, Joseph J., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, Boston, Mass. (23). 
1880. B 

Smiley, Charles W., U. S. Fish Commission, Washington, D. C. (28). 
1883. I 

Smith, Alex., Ph.D., Wabash College, CrawfordsviUe, Ind. (40). 1892. 

O 

Smith, Prof. Chas. J., 36 Adelbert St., Cleveland, Ohio (32). 1886. A B 
Smith, Prof. Edgar F., Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 1891. O 
Smith, Edwin, Ass't U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. 

(30). 1882. A B 
Smith,. Prof. Erastus G., Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. (34). 1887. O 
Smith, Erwin F., Dep't of Agric, Washington, D. C. (34). 1890. P 
Smith, Prof. Eugene A., University, Ala. (20). 1877. BO 
Smith, John B., Professor of Entomology, Rutgers College, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. (32). 1884. P 
Smith, Quintius C, M.D., No. 617 Colo. St., Austin, Texas (26). 1881. 

P 
Smith, Dr. Theobald, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Dep't of Agric, 
Washington, D. C. (36). 1887. P 



so rBux>ift. 

Smock, Prof. John Cono^er* Trenton, N. J. (S3). 1879. X 
Snow, Prof. F. H., Lawrence, Kan. (29)'. 1881. F K 
Snow, Prof. BenJ. W., Bloom In^ton, Ind. (85). 1889. B 
Snyder, Henry. B.Sc., Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (80). 1888. B C 
Snyder, Prof. Monroe B., High School Obsenratoiy, Philadelphia, Pa. (24). 

1882. AB 
SoQle, R. H., Roanoke, Va. (88). 1886. D 
Spalding, Volney M., Ann Arbor, Mich. (84). 1886. F 
Spencer, Gull ford L., Department Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (S6). 

1889. O D 
Spencer, Prof. J. William, 7 Church St., AtlanU, Oa. (28). 1882. B 
Spencer, John W., Pax ton, Sullivan Co., Iiid. (20). 1874. 
Springer, Dr. Alfkred, Box 621, Cincinnati, Ohio (24). 1880. C 
Staley, Cady, LL.D., Pres. Case School of Applied Sciences, Clereland, 

Ohio (87). 1888. D 
Starr, Frederick, Ph.D., Prof. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, III. (36). 1892. 

HB 
Stearns, R. E. C, care Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (18). 

1874. F 
Stedman, Prof. John M., Trinity Univ., Durham, N. C. (40). 1892. F 
Steere, Prof. Jos. B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (34). 1890. F H 
Stkfhbns, W. Hudson, Lowvllle, N. T. (18). 1874. B H 
Sternberg, Col. George M., Surgeon U. S. A., Army Building, 39 White- 
hall St., New York, N. Y. (24). 1880. F 
Stevens, Prof. W. LeConte, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troj, N. Y. 

(29). 1882. B A C 
Stevenson, Prof. John J., Univ. of New York, New York, N. Y. (86). 1888. 
Stockwell, John N., 1008 Case Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio (18). 1875. A 
Stoddard, Prof. John T., Smith College, Northampton, Mass. (85). 1889. 

BC 

Stokes, Henry Newlln, Ph.D., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, UL (38). 1891. 

CB 
Stone, Ormond, Director Leander McCormick Observatory, University of 

Virginia, Va. (24). 1876. A 
Stone, Prof. WIntlirop E., Purdue Univ., La Fayette, Ind. (89). 1891. C 
Story, Prof. Wra. E., Clark Univ., Worcester, Mass. (29). 1881. A 
Stowell, Prof. T. B., Potsdara, N. Y. (28). 1886. F 
Stringham, Prof. Irving, Univ. of Cal., Berkeley, Cal. (88). 1886. A 
Stuart, Prof. A. P. S., Lincoln, Nebraska (21). 1874. C 
Sturgis, Wm. C, 384 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn. (40). 1892. P 
Sturtevant, E. Lewis, M.D., So. Framingham, Mass. (29). 1882. F 
Swift, Lewis, Ph.D., Warner Observatory, Rochester, N. Y. (29). 1882. A 
Swingle, W. T., Eustls, Florida (40). 1892. F 

Tainter, Charles Sumner, 1843 S, cor. 19 St., Washington, D. C. (29). 

1881. B D A 
Taylor, H. C, Commander U. S. N. (80). 1889. 



FELLOWS. XOl 

U?lj Taylor, Thos., M.D., Department of Agricaltnre, WashiDgton, D. C. (29). 
fi 1885. P O 

>. B.] Taylor, William B., Smithsonian InstituUon, Washington, D. C. (29). 
0(5. .' 1881. B A 

7,Pu Thomas, Benj. F., Ph.D., State Univ.,Oolambas, Ohio (29). 1882. B A 

Thomson, Elihu, Thomson-Houston EHectric. Co., Lynn, Mass. (37). 
1888. B 
\if Thomson, Wm., M.D., 1426 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 1885. B 
;i,ij; Thruston, Gates Phillips, Nashville, Tenn. (38). 1890. H 

Thurston, Prof. R. H., Sibley College, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
;a. ;, (23). 1875. D 

lj;i Thwing, Charles B., Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. (38). 1892. 

Tlttmann, Otto H., U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, 

D. C. (24). 1888. A 
Todd, Prof. David P., Director Lawrence Observatory, Amherst College, 
Amherst, Mass. (27). 1881. AB D 
j^j Todd, Prof. James E., Tabor, Fremont Co., Iowa (22). 1886. E P 

Towne, Henry E., Pres. Yale and Towne Manufacturing Co., Stamford, 
^,, , Conn. (33). 1888. D B 

J Townshend, Prof. N. S., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (17). 1881.P H 
J Tracy, Sam'l M., Agricultural College, Miss. (27). 1881. P 
,, ^ Traphagen, Frank W., Ph.D., Prof, of Chem., The College of Montana, 

Deer Lodge City, Montana (35). 1889. OPE 
„ Trelease, Dr. Wm., Director Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, Mo. 
(39). 1891 F 
Trimble, Prof. Henry, 146 No. 10 St., Philadelphia, Pa. (34). 1889. O 
' . True, Fred W., U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (28). 1882. P 
Trumbull, Dr. J. Hammond, Hartford, Conn. (29). 1882. H 
Tucker, Willis G., M.D., Albany Med. Coll , Albany, N. Y. (29). 1888. O 
TucKERMAN, Alfued, Ph.D., 342 W. 67th St., New York, N.Y. (39). 1891. 

o 

Tuttle, Prof. Albert H., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. (17). 

1874. P 
Twltchell, E., 659 W. Seventh St., Cincinnati, Ohio (89). 1891. O 



rr; 



Uhler, Philip R., 254 W. Hoflfman St., Baltimore, Md. (19). 1874. P E 
Underwood, Prof. Lucien M., De Pauw Univ., Greencastle, Ind. (33). 

1885. P 
Upham, Warren, 36 Newbury St., Somerville, Mass. (25). 1880. E 
Upton, Winslow, Brown Univ., Providence, R. I. (29). 1883. A 

Van der Weyde, P. H., M.D., 236 Duffleld St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (17). 

1874. B 

Van Dyck, Prof. Francis Cuyler, New Brunswick, N. J. (28). 1882. BOP 
Van Hlse, Charles R., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. (37). 1890. 
Van Vleck, Prof. John M., Wesleyan Univ., Mlddletown, Conn. (23). 

1875. A 



XCtl FELLOVrS. 

Vasey, Georjo^e, M.D., D6p*t of Agrlc, Washington, D. C. (32). 1889. F 

Venable, Prof. F. P., Chapel HIU, N. C. (89). 1891. C 

Very, Saroael W., Lieat. Comdr. U. S. N., Robeson St., Jamaica PLaln, 

Mass. (28). 1886. A B 
Vining, Edward P., 816 Olive St., St. Lonis, Mo. (82). 1887. H 
Vogdes, A. W., Fort Canby, Pacific Co., Washington (82). 1885. S F 

Wachsmuth, Charles, HI MarletU St., Barlington, Iowa (30). 1884. S F 
Wadsworth, Prof. M. Edward, Ph.D., Director of the Michigan Mining 

School, State Geologist of Michigan, Hoaghton, Mich. (23). 1874. S 
Walcott, Charles D., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (25). 

1882. E F 
Waldo, Prof., Clarence A., Greencastle, Ind. (37). 1889. A 
Wallace, Wm., Ansonla, Conn. (28). 1882. 
Waller, E., School of Mines, Colambia College, New York, N. Y. (23). 

1874. 
Walinsley, W. H., 1016 Chestuat St., Philadelphia, Pa. (28). 1883. F 
Wanner, Atreus, York, York Co., Pa. (36). 1890. H 
Ward, Prof. Henry A., Rochester, N. Y. (13). 1876. F E H 
Ward, Lester F., U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. (26). 

1879. E F 
Ward, Dr. R. H., 63 Fourth St., Troy, N. Y. (17). 1874. F B 
Ward, Wm. E., Port Chester, N. Y. (36). 1889. D 
Warder, Prof. Robert B., Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. (19). 1881. 

C B 
Warner, Prof. A. G., District Offices, Washington, D. C. (38). 1892. I 
Warner, James D., 199 Baltic St., Brooklyn, N. Y. (18). 1874. A B 
Warner, Worcester R.,887 Case Ave., Cleveland, Ohio (83). 1888. A B D 
Warren, Cyrus M., Brookltne, Mass. (29). 1882. C 
Warren, Dr. Joseph W., Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. (31). 1886. 

F 
Warren, Prof. S. Edward, Newton, Mass. (17). 1876. A-I 
Watsosy, Prof. Wm., 107 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. (12). 1884. A 
Webb, Prof. J. Burkitt, Stevens Inst., Hoboken, N. J. (31). 1883. DBA 
Weber, Prof. Henry A., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio (36). 1888. P 
Webster, F. M., Wooster, Ohio (36). 1890. 

Webster, Prof. N. B., Grove House, Viiieland, N. J. (7). 1874. B O E 
Weed, Clarence M., Hanover, N. H. (38). 1890. 
Weston, Edward, 646 High St., Newark, N. J. (33). 1887. BCD 
Wheatland, Dr. Henry, President Essex Inst., Salem, Mass. (1). 1874. 
Wheeler, Prof. C. Gilbert, 143 Lake St., Chicago, III. (18). 1883. O B 
Wheeler, Orlando B., Office Mo. River Com., 1616 Lucas Place, St. Louis, 

Mo. (24). 1882. AD 
White, Prof. C. A., Le Droit Park, Washington, D. C. (17). 1876. £ F 
White, Prof. H. C, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, Ga. (29). 1886. C 
WhitKjProf. I. CUniv. of W. Va., Morgantown, W. Va. (26). 1882. E 
Whiteaves, J. F., Geol. Survey, Ottawa, Ontario, Can. (31). 1887. EF 



FELLOWS. XCiil 

Whitfield, B. P., American Maseura Natural History, 77 th St. & 8th Ave- 
nue, New York, N. Y. (18). 1874. B P H 
Whiting, Miss Sarah F., Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. (81). 1888. 

B A 
Whitman, Prof. Frank P., Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio (83). 1885. 

A B 
Wilbur, A. B., Mlddletown, N. Y. (23). 1874. 

Wiley, Prof. Harvey W., Dep't of Agrlc, Washington, D.C. (21). 1874. 
Williams, Benezette, 171 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. (33). 1887. D 
Williams, Charles H., M.D., C. B. and Q. Gen. Office, Adams St., Chi- 
cago, 111. (22). 1874. 
Williams, Geo. Huntington. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (33). 

1886. E 
Williams, Prof. Henry Shaler, Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (18). 

1882. B F 
Williams, Prof. Henry W., 16 Arlington St., Boston, Mass. (11). 1874. H 

P 
Williams, Prof. S. G., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (3^. 1886. B 
Willis, Bailey, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (36). 1890. 
Willmott, Arthur B., 6 Little's Block, Cambridge, Mass. (38). 1890. 
WlUson, Prof. Frederick N., Princeton, N. J. (88). 1887. A D 
Willson, Robert W., Cambridge, Mass. (30). 1890. B A 
Wilson, Herbert M., U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, D. C. (40). 1892. 

D B 
Wilson, Joseph M., Room 1036, Drexel Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (33). 

1886. D 
Wilson, Thomas, U. S. Nat'l Museum, Washington, D. C. (36). 1888. H 
Wilson, Prof. William Powell, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Pa., Philadelphia, 

Pa. (38). 1889. P 
Wlnchell, Horace V., 1306 S. E. 7th St., Minneapolis, Minn. (34). 1890. 

B C 
Wlnchell, Prof. N. H.,Unlv. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. (19). 1874. 

B H 
Wing, Henry H., 8 Reservoir Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. (38). 1890. 
Winlock, Wm. C, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (33). 

1886. A B 
Wlnslow, Arthur, State Geologist, Jefferson City, Mo. (37). 1889. B 
Withers, Prof. W. A., Agric. and Mechanical College, Raleigh, N. C. (33). 

1891. O 
Wltthaus, Dr. R. A., 410 E. 26th St., New York, N. Y. (36). 1890. 
Wood, Prof. De Volson, Hoboken, N. J. (29). 1881. 
Woodbury, C. J. H., 31 Milk St., Boston, Mass. (29). 1884. D 
Woodward, Prof. Calvin M., 1761 Missouri Ave., St. Louis, Mo. (32). 

1884. DAI 
Woodward, R. S., care U. S. C. & G. Survey, Washington, D. C. (83). 

1886. A B D 
Wormley, T. G., Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. (20). 1878. 



xciv 



WWLLOW9. 



Wortben, W. E., SS Bleeker St., New York, N. T. (K). \m. D 
Wrampclmeler, Thoo. J., Berkeley, Cal. (84). 1887. C 
Wiifclit, Prof. Allien A., Oberlln College, Oberlin, Ohio (24). IMO.1? 
Wright, Prof. Arthur W., Yale Coll., New Haren. Conn. (U). IBTiiB 
WriKtit, Rev. (ieo. F., Oberllo College, Oberlln, Ohio (29). \m. 1 
Wright. Prof. Thos. W., Uulon Ck>llege, Schenectady, N. T. (96). 1839. 
WUrtele, Rev. I^ais C.» Acton Vale, P. Q., Can. (11). 187S. B 

Yoomans, Wm. Jay, M.D., Popular Science Monthly, 1-5 Bond St, 

New York. N. Y. (2H), 1889. F O 
Young, A. V. E., Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. (3S). 1886. CB 
Young, C. A., Prof, of Aatmnomy, College of New Jersey, PriDceton, 

N. J. (18). 1874. A B D 



ZallnAki, E. L., Capt. 5th Artillery, U. 8. A., Fort Hamilton, NewToik 

Harbor, N. Y. (86). 1891. D 
Zlwet, Alexander^ U So. SiaUs St., Ann Arbor, Mich. (38). 1890. A 

[7W rsLLowa.] 

8UM1IART.— Patrons, 8; Corrbspoxdiko MBMBsas, S; MtofBaas, 1SI8; HosoKiBT 
Kkllowb, 3; Fellows. 784. 
Nov. 1, itfDj, Total Nuxbbr or Mbmbbrs or thb AasooiATfoir, M7. 



xowt 



e.ice .V-:_ 

0/ Jrr 






DECEASED MEMBERS. 



f Unless by special vote of the Council, the names of those only who are members of 
the Association at the time of their decease will be included in this list. Information 
of the date and place of birth and death, to fill blanks in this list, is requested by the 
Permanent Secretary.] 

Abbe, George W., New York, N. Y. (28). Died Sept. 26, 1879. 

Abert, John James, Washington, D. C. (1). Born in Shepherdstown, 

Va., Sept. 17, 1788. Died in Washington, D. C, Sept. 27, 1863. 
Adains, Charles Baker, Amherst, Mass. (1). Born in Dorchester, Mass., 

Jan. 11, 1814. Died in St. Thomas, W. I., Jan. 19, 1853. 
Adams, Edwin F., Charlestown, Mass. (18). 
Adams, Samuel, Jacksonville, 111. (18). Born Dec. 19, 1806. Died April 

29, 1877. 
Agassiz, Louis, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in Parish of Moller, Switz- 
erland, May 28, 1807. Died in Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 14, 1878. 
Ainsworth, J. G., Barry, Mass. (14). 
Alexander, Stephen, Princeton, N. J. (1). Born Sept. 1, 1806. Died June 

26, 1883. 
Allen, Thomas, St. Louis, Mo. (27). Died April 8, 1882. 
Allen, Zachariah, Providence, R. I. (1). Born in Providence, R. L, Sept. 

15, 1796. Died March 17, 1882. 
Allston, Robert Francis Withers, Georgetown, S. C. (3). Born in All 

Suints Parish, S. C, April 21, 1801. Died near Georgetown, S. C, 

April 7, 1864. 
Alvord, Benjamin, Washington, D. C. (17). Born in Rutland, Vt., Aug. 

18, 1813. Died Oct. 16, 1884. 
Ames, M. P., Springfield, Mass. (1). Born in 1803. Died April 28, 1847. 
Andrews, Ebenezer Baldwin, Lancaster, Ohio (7). Born in Danbury, 

Conn., April 29, 1821. Died In Lancaster, Ohio, Aug. 14, 1880. 
Anthony, Charles H., Albany, N. Y. (6). Died in 1874. 
Applcton, Nathan, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in New Ipsvtrich, N. H., Oct. 

6, 1779. Died July 14, 1861. 
Armstrong, John W., Fredonia, N. Y. (24). 
Ashburner, Charles A., Pittsburgh, Pa. (81). Died Dec. 24, 1889. 
Ashburner, Wm., San Francisco, Cal. (29). Born in Stockbridge, Mass., 

March, 1831. Died in San Francisco, Cal., ^pril 20, 1887. 
Atwater, Mrs. S. T., Chicago, III. (17). Born Aug. 8, 1812. Died April 

11, 1878. 
Aufrecht, Louis, Cincinnati, Ohio (80). 

Baba, Tatul, New York, N. Y. (36). 

Babbitt, Miss Franc E„ Coldwater, Mich. (82). Died near Cold water, 
Mich., July 6, 1891, aged 67. 

(xcv) 



ZCVl DBCBASKD MBKBERS. 

Bache, Alexander Dallas, Washln«rton, D. C. (1). Born In Philadelphia, 

Fa., July 19, 1806. Died at Newport, R. I., Feb. 17, 1867. 
Bache, Franklin, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 

25, 1792. Died March 19, 1864. 
Bailey, Jacob Whitman, West Point, N. T. (1). Born in Auburn, Mass., 

April 29, 1811. Died In West Point, N. T., Feb. 26, 1857. 
Baird, Spencer Fullerton, Washington, D. C. (1). Born In Reading, Pa., 

Feb. 3, 1823. Died in Wood*H Holl, Mass., Aag. 19, 1887. 
Bardwell, F. W., Lawrence, Kan. (18). Died In 1878. 
Barnard, F. A. P., New York, N. T. (7). Bom in Sheffield, Mass., May 5, 

1809. Died in New Tork, April 27, 1889. 
Barnard, John Oross, New York, N. Y. (14). Born in Sheffield, Mass., 

May 19, 1815. Died in Detroit, Mich., May 14, 1882. 
Barrett, Dwight H., Baltimore, Md. (86). Died in March, 1889. 
Barrett, Moses, Milwaukee, Wis. (21). Died in 1878. 
Barry, Redmond, Melbourne, Australia (25). 
Bassett, Daniel A., Los Angeles, Cal. (29). Born Dec. 8, 1819. Died 

May 26, 1887, 
Bassnett, Thomas, Jacksonville, Fla. (8). Born 1807. Died In Jackson- 
ville, Fla., Feb. 16, 1886. 
Batchelder, John Montgomery, Cambridge, Mass. (8). Born In New 

Ipswich, N. H. Oct. 18, 1811. Died in Cambridge, July 3, 1892. 
Bayne, Herbert Andrew, Kingston, Ont., Can. (29). Born In London- 
derry, Nova Scotia, Aug. 16, 1846. Died in PIctou, Can., Sept. 16, 1886. 
Beach, J. Watson, Hartford, Conn. (23). Bom Dec. 28, 1823. Died Mar. 

16, 1887. 
Beck, C. F., Philadelphia, Pa. (1). 
Beck, Lewis Caleb, New Brunswick, N. J. (1). Born in Schenectady, 

N. Y., Oct. 4, 1798. Died April 20, 1868. 
Beck, Theodoiic Romeyn, Albany, N. Y. (1). Bom in Schenectady, N.Y., 

Aug. 11, 1791. Died in Uiica, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1865. 
Beckwlth, Henry C, Coleman's Station, N. Y. (29). Died July 12, 1885. 
Belfrage, G. W., Clifton, Texas (29). Died Dec. 7, 1882. 
Belknap, William B., Louisville, Ky. (29). 
Bell, Samuel N., Manchester, N. H. (7). Bora In Chester, N. H., March 

25, 1829. Died in Manchester, N. H., Feb. 8, 1889. 
Belt, Thomas, London, Eng. (27). Died Sept. 8, 1878. 
Benedict, George Wyllys, Burlington, Vt. (16). Born Jan. 11, 1796. Died 

Sept. 23, 1871. 
Blcknell, Edwin, Boston, Mass. (18). Born in 1830. Died March 19, 1877. 
Binney, Amos, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 18, 1803. 

Died in Rome, Feb. 18, 1847. 
Binney, John, Boston, Mass. (3). 
Blackle, Geo. S., Nashville, Tenn. (26). 

Blair, Henry W., Washington, D. C. (26). Died Dec. 15, 1884. 
Blake, Eli Whitney, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born Jan. 27, 1795. Died 

Aug. 18, 1886. 
Blake, Francis C, Mansfield Valley, Pa. (29). Died Feb. 21, 1891. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. XCVll 

Blake, Homer Crane, New York, N. Y. (28). Born In Cleveland, Ohio, 

Feb. 1, 1822. Died In New York, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1880. 

Blanding, William, , R. I. (1). 

Blatchford, Thomas W., Troy, N. Y. (6). 

Blatchley, Miss S. L., New Haven, Conn. (19). Died March 13, 1873. 
Boadle, John, lladdonfleld, N. J. (20). Born In 1805. Died In July, 1878. 
Bomford, George, Washington, D. C. (1). Born In New York, N. Y., 1780. 

Died in Boston, Mass., March 25, 1848. 
Bowditch, Henry IngersoU, Boston, Mass. (2). Born In Salem, Mass., 

Aug. 9, 1808. Died In Boston, Mass., Jan. U, 1892. 
Bowles, Miss Margaretta, Columbia, Tenn. (26). Pled July, 1887. 
Bowron, James, South Pittsburg, Tenn. (26). Died In Dec, 1877. 
Bradley, Leverette, Jersey City, N. J. (15). Died In 1876. 
Braithwalte, Jos., Chambly, C. W. (11). 

Breckinridge, S. M., St. Louis, Mo. (27). Died May 28, 1891. 
Briggs, Albert D., Springfield, Mass. (13). Died Feb. 20, 1881. 
Briggs, Robert, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). Born May 18, 1822. Died July 

24, 1882. 
Brighara, Charles Henry, Ann Arbor, Mich. (17). Born In Boston, Mass., 

July 27, 1820. Died Feb. 19, 1879. 
Bross, William, Chicago, 111. (7). Died In 1890. 
Brown, Andrew, Natchez, Miss. (1). 
Brown, Horace, Salem, Mass. (27). Died In July, 1883. 
Bull, John, Washington, D. C. (31). Born Aug. 1, 1819. Died June 9, 1884. 
Bulloch, Waller H., Chicago, 111. (30). 
Burbank, L. S., Woburn, Mass. (18). 
Burgess, Edward, Boston, Mass. (22). Born In Barnstable, Mass., June 

30, 1848. Dl< d in Boston, July 12, 1891. 
Burke, Joseph Chester, Mlddletown, Conn. (29). Died In 1886. 
Burnap, George Washington, Baltimore, Md. (12). Born In Merrimack, 

N. H., Nov. 30, 1802. Died In Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 8, 1859. 
Burnett, Waldo Irving, Boston, Mass. (1). Born In Southborough, Mass., 

July 12, 1828. Died In Boston, Mass., July 1, 1864. 
Butler, Thomas Belden, Norwalk, Conn. (10). Born Aug. 22, 1806. Died 

June 8, 1873. 

Cairns, Frederick A., New York, N. Y. (27). Died In 1879. 

Campbell, Mrs. Mary H., Crawfordsville, Ind. (22). Died Feb. 27, 1882. 

Carpenter, Thornton, Camden, S. C. (7). 

Carpenter, William M., New Orleans, La. (1). 

Case, Leonard, Cleveland, Ohio (15). Born June 27, 1820. Died Jan. 5, 1880. 

Case, William, Cleveland, Ohio (6). 

Caswell, Alexis, Providence, R. I. (2). Born Jan. 29, 1799. Died In Prov- 
idence, R. I., Jan. 8, 1877. 

Chadbourne, Paul Ansel, Aml^erst, Mass. (10). Born In North Berwick, 
Me., Oct. 21, 1823. Died Feb. 23, 1883. 

Chapln, J. H., Meriden, 0<^nn. (33). Died in 1892. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XIJ. a 



ZCviii DBCXA8BD XEMBBB8. 

Chapman, Nathaniel, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in Alexandria Co., Va., 

May 28, 1780. Died July 1 , 1853. 
Chase, Pliny Earle, Haverford College, Pa. (18). Born in Worcester, 

Ma8S., Aug. 18, 1820. 
Chase, Stephen, Hanover, N. H. (2). Born in 1818. Died Aug. 5, 1851. 
Chanvenet, William, St. Louis, Mo. (1). Born May 24, 1819. Died Dec. 

13, 1870. 
Cheesman, Louis Montgomery, Hartford, Conn. (32). Born in 1858. Died 

In Jan., 1885. 
Cheney, Miss Margaret 8., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (29). Died in 1882. 
Chevreul, Michel Eugene, Paris, France (35). Born in Anglers, France, 

Aug. 31, 1786. Died April 9, 1889. 
Clapp, Asahel, New Albany, Iml. (1). Born Oct. 5, 1792. Died Dec. 15, 

1862. 
Clark, Henry James, Cambridge, Mass. (18). Bora in Easton, Mass., 

June 22, 1826. Died in Amherst, Mass., July 1, 1873. 
Clark, Joseph, Cincinnati, Ohio (5). 
Clark, Patrick, Railway, N. J. (83). Died March 5, 1887, 
Clarke, A. B., Holyoke, Mass. (13). 
Cleaveland, C. H., Cincinnati, Ohio (9). 
Cleveland, A. B., Cambridge, Mass. (2). 
•Coffin, James Henry, Easton, Pa. (1). Bom in Northampton, Mass., Sept. 

6, 1806. Died Feb. 6, 1873. 
Coffin, John H. C, Washington, D. C. (1). Born in Wiscasset, Maine, 

Sept. U, 1815. Died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 8, 1890. 
Oofflnberry, Wright Lewis, Grand Rapids, Mich. (20). Born in Lancas- 
ter, Ohio, April 5, 1807. Died in Grand Rapids, Mich., March 26, 1889. 
Colbum, E. M., Peoria, 111. (33). Born in Rome, N. Y., Sept. 13, 1813. 

Died in Peoria, 111., May 29, 1890. 
•Cole, Frederick, Montreal, Can. (31). Died in 1887. 
Cole, Thomas, Salem, Mass. (1). Born Dec. 24, 1779. Died June 24, 1852. 
Coleman, Henry, Boston, Moss. (1). 
Collins, Frederick, Washington, D. C. (28). Born Dec. 5, 1842. Died 

Oct. 27, 1881. 
Conrad, Timothy Abbott, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Bom in New Jersey, 

June 21, 1803. Died Aug. 9, 1877. 
Cook, George H., New Brunswick, N. J. (4). Born in Hanover, Morris 

County, in 1818. Died in New Brunswick, N. J., Sept. 22, 1889. 
Cooke, Caleb, Salem, Mass. (18). Bora Feb. 15, 1838. Died June 5, 1880. 
Cooper, William, Hoboken, N. J. (9). Died in 1864. 
Cope, Mary S., Germantown, Pa. (33). Born in Germantown, Pa., July 

13, 1853. Died in Germantown, Jan. 4, 1888. 
Copes, Joseph S., New Orleans, La. (11). Born Dec. 9, 1811. Died 

March 1, 1885. 
Corning, Erastus, Albany, N. Y. (6). Bom in Norwich, Conn., Dec. 14, 

1794. Died April 9, 1872. 
Costin, M. P., Fordham, N. Y. (30). Died June 8, 1884. 



DBCBA8BD MEMBERS. XCIX 

Cooper, James Hamilton, Darien, 6a. (1). Born March 5, 1794. Died July 

3, 1866. 
Cramp, John Mockett, WolfVille, N. S. (11). Born In Kent, England, July 

25, 1796. Died Dec. 6, 1881. 
Crehore, John D., Cleveland, Ohio (24). 

Crocker, Cliarles F., Lawrence, Mass. (22). Died in July, 1881. 
Crocker, Miss Lucretia, Boston, Mass. (29). Died in 1886. 
Crosby, Alpheus, Salem, Mass. (10). Born in Sandwich, N. H., Oct. 13, 

1810. Died April 17. 1874. 
Crosby, Thomas Russell, Hanover, N. H. (18). Born Oct. 22, 1816. Died 

March 1, 1872. 
Crosier, Edwurd S., New Albany, Ind. (29). Died in June, 1891. 
Croswell, Edwin, Albany, N. Y. (6). Born in Catskill, N. Y., May 29, 1797. 

Died June 18, 1871. 
Crow, Waymaii, St. Louis, Mo. (27).' Born March 7, 1808. Died May 

10, 1885. 
Cummin^s, Joseph, Evanston, 111. (13). Born in Falmouth, Me., March 

3, 1817. Died in Evanston, 111., May 7, 1890. 
Curry, W. F., Geneva, N. Y. (11). 

Curtis, Josiah, Washington, D. C. (18). Died Aug. 1, 1883. 
Cutting, Hiram Adolphus, Lunenburgh, Vt. (17). Born in Concord, Vt., 

Dec. 23, 1832. Died in Lunenburgh, April 18, 1892. 

Da Costa, Chas. M., New York, N. Y. (36). Died in 1890. 

Dalrymple, Edwin Augustine, Baltimore, Md. (11). Born in Baltimore, 

Md., June 4, 1817. Died Oct. 30, 1881. 
Danforth, Edward, Elmira, N. Y. (11). Died in Elmira, N. Y., June 18, 

1888. 
Davenport, H. W., Washington, D. C. (30). 
Day, Austin G., New York, N. Y. (29). Died Dec. 28, 1889. 
Dayton, Edwin A., Madrid, N. Y. (7). Born in 1827. Died June 24, 1878. 
Dean, Amos, Albany, N. Y. (6). Born in Barnard, V t., Jan. 16, 1803. Died 

Jan. 26, 1868. 
Dearborn, George H. A. S., Koxbury, Mass. (1). 
Dekay, James Ellsworth, New York, N. Y. (1). Born In New York, 1792. 

Died Nov. 21, 1861. 
Delano, Joseph C, New Bedford, Mass. (5). Born Jan. 9, 1796. Died 

Oct. 16, 1886. 
De Laski, John, Carver's Harbor, Me. (18). 
Devereux, John Henry, Cleveland, Ohio (18). Born in Boston, Mass., 

April 5, 1832. Died in Cleveland, Ohio, March 17, 1886. 
Dewey, Chester, Rochester, N. Y. (1). Born in Sheffield, Mass., Oct. 26, 

1781. Died Dec. 16, 1867. 
Dexter, G. M., Boston, Mass. (11). 
Dickerson, Edward N., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Dillingham, W. A. P., Augusta, Me. (17). 
Dimmick, L. N., Santa Barbara, Cal. (29). Died May 31, 1884. 



O 0BCKA8BD XBMBBB8. 

Dinwiddle, Ilardaway H.» College Station, Texas (8S). Died Dec. 11, 

1887. 
Dinwiddle, Robert, New York, K. Y. (1). Bom m Dumfries, Scotland, 

July 28, 1811. Died in New York, N. Y., July 12, 1888. 
Dixwell, Geo. B., Boston, Mass. (29). Died April, 1885. 
Doggett, George Newell, Chicago, 111. (88). Bom in Chicago, 111., Dec 

19, 1858. Died in Fredericksburg, Va., Jan. 15. 1887. 
Doggett, Mrs. Kate Newell, Chicago, 111. (17). Bom in Castleton, Yt., 

Nov. 5, 1828. Died in Havana, Cuba, March 18, 1884. 
Doggett, Wm. E., Chicago, 111. (17). Bora Nov. 20, 1820. Died In 1876. 
DooUttle, L., Lenoxvllle, C. E. (11). Died in 1862. 
Dorr, Ebenezer Pearson, BaiTalo, N. Y. (25). Bom in Hartford, Yt. 

Died In BuiTalo, N. Y., April 29, 1882. 
Draper, Henry, New York, N. Y. (28). Bom In New York, N. Y., March 

7, 1887. Died Nov. 20, 1882. 
Ducatel, Julius Tlmoleon, Baltimore, Md. (1). Bora in Baltimore, Md., 

June 6, 1798. Died April 25, 1849. 
Duffleld, George, Detroit, Mich. (10). Born in Strasbnrg, Pa., July 4, 

1794. Died in Detroit, Mich., June 26, 1869. 
Dumont, A. H., Newport, R. I. (14). 
Dun, Walter Angus, Cincinnati, Ohio (81). Bom March 1, 1857. Died 

Nov. 7, 1887. 
Duncan, Lucius C, New Orleans, La. (10). Bom In 1801. Died Aug. 9, 

1855. 
Dunn, R. P., Providence, R. I. (14). 
Dury, Henry M., Nashville, Tenu. (38). Died April 15, 1891. 

Eads, James Buchanan, New York, N. Y. (27). Bom May 28, 1820. Died 

March 8, 1887. 
Easton, Norman, Fall River, Mass. (14). Died Dec. 21, 1872. 
Eaton, James H., Beloit, Wis. (17). Died Jan. 5, 1877. 
Elliott, Ez^kiel Brown, Washington, D. C. (10). Born July 16, 1828. Died 

May 24, 1888. 
Elsberg, Louis, New York, N. Y. (28). Born in Iserlohn, Prussia, April 2, 

1836. Died in New York, N. Y., Feb. 19, 1885. 
Elwyn, Alfred Langdon, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in Portsmouth, N. H., 

July 9, 1804. Died in Philadelphia, Pa., March 15, 1884. 
Ely, Charles Arthur, Elyria, Ohio (4). 
Emerson, Geo. Barrell, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in Kennebunk, Me., Sept. 

12, 1797. Died March 14, 1881. 
Emmons, Ebenezer, Williamstown, Mass. (1). BorQ in Middlefleld, Mass., 

May 16, 1799. Died October 1, 1868. 
Engelmann, George, St. Louis, Mo. (1). Born In Frankfort-on-the Main, 

Germany, Feb. 2, 1809. Died Feb. 4, 1884. 
Engstrom, A. B., Burlington, N. J. (1). 
Eustis, Henry Lawrence, Cambridge, Mass. (2). Born Feb. 1, 1819. Died 

Jan. 11, 1885. 



DBOBASBD MEMBERS. CI 

Evans, Asher B., Lockport, N. Y. (19). Born In Hector, N. Y., Sept. 21, 

1884. Died in Lockport, Sept. 24, 1891. 
Evans, Edwin, Streator, 111. (30). Died May 5, 1889. 
Everett, Edward, Boston, Mass. (2). Born in Dorchester, Mass., April 11, 

1794. Died lu Boston, Mass., Jan. 15, 1865. 

Ewing, Thomas, Lancaster, Ohio (5). Boru in Ohio Co., Va., Dec. 28, 
1789. Died Oct. 26, 1871. 

Faries, R. J., Wauwatosa, Wis. (21). Died May 31, 1878. 

Farnam, J. E., Georgetown, Ky. (26). 

Farquharson, Robert James, Des Moines, Iowa (24). Born July 15, 1824. 

Died Sept. 6, 1884. 
Felton, Saroael Morse, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). Born in Newbury, Mass., 

July 19, 1809. Died in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 24, 1889. 
Ferrel, William, Kansas City, Mo. (11). Died Sept. 18, 1891. 
Ferris, Isaac, New York, N. Y. (6). Born in New York, Oct. 9, 1798. Died 

in Roselle, N. J., June 16, 1873. 
Feuchtwanger, Lewis, New York, N. Y. (11). Born in Fttrth, Bavaria, 

Jan. 11, 1805. Died in New York, N. Y., June 26, 1876. 
Ficklin, Joseph, Columbia, Mo. (20). Born in Winchester, Ky., Sept. 9, 

1883. Died in Columbia, Mo., Sept. 6, 1887. 
Fillmore, Miilard, Buffalo, N. Y. (7). Bom in New York, Jan. 7, 1800. 

Died March 8, 1874. 
Fisher, Mark, Trenton, N. J. (10). 
Fitch, Alexander, Hartford, Conn. (1). Bom March 25, 1799. Died Jan. 

20, 1859. 
Fitch, O. H., Ashtabula, Ohio (7). Born in 1803. Died Sept. 17, 1882. 
Floyd, Richard S., San Francisco, Cal. (84). Died Oct. 17, 1890. 
Foote, Herbert Carrington, Cleveland, Ohio (35). Born in 1852. Died 

in Cleveland, Aug. 24, 1888. 
Forbush, E. B., Buffalo, N. Y. (15). 
Force, Peter, Washington, D. C. (4). Born in New Jersey, Nov. 26, 1790. 

Died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 23, 1868. 
Ford, A. C, Nashville, Tenn. (26). 
Forshey, Caleb Goldsmith, New Orleans, La. (21). Bom in Somerset Co., 

Pa., July 18, 1812. Died In CarroUton, La., July 25, 1881. 
Foster, John Wells, Chicago, III. (1). Born in Brimfleld, Mass., March 

4, 1815. Died in Chicago, 111., June 29, 1878. 
Foucon, Felix, Madison, Wis. (18). 
Fowle, Wm. Bentley, Boston, Mass. (1). Bom in Boston, Mass., Oct. 17, 

1795. Died Feb. 6, 1865. 
Fox, Charles, Grosse He, Mich. (7). 

Fox, Joseph G., Easton, Pa. (81). Born in Adams, N. Y., Sept. 7, 1838. 

Died in Easton, Pa., Dec. 27, 1889. 
Frazer, John Fries, Phila., Pa. (1). Born July 8, 1812. Died Oct. 12, 1872. 
Freeman, Spencer Hedden, Cleveland, Ohio (29). Born Oct. 3, 1855. 

Died Feb. 2, 1886. 



Ctl MBCBASBD MBMBKBS. 

French, John WUIUm, West Point, N. Y. (11). Born In Connectlcnt, 
about 1810. Died in West Point, N. Y., July 8« 1871. 

Frothinsham, Fredericic, Milton, Mass. (11). Born in Montreal, P. Q., 
April 9, 1825. Died in Milton, March 19, 1891. 

Fuller, H. Weld, Boston, Mass. (29). Died Aug. 14, 1889. 

Oarfoer, A. P., Columbia, Pa. (29). Died Aug. 26, 1881. 

Gardiner, Frederic, Middletown, Conn. (23). Bom in Gardiner, Me., Oct. 

22, 1822. Died in Middletown, Conn., July 17, 1889. 
Garrison, H. D., Chicago, 111. (31). Died in Feb., 1891. 
Gavit, John E., New York, N. Y. (1). Born in New York, Oct. 29, 1819. 

Died in Stockbridfse, Mass., Aug. 25, 1874. 
Gay, Martin, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in 1804. Died Jan. 12, 1850. 
Gibbon, J. H., Charlotte, N. C. (8). 
Gillespie, William Mitchell, Schenectady, N. Y. (10). Bom inNew York, 

N. Y., 1816. Died in New York, Jan. 1, 1868. 
Gilmor, Robert, Baltimore, Md. (1). 

Glazier, W. W., Key West, Fla. (29). Died Dec 11, 1880. 
Goldmark, J., New York, N. Y. (29). Died in April, 1882. 
Gould, Augustus Addison, Boston, Mass. (11). Born April 23, 1805. Died 

Sept. 15, 1866. 
Ck>nld, Benjamin Apthorp, Boston, Mass. (2). Bom In Lancaster, Mass., 

June 15, 1787. Died Oct. 24, 1859. 
Graham, James D., Washington, D. C. (1). Bora In Virginia, 1799. Died 

in Boston, Mai>8., l>ec. 28, 1865. 
Gray, Alonzo, Brooklyn, N. Y. (13). Bom in Townshend, yt.,Feb. 21, 

1808. Died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 10, 1860. 
Gray, Asa, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in Paris, N. Y., Nov. 18, 1810. 

Died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 30, 1888. 
Gray, James H., Springfield, Mass. (6). 

Greene, Benjamin D., Boston, Mass. (1). Died Oct. 14, 1862, aged 68. 
Greene, Everett W., Madison, N. J. (10). Died In 1864. 
Greene, Samuel, Woonsocket, R. I. (9). Died in 1868. 
Greer, James, Dayton, Ohio (20). Died in Feb., 1874. 
Griffith, Robert Eglesfield, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Bom In Philadelphia, 

Pa., Feb. 13, 1798. Died June 26, 1854. 
Griswold, John Augustus, Troy, N. Y. (19). Bora Nov. 11, 1818. Died 

Oct. 81, 1872. 
Guest, William E., Ogdensburg, N. Y. (6). 
Guyot, Arnold, Princeton, N. J. (1). Born Sept. 5, 1809. Died Feb. 8, 1884. 

Habel, Louis, Northfield, Yt. (34). 

Hackley, Charles Wiliiam, New York, N. Y. (4). Bom in Herkimer Co., 

N. Y., March 9, 1809. Died in New York, N. Y., January 10, 1861. 
Hadley, George, Buffalo, N. Y. (6). Born June, 1813. Died Oct. 16, 1877. 
Haldeman, Samuel Stehman, Chickies, Pa. (1). Born Aug. 12, 1812. 

Died Sept. 10, 1880. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. Clil 

Hale, Enoch, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in Westhampton, Mass., Jan. 29, 

1790. Died in Boston, Mass., Nov. 12, 1848. 
Hamilton, .Tno. M., Coudersport, Pa. (83). 
Hampson, Thomas, Waj*hington, D. C. (83). 
Hance, Ebenezer, Fallsington P. O., Pa. (7). Died in 1876. 
Harding, Myron H., Lawrenceburg, Ind. (30.) Died Sept., 1886. 
Hare, Robert, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 17, 

1781. Died in Philadelphia, May 15, 1858. 
Harger, Oscar, New Haven, Conn. (25). Born in Oxford, Conn., Jan. 12, 

1843. Died in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 6, 1887. 
Harlan, Joseph G., Haverford, Pa. (8). 
Harlan, Bichard, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 

19, 1796. Died in New Orleans, La., Sept. 30, 1843. 
Harris, Thaddeus William, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in Dorchester, 

Mass., Nov. 12, 1795. Died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 16, 1856. 
Harrison, A. M., Plymouth, Mass. (29). 
Harrison, Benjamin Franklin, Wallingford, Conn. (11). Bom April 19, 

1811. Died April 23, 1886. 
Harrison, Jos., jr., Philadelphia, Pa. (12). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., 

Sept. 20, 1810. Died In Philadelphia, March 27, 1874. 
Hart, Simeon, Farmington, Conn. (1). Born Nov. 17, 1795. Died April 

20, 1853. 
Hartt, Charles Frederick, Ithaca, N. Y. (18). Born In Nova Scotia, Aug; 

20, 1840. Died March 18, 1878. 
Haven, Joseph, Chicago, HI. (17). Born In Dennis, Mass., Jan. 4, 1816. 

Died May 23, 1874. 
Hawes, George W., Washington, D. C. (23). Born Dec. 81, 1848. Died 

June 22, 1882. 
Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). Born in West- 
field, Mass., Sept. 7, 1829. Died Dec. 22, 1887. 
Hayden, Horace H., Baltimore, Md. (1). Born in Windsor, Conn., Oct. 13, 

1769. Died In Baltimore, Md., Jan. 26, 1844. 
Hayes, George E., Buffalo, N. Y. (15). 
Hay ward, James, Boston, Mass. (1). Born In Concord, Mass., June 12, 

1786. Died In Boston, Mass., July 27, 1866. 
Hazen, William Bibcock, Washington, D. C. (30). Born In Hartford, Vt., 

Sept. 27, 1830. Died Jan. 16, 1887. 
Hedrlck, Benjamin Sherwood, Washington, D. C. (19). Born In 1826. 

Died Sept. 2, 1886. 
Heighway, A. E., Cincinnati, Ohio (29). Born Dec. 26, 1820. Died Jan. 

24, 1888. 
Hempstead, G. S. B., Portsmouth, Ohio (29). Born in 1796. Died July 

9, 1883. 
Henry, Joseph, Washington, D. C. (1). Born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 17, 

1797. Died May 13, 1878. 
Hlckox, S. V. R., Chicago, HI. (17). Died in 1872. 
Hicks, William C, New York, N. Y. (34). Died in 1885. 



CIV DECEASED MEMBERS. 

HUgnrd, Jalias Erasmus, Washington, D. C. (4). Bom In Zwelbriicken, 

Bavaria, Jan. 7, 1825. Died in Washington, D. C, May 8, 1891. 
Hllgard, Theodore Charles, St. Loais, Mo. (17). Born in ZwelbrUcken, 

Bavaria, Feb. 28, 1828. Died March 5, 1875. 
Hill, Walter N., Chester, Pa. (29). Born Apr. 16, 1846. Died Mar. 29, 1884. 
Hincks, William, Toronto, C. W. (11). Born in 1801. Died July, 1871. 
Hitchcock, Edward, Amherst, Mass. (1). Born In Deerfleld, Mass., May 

24, 1793. Died Feb. 27, 1864. 
Hoadley, John Chipman, Boston, Mass. (29). Born Dec. 10, 1818. Died 

Oct. 21. 1886. 
Hobbs, A. C, Bridgeport, Conn. (28). Died in Nov., 1891. 
Hodgson, W. B., Savannah, Ga. (10). Born 1815. 
Holbrook, John Edwards, Charleston, S. C. (1). Born in Beaufort, S. C, 

Dec. 30, 1796. Died in Norfolk, Mass., Sept. 8, 1871. 
Holman, Mrs. S. W., Boston, Mass. (29). Died May 5, 1885. 
Holmes, Edward J., Boston, Mass. (29). Died in July, 1884. 
Homes, Henry A., Albany, N. Y. (11). Born in Boston, Mass., March 10, 

1812. Died in Albany, N, Y., Nov. 8, 1887. 
Hopkins, Albert, Willlamstown, Mass. (19). Bom July 14, 1807. Died 

May 25, 1872. 
Hopkins, James G., Ogdensburg, N. Y. (10). Died in 1860. 
Hopkins, T. O., Williamsvllle, N. Y. (10). Died in 1866. 
Hopkins, Wm., Lima, N. Y. (5). Died In March, 1867. 
Hoppock, Albert Eugene, Hastlngs-on-Hudson, N.Y. (29). 
Horton, C. V. R., Chaumont, N. Y. (10). Died In 1862. 
Horton, William, Craigville, N. Y. (1). 
Hosford, Benj. F., Haverhill, Mass. (13). Died in 1864. 
Hough, Franklin Benjamin, Lowville, N. Y. (4). Born in Martinsburgh, 

N. Y., July 20, 1822. Died June 11, 1885. 
Houghton, Douglas, Detroit, Mich. (1). Born In Troy, N. Y., Sept. 21, 

1809. Died Oct. 18, 1845. 
Hovey, Edmund O., Crawfordsvllle, Ind. (20). Born July 15, 1801. Died 

March 10, 1877. 
Howland, Edward Perry, Washington, D. C. (29). Born in Ledyard, 

N. Y., July 20, 1825. Died in Harrisburg, Pa., Sept. 12, 1888. 
Hnbbert, James, Richmond, Province of Quebec (16). Died In 1868. 
Howland, Theodore, Buffalo, N. Y. (15). 
Hunt, Edward Bissell, Washington, D. C. (2). Born in Livingston Co., 

N. Y., June 16, 1822. Died in Brooklyn, N. Y.. Oct. 2, 1863. 
Hunt, Freeman, New York, N. Y. (11). Born in Quincy, Mass., March 

21, 1804. Died In Brooklyn, N. Y., March 2, 1858. 
Hunt, Thomas Sterry, New York, N. Y. (1). Born in Norwich, Conn., 

Sept. 6, 1826. Died In New York, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1892. 
Hyatt, Theodore, Chester, Pa. (30). 

Ives, Moses B., Providence, R. I. (9). Died in 1867. 
Ives, Thomas P., Providence, R. I. (10). 



DECEASED MEHBEBS. CT 

Jackson, Charles Thomas, Boston, Mass. (1). Bom in Plymouth, Mass., 

June 21, 1805. Died Aug. 28, 1880. 
James, Thomas Potts, Cambridge, Mass. (2^. Bom Sept. 1, 1803. Died 

Feb. 22, 1882. 
Jeffries, John Amory, Boston, Mass. (38). Born In Milton, Mass., Sept. 

2, 1859. Died in Boston, Mass., March 26, 1892. 
Johnson, Hosmer A., Chicago, 111. (17). Died in Chicago, Feb. 26, 1891. 
Johnson, Walter Rogers, Washington, D. C. (1). Born in Leominster, 

Mass., June 21, 1794. Died April 26, 1852. 
Johnson, William Schuyler, Washington, D. C. (31). Born Sept. 20, 

1869. Died Oct. 6, 1883. 
Jones, Catesby A. R., Washington, D. C. (8). 
Jones, Henry A., Portland, Me. (29). Died Sept. 3, 1883. 
Jones, James H., Boston, Mass. (28). 
Joy, Charles Arad, Siockbridge, Mass. (8). Born in Ludlow ville, N. Y., 

Oct. 8, 1823. Died In Stockbrldge, Mass., May 29, 1891. 

Eedzie, W. K., Oberlin, Ohio (25). Born in Kalamazoo, Mich., July 5, 

1851. Died in Lansing, Mich., Apr. 10, 1880. 
Keely, George W., Watervllle, Me. (1). Died in 1878. 
Keep, N. C, Boston, Mass. (18). Died in March, 1875. 
Kennicott, Robert, West Northfleld, 111. (12). Bora Nov. 18, 1835. Died 

in 1866. 
Kerr, Washington Carathers, Raleigh, N. C. (10). Born May 24, 1827. 

Died Aug. 9, 1885. 
Kidder, Henry Purkltt, Boston, Mass. (29). Born Jan. 8, 1823. Died 

Jan. 28, 1886. 
King, Mitchell, Charleston, S. C. (3). Born In Scotland, June 8, 1788. 

Died Nov. 12, 1862. 
Kirkpatrick, James A., Philadelphia, Pa. (7). Died June 3, 1886. 
Kite, Thomas, Cincinnati, Ohio (5). Died Feb. 6, 1884. 
Klippart, John H., Columbus, Ohio (17). Died October, 1878. 
Knickerbocker, Charles, Chicago, 111. (17). Died in 1873. 
Knight, J. B., Philadelphia, Pa. (21). Died March 10, 1879. 

Lacey, O. M., Crawfordsville, Ind. (39). Died Jan. 9, 1891. 

Lacklan, R., Cincinnati, Ohio (11). 

Lapham, Increase Allen, Milwaukee, Wis. (3). Born in Palmyra, N. Y., 

March 7, 1811. Died in Oconomowoc, Wis., Sept. 14, 1875. 
Larkin, Ethan Pendleton, Alfred Centre, N. Y. (33). Born Sept. 20, 1829. 

Died Aug. 23, 1887. 
LaRoche, R6n6, Philadelphia, Pa. (12). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., 1795. 

Died In Philadelphia, Dec, 1872. 
Lasel, Edward, Willlamstown, Mass. (1). Bom Jan. 21, 1809. Died Jan. 

31, 1852. 
Lawford, Frederick, Montreal, Canada (11). Died in 1866. 



CVl BBCEASBD MEMBERS. 

Lawrence, Edward, Cliarlestown, Mass. (18). Born Jane, 1810. Died 

Oct. 17, 1885. 
Lea, Isaac, Philndelphta, Pa. (1). Bom in Wilmington, Del., March 4, 

1792. Died Dec. 8, 1886. 
Le Conte, John Lawrence, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in New York, 

May 13, 1826. Died Nov. 16, 1883. 
Lederer, Baron von, Washington, D. C. (1). 
Leidy, Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa. (7). Born in Philadelphia, Sept. 9, 1823. 

Died In Philadelphia, April 30, 1891. 
Leonard, Rensselaer, Manch Chunk, Pa. (33)., Born in Hancock, N. T., 

April 12, 1821. Died in Mauch Chunk; Pa., Oct. 26, 1888. 
Lewis, Heniy Carvill, Philadelphia, Pa. (26). Born in Philadelphia, Pa., 

Nov. 16, 1853. Died In Manchester, England, July 21, 1888. 
Libbey, Joseph. Georgetown, D. C. (81). Died July 20, 1886. 
Lieber, Oscar Montgomery, Columbia, S. C. (8). Born Sept. 8, 1830. 

Died June 27, 18C2. 
Lincklaen, Ledyard, Cazenovia, N. Y. (1). Born in Cazenovia, N. Y., 

Oct. 17, 1820. Died April 26, 1864. 
LInsley, James Hnrvey, Stafford, Conn. (1). Born in Northford, Conn., 

May 6, 1787. Died in Stratford, Conn., Dec. 26, 1843. 
Lockwood, Moses B., Providence, R. I. (9). Died in 1872. 
I^gan, William ^dmond, Montreal, Canada (1). Born in Montreal, Can* 

ada, April 23, 1798. Died in Wales, June 22, 1876. 
Loiseau, EmileF., Brussels, Belgium (33). Died April SO, 1886. 
Loomis, Ellas, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born in Wiillngton, Conn., Aug. 

7, 1811. Died in New Haven, Conn., Aug. 16, 1889. 
Loosey, Charles F., New York, N. Y. (12). 
Lothrop, Joshua R., BulTalo, N. Y. (16). 
Lovering, Joseph, Cambridge, Mass. (2). Born in Charlestowu, Mass., 

' Dec. 25, 1813. Died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 18, 1892. 
Lowrle, J. R., Warrlorsmark, Pa. (29). Died Dec. 10, 1885. 
Lull, Edward Phelps, Washington, D. C. (28). Born Feb. 20, 1886. 

Died March 6, 1887. 
Lyford, Moses, Springfield, Mass. (22). Bom in Mt. Vernon, Me., Jan. 

31, 1816. Died in Portland, Me., Aug. 4, 1887. 
Lyman, Chester Smith, New Haven, Conn. (4). Born in Manchester, 

Conn., Jan. 13, 1814. Died in New Haven, Conn., in 1889. 
Lyon, Sidney S., Jeffersonville, Ind. (20). Born Aug. 4, 1808. Died June 

24, 1872. 
M'Conlhe, Isaac, Troy, N. Y. (5). 

McCutchen, A. R., Atlanta, Ga. (25). Died Nov. 21, 1887. 
McElrath, Thomas, New York, N. Y. (36). Born in Wllllamsport, Pa., 

May 1, 1807. Died in New York, N. Y., June 6, 1888. 
McFadden, Thomas, Westerville, Ohio (30). Bom Nov. 9, 1826. Died 

Nov. 9, 1883. 
McFarland, Walter, New York, N. Y. (36). Died July 22, 1888. 
MacGregor, Donald, Houston, Texas (33). Died in Oct., 1887. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. CVli 

McLachlAD, J. S., Montreal, Can. (SI). 

McMahon, Mathew, Albany, N. Y. (11). 

McNiel, John A., Binghamtou, N. Y. (85). Died In Binghamton, Dec. 

20, 1891, aged 76. 
Maack, 6. A., Cambridge, Mass. (18). Died in Aug., 1873. 
Macfarlane, James, Towanda, Pa. (29). Died in 1885. 
Mackintosh, James B , Kew York, N. Y. (27). Died In 1891. 
Maflfet, Wm. Ross, Wilkes Barre, Pa. (33). Died In June, 1890. 
Maban, Dennis Hart, West Point, N. Y. (9). Born In New York, N. Y., 

April 2, 1802. Died In New York, Sept. 16, 1871. 
Marler, George L,, Montreal, Can. (81). 
Marsh, Dexter, Greenfield, Mass. (1). Born in Montague, Mass., Aug. 22, 

1806. Died in GreenfleM, Mass., April 2, 1853. 
Marsh, James E., Roxbury, Mass. (10). 
Martin, Benjamin Nichols, New York, N. Y. (23). Born in Mount Holly, 

N. J., Oct. 20, 1816. Died In New York, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1883. 
Mather, William Williams, Columbus, Ohio (1). Born in Brooklyn, Conn., 

May 24, 1804. Died in Columbus, Ohio, Feb. 27, 1859. 
Maude, John B., St. Louis, Mo. (27). Died In April, 1879. 
Maupin, S., Charlottesville, Va. (10). 
May, Abigail Williams, Boston, Mass. (29). Born in Boston, April 21, 

1829. Died in Boston, Nov. 30, 1888. 
Meade, George Gordon, Philadelphia, Pa. (15). Born Dec. 30, 4815. 

Died Nov. 6, 1872. 
Meek, Fielding Bradford, Washington, D. C. (6). Born Dec. 10, 1817. 

Died Dec. 21, 1876. 
Meigs, James Aitken, Philadelphia, Pa. (12). Bom July 80, 1829. Died 

Nov. 9, 1879. 
Metcalf, Caleb B., Worcester, Mass. (20). Died July 31, 1891. 
Mlnifle,Wm., Baltimore, Md.(12). Born Aug. 14, 1805. Died Oct. 24, 1880. 
Mitchel, Ormsby MacKnight, Cincinnati, Ohio (3). Born in Union Co., 

Ky., July 28, 1810. Died in Beaufort, S. C, Oct. 30, 1862. 
Mitchell, Miss Maria, Lynn, Mass. (4). Born In Nantucket, Mass., Aug. 1, 

1818. Died in Lynn, 1889. 
Mitchell, William, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (2). Born in Nantucket, Mass., 

Dec. 20, 1791. Died in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., April 19, 1868. 
Mitchell, Wm. H., Florence, Ala. (17). 
Monroe, Nathan, Bradford, Mass. (6). Born in Minot, Me., May 16, 

1804. Died in Bradford, Mass,, July 8, 1866. 
Monroe, WlUlam, Concord, Mass. (18). Died April 27, 1877. 
Moore, E. C, New York, N. Y. (30). 
Morgan, Lewis Henry, Rochester, N. Y. (10). Bom near Aurora, N. Y., 

Nov. 21, 1818. Died Dec. 17, 1881. 
Morgan, Mrs. Mary E., Rochester, N. Y. (81)i Died In 1884. 
Morison, N. H., Baltimore, Md. (17). Bora in 1816. Died Nov. 14, 1890. 
Morris, John B., Nashville, Tenn. (26). 
Morris, Wistar, Philadelphia, Pa. (33). Died March 23, 1891. 



CViii DBCBASSD MEITBEBS. 

Morton, Samuel George, Philadelpltia, Pa. (1). Born In Philadelphia, 

Pa., Jan. 26, 1799. Died in Philadelphia, May 15, 1861. 
Mott, Alexander B., New York, N. Y. (86). Died Aug. 12, 1889. 
Madge, Benjamin Franklin, Manhattan, Kansas (25). Born iU Orring- 

ton. Me., Aug. 11, 1817. Died Nov. 21, 1879. 
Muir, William, Montreal, Can. (81). Died July, 1885. 
Mussey, William Heberdom, Cincinnati, Ohio (30). Born Sept. 30, 1818. 

Died Aug. 1, 1882. 
Nagel, Herman, St. Louis, Mo. (80). Born in Trltzwalk, Germany, May 

28, 1820. Died in St. Louis, Mo., Ft;b. 18, 1889. 
Newland, John, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. (28). Died Jan. 18, 1880. 
Newton, E. H.. Cambridge, N. Y. (1). 
Nichols, Charles A., Providence, R. I. (17). Bom Jan. 4, 1826. Died 

Oct. 20. 1877. 
Nichols, William Ripley, Boston, Mass. (18). Born April 30, 1847. Died 

July 14, 1886. 
Nicholson, Thomas, New Orleans, La. (21). 
Nicollet, Jean Nicholas, Washington, D. C. (1). Bom in Savoy, France, 

July 24, 1786. Died In Washington, D. C, Sept. 11, 1848. 
Northrop, John I., New York, N. Y. (36). 
Norton, John Pitkin, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born July 19, 1822. Died 

Sept. 5, 1852. 
Norton, William Augustus, New Haven, Conn. (6). Born InEastBloom- 

fleld, N. Y., Oct. 25, 1810. Died Sept. 21, 1883. 
Noyes, James Oscar, New Orleans, La. (21). Born In Niles, N. Y., June 

14, 1829. Died in New Orleans, La., Sept. 11, 1872. 
Nutt, Cyrus, Bloomiugton, Ind. (20). Born In Trumbull Co., Ohio, Sept. 

4, 1814. Died In Bloomington, Aug. 23, 1875. 

Oakes, Wm., Ipswich, Mass. (1). Bom July 1, 1799. Died July 31, 1848. 
Ogden, Robert W., New Orleans, La. (21). Died March 24, 1878. 
Ogden, William Butler, High Bridge, N. Y. (17). Born in New York, 
. N. Y., 1805. Died in New York, Aug. 3, 1877. 
Oliver, Miss Mary E., Ithaca, N. Y. (20). 
Olmsted, Alexander Fisher, New Haven, Conn. (4). Born Dec. 20, 1822. 

Died May 5, 1853. 
Olmsted, Denlson, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born in East Hartford, Conn., 

June 18, 1791. Died in New Haven, Conn., May 13, 1859. 
Olmsted, Denison, Jr., New Haven, Conn. (1). Born Feb. 16, 1824. Died 

Aug. 15, 1846. 
Orton, James, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (18). Born in Seneca Falls, N.Y., 

April 21, 1830. Died in Peru, S. A., Sept. 24, 1877. 
Osbun, Isaac J., Salem, Mass. (29). 
Otis, George Alexander, Washington, D. C. (10). Born in Boston, Mass., 

Nov. 12, 1830. Died Feb. 23, 1881. 
Owen, Richard, New Harmony, Ind. (20). Born in Scotland, Jan. 6, 1810. 

Died in New Harmony, March 24, 1890. 



DECEASED MEMBBBS. CIS 

Packer, Harry B., Mauch Chunk, Pa. (80). Died Feb. 1, 1884. 

Painter, Jacob, Lima, Pa. (28). Died in 1876. 

Painter, Minsliall, Lima, Pa. (7). 

Parker, Wilbur F., West Meriden, Conn. (28). Died in 1876. 

Parkman, Samuel, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in 1816. Died Dec. 15, 1854. 

Parry, Charles C, Davenport, Iowa (6). Born in Admington, Worcester- 
shire, Eng., Aug. 28, 1823. Died in Davenport, Iowa, Feb. 20, 1890. 

Parsons, Henry Betts, New York, N. Y. (80). Born Nov. 20, 1866. Died 
Aug. 21, 1886. 

Payn, Charles H., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. (28). Born May 16, 1814. 
Died Dec. 20, 1881. 

Pearson, H. G., New York, N. Y. (36). 

Peajse, F. S., Buffalo, N. Y. (85). Died Nov. 6, 1890. 

Pease, Rufus D., Philadelphia, Pa. (83). Died in 1890. 

Peirce, Benjamin Osgood, Beverly, Mass. (18). Born in Beverly, Sept. 
26, 1812. Died in Beverly, Nov. 12, 1883. 

Peirce, Benjamin, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in Salem, Mass., April 4, 
1809. Died in Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 6, 1880. 

Perch, Bernard, Frankfurd, Pa. (35). Born in 1850. Died in 1887. 

Perkins, George Roberts, Utica, N. Y. (1). Born in Otsego Co., N. Y., 
May 3, 1812. Died in New Hartford, N. Y., Aug. 22, 1876. 

Perkins, Henry C, Newburyport, Mass. (18). Born Nov. 13, 1804. Died 
Feb. 2, 1873. 

Perry, John B., Cambridge, Mass, (16). Born in 1820. Died Oct. 3, 1872. 

Perry, Matthew Calbralth, New York, N. Y. (10). Born in South Kings- 
ton, R. I., 1795. Died in New York, March 4, 1858. 

Phelps, Mrs. Almira Hart Lincoln, Baltimore, Md. (18). Born In Ber- 
lin, Conn., July 15, 1793. Died in Berlin, July 15, 1884. 

Philbrick, Edw. S., Brookline, Mass. (^29). Born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 
20, 1827. Died in Brookline, Mass., Feb. 13, 1889. 

Phillips, John C, Boston, Mass. (29). Born in 1839. Died Mar. 1, 1885. 

Piggot, A. Snowden, Baltiniore, Md. (10). 

Pirn, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan, London, Eng. (33). Born in England, 

June 12, 1826. Died Oct., 1886. 
Piatt, W. G., Philadelphia, Pa. (32). Died Nov., 1885. 
Plumb, Ovid, Salisbury, Conn. (9). 
Pope, Charles Alexander, St. Louis, Mo. (12). Born in Huntsville, Ala., 

March 15, 1818. Died in Paris, Mo., July 6, 1870. 
Porter, John Addison, New Haven, Conn. (14). Born In Catskill, N. Y,, 

March 15, 1822. Died in New Haven, Conn., Aug. 25, 1866. 
Potter, Stephen H., Hamilton, Ohio (80). Born Nov. 10, 1812. Died 

Dec. 9, 1883. 
Pourtal&s, Louis Frangois de, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born March 4, 

1824. Died July 19, 1880. 
Pruyn, John Van Schaick Lansing, Albany, N. Y. (1). Born in Albany, 
N. Y., June 22, 1811. Died in Clifton Springs, N. Y., Nov. 21, 1877. 
Pugh, Evan, Centre Co., Pa. (14). Born Feb. 29, 1828. Died April 29, 
1864. 



CZ DBCBASBD MBHBBRS. 

Palsifer, Sidney, Philadelphia, Pa. (21). Died March 24, 1884. 

Patnam, Mrs. Fredericlc Ward, Cambridge, Mass. (19). Born in Charle<<- 

towii, Mass., Dec. 29, 1838. Died in Cambridge, Mass., March 10, 

1879. 
Patnam, J. Duncan, Davenport, Iowa (27). Bom Oct. 18, 1855. Died 

Dec. 10, 1881. 

Read, Ezra, Terre Haate, Ind. (20). Died in 1877. 

Bedfield, William C, New York, N. Y. (1). Bom near Middletown, 

Conn., March 26, 1789. Died Feb. 12, 1857. 
Resor, Jacob, Cincinnati, Ohio (8). Died in 1871. 
Richardson, Tobias G., New Orleans, La. (30). Died in New Orleans, 

May 26, 1892. Aged 65 years. 
Robb, James, Fredericton, N. B. (4). 
Robinson, Coleman T., Buffalo, N. Y. (15). Bom in Putnam Co., N. Y., 

in 1838. Died near Brewster's Station, N. Y., May 1, 1872. 
Rochester, Thomas Fortescue, Buffalo, N. Y. (35). Born Oct. 8, 1823. 

Died May 24, 1887. 
Rockwell, John Arnold, Norwich, Conn. (10). Born in Norwich, Conn., 

August 27, 1803. Died In Washington, D. C, Febmary 10, 1861. 
Boeder, F. A., Cincinnati, Ohio (30). 
Rogers, Henry Darwin, Glasgow, Scotland (1). Born in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Aug. 1, 1808. Died in Glasgow, Scotland, May 29, 1866. 
Rogers, James Blythe, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Bom in Philadelphia, Pa., 

Feb. 11, 1802. Died in Philadelphia, June 15, 1852. 
Rogers, Robert Emple, Philadelphia, Pa. (18). Born in Baltimore, Md., 

March 29, 1813. Died Sept. 6, 1884. 
Rogers, William Barton, Boston, Mass. (1). Bora in Philadelphia, Pa., 

Dec. 7, 1804. Died in Boston, May 30, 1882. 
Root, Elihu, Amherst, Mass. (25). Born Sept. 14, 1845. 
Rutherford, Lewis M., New York, N. Y. (13). Born in Morrisania, N. Y., 

Nov. 25, 1816. Died in Tranquility, N. J., May 80, 1892. 

Sager, Abram, Ann Arbor, Mich. (6). Bom in Bethlehem, N. Y., Dec. 

22, 1811. Died In Ann Arbor, Mich., August 6, 1877. 
Sanders, Benjamin D., Wellsburg, W. Va. (19). 
Scammon, Jonathan Young, Chicago, 111. (17). Born in Whltefleid, Me., 

in 1812. Died In Chicago, 111., March 17, 1890. 
Schaeffer, Geo. C, Washington, D. C. (1). Died in 1878. 
Schimpff, Robert D., Scran ton. Pa. (36). 
Schley, William, New York, N. Y. (28). Died in 1882. 
Schram, Nicholas Hallock, Newburgh, N. Y. (33). Died in Newburgh, 

N. Y., aged 54 years, 1 month and 2 days. 
Schrenk, Joseph, Hoboken, N. J. (86). 
Scott, Joseph, Dunham, C. E. (11). Died in 1865. 
Seaman, Ezra Champion, Ann Arbor, Mich. (20). Bom Oct.. 14, 1805. 

Died July 16, 1880. 
Senecal, L. A., Montreal, Can. (81). 
Senter, Harvey S., Aledo, 111. (20). Died In 1876. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. Cxl. 

Seward, William Henry, Aubarn, N. Y. (1). Born In Florida, N. Y., May 

16, 1801. Died in Aubarn, N. Y., Oct. 10, 1872. 
Sheafer, Peter W., Tottsvllle, Pa. (4). Died March 26, 1891. 
Sheppard, William, Drummondville, Province of Quebec, Can. (11). 

Born in 1783. Died in 1867. 
Sherwin, Thomas, Dedham, Mass. (11). Born in Westmoreland, N. H., 

March 26, 1799. Died in Dedham, Mass., July 23, 1869. 
Sill, Elisha N., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio (6). Born in 1801. Died April 26, 

1888. 
Silliman, Benjamin, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born in North Stratford, 

Conn., August 8, 1779. Died in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 22, 1864. 
Silliman, Benjamin, New Haven, Conn. (1). Born in New Haven, Conn., 

Dec. 4, 1816. Died Jan. 14, 1885. 
Simpson, Edward, Washington, D. C. (28). Born in New York, N. Y., 

March 3, 1824. Died in Wasiiington, D. C, Dec. 1, 1888. 
Skinner, George, Kalida, Ohio (83). 
Skinner, John B., Buffalo, N. Y. (15). Died in 1871. 
Slack, J. H., Philadelphia, Pa. (12). 
Smith, Charles A., St. Louis, Mo. (27). Died in 1884. 
Smith, David P., Springfield, Mass. (29). Born Oct. 1, 1830. Died Dec. 

26, 1880. 
Smith, Mrs. Erminnie Adelle, Jersey City, N. J. (25). Born April 26, 

1836. Died June 9, 1886. 
Smith, John Lawrence, Louisville, Ky. (1). Born near Charleston, S. C, 

Dec. 17, 1818. Died Oct. 12, 1883. 
Smith, J. v., Cincinnati, Ohio (5). 
Smith, James Young, Providence, R.I. (9). Born in Groton, Conn., Sept. 

16, 1809. Died March 26, 1876. 
Smith, Lyndon Arnold, Newark, N. J. (9). Born in Haverhill, N. H., 

November 11, 1795. Died in Newark, N. J., December 15, 1865. 
Snell, Ebenezer Strong, Amherst, Mass. (2). Born in North Brookfleld, 

Mass., October 7, 1801. Died in Amherst, Mass., Sept^, 1877. 
Sparks, Jared, Cambridge, Mass. (2). Born in Willlngton, Conn., May 

10, 1819. Died in Cambridge, Mass., March 14, 1866. 
Spinzig, Charles, St. Louis, Mo. (27). Died Jan. 22, 1882. 
Squier, Ephraim George, New York, N. Y. (18). Born in Bethlehem, 

N. Y., June 17, 1821. Died in Brooklyn, N. Y., April 17, 1888. 
Steams, Josiah A., Boston, Mass. (29). 
Stearns, Silas, Pensacola, Fla. (28). Died Aug. 2, 1888. 
Steele, Joel Dorman, Elmlra, N. Y. (33). Born in Lima, N. Y., May 14, 

18B6. Died May 25, 1886. 
Stelner, Lewis H., Baltimore, Md. (7). Born in Frederick City, Md., in 

1827. Died in Baltimore, April, 1892. 
Stevenson, James, Washington, D. C. (29). Born in Maysville, Ky., Dec. 

24, 1840. Died in New York, N. Y., July 25, 1888. 
Stimpson, Wm., Chicago, 111. (12). Born Feb. 14, 1832. Died May 26, 
1872. 



CSii BRCSASED MEMBERS. 

Stone, Leander, Chicago, III. (82). Died April 2, 1888. 

Stone, Samuel, Chicago, 111. (17). Born Dec. 6, 1798. Died May 4, 1876. 

St. John, Joseph S., Albany, N. Y. (28). Died Nov. 28, 1882. 

Straight, H. H., Chicago, 111. (25). Died Nov. 17, 1886. 

Siarges, George, Cliicago, 111. (87). Born atPatnam, Ohio, May 13, 1838. 

Died at Lalse Geneva, Wis., Aag. 12, 1890. 
Sullivan, Algernon Sidney, New York, N. Y. (86). Born April 5, 1826. 

Died Dec. 4, 1887. 
SuUivant, William Starling, Columbas, Ohio (7). Bom near Columbas, 

O., Jan 15, 1803. Died in Columbus, O., April 30. 1873. 
Sutton, George, Aurora, lud. (20;. Died June 13, 1886. 
Swuin, James, Fort Dodge, Iowa (21). Born in 1816. Died in 1877. 

Tallmadge, James, New Yorlc, N. Y. (1). Born In Stamford, N. Y., Jan. 

20, 1778. Died in New York, N. Y., Oct. 3, 1853. 
Taylor, Arthur F., Cleveland, Ohio (29). Born Dec. 10, 1853. Died 

June 28, 1883. 
Taylor, Bichard Cowling, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born in England, Jan. 

18, 1789. Died in Philadelphia, Pa., November 26, 1851. 
Taylor, Robert N., ToUesboro, Ky. (87). Died Aug. 13, 1888. 
Tenney, Sanborn, Wiliiamstown, Mass. (17). Born in January, 1827. Died 

July 11, 1877. 
Teschemaclier, James Englehert, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in Notting- 
ham, England, June 11, 1790. Died near Boston, Nov. 9, 1853. . 
Thompson, A. Remsen, New York, N. Y. (1). Died in Oct., 1879. 
Thompson, Alexander, Aurora, N. Y. (1). 
Thompson, Charles Oliver, Terre Haute, Ind. (29). Born in East Windsor 

Hill, Conn., Sept. 25, 1835. Died in Terre Haute, Ind., March 17, 1886. 
Thompson, Harvey M., Oakland, Cal. (17). 
Thompson, Zadock, Burlington, Vt. (1). Bom in Bridgewater, Vt., May 

23, 1796. Died in Burlington, Vt , Jan 19, 1856. 
Thomson, Henry R., Crawfordsville, Ind. (30). Died in 1884. 
Thurber, Isaac, Providence, R.I. (9). 
Tilemun, John Nicholas, Sanely, Utah (33). Born In Horhun, Denmark, 

Msiich 28, 1845. Died in Salt Lake City, Utah, Sept. 4, 1888. 
Tillman, Samuel Dyer, Jersey City, N. J. (15). Born April, 1815. Died 

Sept. 4, 1875. 
Tobln, Thomas W., Louisville, Ky. (30). Died Aug. 4, 1883. 
Todd, Albert, St. Louis, Mo. (27). Born March 4, 1813. Died April 

30, 1885. 
Tolderoy, James B., Fredericton, N. B. (11). 
Torrey, John, New York, N. Y. (1). Born in New York, N. Y., Aug. 16, 

1796. Died in New York, March 10, 1873. 
Torrey, Joseph, Burlington, Vt. (2). Born in Rowley, Mass., Feb. 2, 1797. 

Died In Burlington, Vt., Nov. 26, 1867. 
Totten, Joseph Gilbert, Washington, D. C. (1). Born in New Haven, 

Conn., August 23, 1788. Died In Washington, D. C, April 22, 1864. 



DECEASED MEMBERS. CXIU 

Townsend, Howard, Albany, N. Y. (10). Born Nov. 22, 1828. Died Jan. 

6, 1867. 
Townsend, John Kirk, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born Aug. 10, 1809. Died 

Peb. 16, 1851. 
Townsend, Robert, Albany, N. Y. (9). Born 1799. Died Aug. 16, 1866. 
Trembley, J. B., Oaliland, Cal. (17). 
Troost, Gerard, Nashville, Tenn. (1). Born in Bois-Ie-Duc, Holland, 

March 15, 1776. Died in Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 14, 1850. 
Trowbridge, William Pettit, New Haven, Conn. (10). Born in Troy, 

Mich., in 1828. Died in New Haven, Aug. 12, 1892. 
Tuomey, Michael, Tuscaloosa, Ala. (1). Born in Ireland, September 29, 

1806. Died in Tuscaloosa, Ala.,lMarch 20, 1857. 
Tupper, Samuel Y„ Charleston, S. C. (38). Died in 1891. 
Tweedale, John B., St. Thomas, Can. (35). Born in Onnskirk, Lancashire, 

Eng., Oct. 16, 1821. Died in St. Thomas, Can., Nov. 18, 1889. 
Tyler, Edward R., l^ew Haven, Conn. (1). Bom Aug. 3, 1800. Died 

Sept. 28, 1848. 
Tyler, Edward R., Washington. D. C. (31). Died in Washington, March 

30, 1891. 

Vancleve, John W., Dayton, Ohio (1). 

Vanuxem, Lardner, Bristol, Pa. (1). Bom in Philadelphia, Pa., July 28, 

1792. Died in Bristol, Pa., June 25, 1848. 
Vaux, William Sanson, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born In Philadelphia, May 

19, 1811. Died in Philadelphia, May 6, 1882. 

• 

Wadsworth, James Samuel, Genesee, N. Y. (2). Born in Genes^o, N. Y., 

October 80, 1807. Died near Chancellorville, Va. , May 8, 1864. 
Wagner, Tobias, Philadelphia, Pa. (9). 
Walker, J. R., Bay Saint Louis, Miss. (19). Born Aug. 7, 1830. Died June 

22, 1887. 
Walker, Joseph, Oxford, N. Y. (10). 
Walker, Sears C, Washington, D. C. (1). Bora March 28, 1805. Died 

January 30, 1853. 
Walker, Timothy, Cincinnati, Ohio (4). Born in Wilmington, Mass., 

Dec. 1, 1802. Died in Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 16, 1856. 
Walling, H. F., Cambridge, Mass. (16). Died April 8, 1888. 
Walsh, Benjamin D., Rock Island, 111. (17). Born in Frome, England, 

Sept. 21, 1808. Died in Rock Island, 111., Nov. 18, 1869. 
Walton, Joseph J., Philadelphia, Pa. (29). Born in Barnesville, Ohio, 

Nov. 1, 1856. Died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 11, 1889. 
Wanzer, Ira, Brookfield, Conn. (18). Born In New Fairfield, Conn., April 

17, 1796. Died in New Mllford, Conn., March 5, 1879. 
Warnecke, Carl, Montreal, Can. (31). Died May 14, 1886. 
Warren, Geo. Washington, Boston, Ma^s. (18). Died in 1884. 
Warren, Gouverneur Kemble, Newport, R. I. (12). Bom in Cold Spring 

N. Y., Jan. 8, 1830. Died in Newport, R. I., Aug. 8, 1882. 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLI. H 



CZIV DECBASBD MEMBERS. 

Warren, John Collins, Boston, Mass. (1). Born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 

1, 1778. Died in Boston, May 4, 1856. 
Warren, Samuel D., Boston, Mass. (29). Born in 1817. Died May 11, 1888. 
Wateriown, Charles, Wakefield, Eng. (1). Born in Wakefield, England. 

Died in Wakefield, May 26, 1865. 
Watkins, Samnel, Nashville, Tenn. (26). 
Watson, James Craig, Ann Arbor, Mich. (18). Born in Flngal, Canada, 

Jan. 28, 1888. Died in Mudison, Wis., Nov. 28, 1880. 
Watoon, Sereno, Cambridge, Mass. (22). . Died March 9, 1892, in the 66th 

year of his age. 
Webster, Horace B., Albany, N. Y. (1). Bom In 1812. Died Dec. 8, 1843. 
Webster, J. W., Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in 1798. Died Aug. 30, 1850. 
Webster. M. H., Albany. N. Y. (1). 
Weed, Monroe, Wyoming, N. Y. (6). Died in 1867. 
Welch, Mrs. G. O., Lynn, Mass. (21). Died in June, 1882. 
Welsh, John, Philadelphia, Fa. (33). Died May, 1886. 
Weyman, George W., Pittsburgh, Pa. (6). Born April, 1832. Died July 

16, 1864. 
Wheatland, Richard H., Salem, Mass. (18). Born July 6, 1880. Died 

Dec. 21, 1863. 
Wheatley, Charles M., Phoenlxville, Pa. (1).V Died May 6, 1882. 
Wheeler, Arthur W., Baltimore, Md. (29). Born in March, 1869. Died 

Jan. 6, 1881. 
Wheildon, William W., Concord, Mass. (18). Born in 1806. Died in 

Concord, Mass., Jan. 7, 1892. 
Whftall, Henry, Camden, N. J. (33). 

White, Samuel S., Philadelphia, Pa. (23). Died Dec. 30, 1879. 
Whiting, Lewis E., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. (28). Born March 7, 1816. 

Died Aug. 2, 1882. 
Whitman, Edmund B., Cambridge, Mass. (29). Died Sept. 2, 1883. 
Whitman, Wm. E., Philadelphia, Pa. (23). Died in 1875. 
Whitney, Asa, Philadelphia, Pa. (1). Born Dec. 1, 1791. Died June 4, 1874. 
Whittlesey, Charles, Cleveland, Ohio (1). Born in Southlngton, Conn., 

Oct. 5, 1808. Died Oct. 18, 1886. 
Whittlesey, Charles C, St. Louis, Mo. (11). Died in 1872. 
Wight, Orlando W., Detroit, Mich. (84). 
Wilber, G. M., Pine Plains, N. Y. (19). 
Wilder, Graham, Louisville, Ky. (30). Born July 1, 1848. Died Jan. 16, 

1886. 
Willard, Emma C. Hart, Troy, N. Y. (16). Born in Berlin, Conn., Feb. 

23, 1787. Died In Troy, N. Y., April 16, 1870. 
Williams, Frank, Buflklo, N. Y. (25). Died Aug. 13, 1884. 
Williams, J. Francis, Salem^ N. Y. (31). Died In .1891. 
Williams, P. O., Watertown, N. ^. (24). 
Williamson, Robert S., San Francisco, Cal. (12). Born in New York 

about 1826. 
Wilson, C. H., Belize, British Honduras (30). 



DECEASED MEMBERS. . OXV 

Wilson, Daniel, Toronto, Can. (25). Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Died in Toronto, Aug., 1892, 
Wilson, Mrs. Mary V. C, Mobile, Ala. (87). Born in Morengo County, 

Ala., Jan. 29, 1840. Died near Tullahoma, Tenn., June 24, 1889. 
Wilson, W. C, Carlisle, Pa. (12). 
Winchell, Alexander, Ann Arbor, Mich. (3). Born in North East, N. Y., 

Dec. 31, 1824. Died In Ann Arbor, Mich., Feb. 19, 1891. 
Winlock, Joseph, Cambridge, Mass. (5). Born in Shelby ville, Ey., Feb. 

6, 1826. Died in Cambridge, Mass., June 11, 1875. 
Woerd, Chas. Yander, Waltham, Mass. (29). Born In Leyden, Holland. 

Oct. 6, 1821. Died near Dagget, Cal., Dec. 29, 1888. 
Woodbury, Levi, Portsmouth, N. H. (1), Bom in Francistown, N. H., 

Dec. 22, 1789. Died Sept. 4, 1851. 
Woodman, John Smith, Hanover, N. H. (11). Bom in Durham, N. H., 

Sept. 6, 1819. Died in Durham, N. H., May 15, 1871. 
Woodward, A. E., Jefierson City, Mo. (39). Died in Montana, Sept. 20, 

1891. 
Woodward, Joseph Janvier, Washington, D. C. (28). Bom in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Oct. 80, 1833. Died near that city, Aug. 17, 1884. 
Worthen, Amos Henry, Springfield, 111. (5). Bom Oct. 31, 1813. Died 

May 6, 1888. 
Worthlngton, George, New York, N. Y. (36). Died Feb. 1, 1892. 
Wright, Ellzur, Boston, Mass. (31). Bom in South Canaan, Conn., Feb. 

12, 1804. Died Nov. 20, 1886. 
Wright, Harrison, Wilkes Barre, Pa. (29). Born July 15, 1850. Died 

Feb. 20, 1886. 
Wright, John, Troy, N. Y. (1). 
Wyman, Jeffries, Cambridge, Mass. (1). Born in Chelmsford, Mass., Aug. 

11, 1814. Died in Bethlehem, N. H., Sept. 4, 1874. 
Wyckoff, William Cornelius, New York, N. Y. (20). Born In New York, 

N. Y., May 28, 1832. Died In Brooklyn, N. Y., May 2, 1888. 

Yamall, M., Washington, D. C. (26). Born in 1817. Died Jan. 27, 1879. 
Youmans, Edward Livingston, New York, N. Y. (6). Born In Coeymans, 

N. Y., June 3, 1821. Died Jan. 18, 1887. 
Young, Ira, Hanover, N. H. (1). Born in Lebanon, N. H., May 23, 1801. 

Died in Hanover, N. H., Sept. 14, 1858. 

■Zentmayer, Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa. (29). Died, 1887. 



' 



ADDRESS 

BY 

ALBERT B. PRESCOTT, 

THE RRTIRING PKESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



THE IMMEDIATE WORK IN CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 



A DIVISION of science has a work of its own to do, a work that 
well might be done for its own sake, and still more must be done 
in payment of what is due to the other divisions. Each section of 
our Association has its just task, and fidelity to this is an obliga- 
tion to all the sections. Those engaged in any labor of science owe 
a debt to the world at large, and can be called to give an account 
of what they are doing, and what they have to do, that the truth 
may be shown on all sides. 

If it be in my power to make the annual address of this meeting 
of any service at all to you who hear it — in your loyalty to the 
Association — I would bring before you some account of the work 
that is wanted in the science of chemistry. Of what the chemists 
have done in the past the arts of industry speak more plainly than 
the words of any address. Of what chemists may do in the future 
it would be quite in vain that I should venture to predict. But of 
the nature of the work that is waiting in the chemical world at the 
present time I desire to say what I can, and I desire to speak in 
the interests of science in general. The interests of science, I am 
well assured, cannot be held indifferent to the interests of the public 
at large. 

It is not a small task, to find out how the matter of the universe 
is made. The task is hard, not because of the great quantity in 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XM 1 (1) 



2 ADDRESS BT 

which matter exists, nor by reason of the multiplicity of the kinds 
and compounds of matter, but rather from the obscurity under 
which the actual composition of matter is hidden from man. The 
physicists reach a conclusion that matter is an array of molecules, 
little things, not so liirge as a millionth of a millimeter in size, 
and the formation of these they leave to the work of the chemists. 
The smallest objects dealt with in science, their most distinct ac- 
tivities become known only by the widest exercise of inductive rea- 
son. 

The reulm of chemical action, the world within the molecules of 
matter, the abode of the chemical atoms, is indeed a new world and 
but little known. The speculative atoms of the ancients, mere 
mechanical divisions, prefiguring the molecules of modern science, 
yet gave no sign of the chemical atoms of this century, nor any ac- 
count of what happens in a chemical change. A new field of knowl- 
edge was opened in 1774 by the discovery of oxygen, and entered 
upon in 1804 by the publications of Dalton, a region more remote 
and move difficult of access than was the unknown continent to- 
ward which Christopher Columbus set his sails three centuries 
earlier. The world within molecules has been open for only a 
hundred years. The sixteenth century was not long enough for an 
exploration of the continent of America, and the nineteenth has 
not been long enough for the undertaking of the chemists. When 
four centuries of search shall have been made in the world of 
chemical formation, then science should be ready to meet a con- 
gress of nations, to rejoice with the chemist upon the issue of his 
task.v 

It is well known that chemical labor has not been barren of re- 
turns. The products of chemical action, numbering thousands of 
thousands, have been sifted and measured and weighed. If you ask 
what happens in a common chemical change you can obtain direct 
answers. When coal burns in the air, how much oxygen is used 
up, can be stated with a degree of exactness true to the first deci- 
mal of mass, perhaps to the second, yet questionable in the 
third. How much carbonic acid is made can be told in weight and 
in volume with approaching exactness. How much heat this 
chemical action is worth, how much light, how much electro-mo- 
tive force, what train-load of cars it can carry, how long it can 
make certain wheels go round, — for these questions chemists and 
physicists are ready. With how many metals carbonic acid will 



ALBERT B. PRESCOTT. 3 

unite, how many ethers it can make into carbonates, into what 
classes of molecules a certain larger fragment of carbonic acid can 
be formed, the incomplete records of these things already run 
through a great many volumes. These carboxylic bodies are open 
to productive studies, stimulated by various sorts of inquiry and 
demands of life. Such have been the gatherings of research. They 
have been slowly drawn into order, more slowly interpreted in 
meaning. The advance has been constant, deliberate, sometimes 
in doubt, always persisting and gradually gaining firmer ground. 
So chemistry has reached tJie period of definUunu Its guiding theory 
has come to be realized. 

'^The atomic theory" has more and more plainly appeared to be 
the central and vital truth of chemical science. As a working 
hypothesis it has directed abstruse research through difficult ways to 
open accomplishment in vivid reality. As a system of knowledge, 
it has more than kept pace with the rate of invention. As a 
philosophy, it is in touch with profound truth in physics, in the 
mineral kingdom, and in the functions of living bodies. As a lan- 
guage it has been a necessity of man in dealing with chemical 
events. Something might have been done, no doubt, without it, 
had it been possible to keep it out of the chemical mind. But 
with a knowledge of the primary elements of matter, as held at the 
beginning of this century, some theory of chemical atoms was inev- 
itable. And whatever theory might have been adapted, its use in 
investigation would have drawn it with a certainty into the essen- 
tial features of the theory now established. It states the consti- 
tution of matter in terms that stand for things as they are made. 
The mathematician may choose the ratio of numerical notation, 
whether the ratio of ten or some other. But the chemist must 
find existing ratios of atomic and molecular mass, with such degree 
of exactness as he can attain. Chemical notation, the index of the 
atomic system, is imperfect, as science is incomplete. However 
defective, it is the resultant of a multitude of facts. The atomic 
theory has come to be more than facile language, more than lucid 
classification, more than working hypothesis, it is the definition of 
the known truth in the existence of matter. 

The chemical atom is known, however, for what it does, rather 
than for what it is. It is known as a center of action, a factor of 
influence, an agent of power. It is identified by its responses, 
and measured by its energies. Concealed as it is, each atom has 



4 ADDRESS BT 

given proof of its own part in the stmctare of a molecule. Proofs 
of position, not in space but in action, as related to other atoms, 
have t)een obtained by a maltitade of workers with the greatest 
advantage. The arrangement of the atoms in space, however, is 
another and later question, not involved in the general studies of 
structure. But even this question has arisen upon its own chemical 
evidences, for certain bodies, so that ''the configuration'' of the 
molecule has become an object of active research. 

Known for what it does, the atom is not clearly known for what 
it is. Cbemists, at any rate, are concerned mainly with what can 
be made out of atoms, not with what atoms can be made of. What- 
ever they are, and by whatever force or motion it is that they unite 
with each other, we define them by their effects. Through their 
effects they are classified in the rank and file of the periodic system. 
The physicists, however, do not stop short of the philosophical 
study of the atom itself. As a vibratory body its movements have 
been under mathematical calculations ; as a vortex ring its pulsa- 
tions have been assumed to agree with its combining power. As 
an operating magnet its interaction with other like magnets has 
been predicated as the method of valence. There are, as I am di- 
rectly assured, physicists of penetration and prudence now looking 
with confidence to studies of the magnetic relations of atoms to 
each other. ^ Moreover, another company of workers, the chemists 
of geometric isomerism, assume a configuration of the atoms, in 
accord with that of the molecule. 

The stimulating truth of the atomic constitution of the molecule, 
a great truth in elastic touch with all science, excites numerous 
hypotheses, which, however profitable they may be, are to be stout- 
ly held at a distance f^om the truth itself. Such are the hypothe- 
ses of molecular aggregation into crystals and other mineral forms. 
Such are the biological theories of molecules polymerizing into cells, 
and of vitality as a chemical property of the molecule. Such are 
the questions of the nature of atoms, and the genesis of the ele- 
ments as they are now known, questions on the border of meta- 
physics. Let all these be held distinct from the primary law of the 
atomic constitution of simple molecules in gaseous bodies, an es- 
sential principle in an exact science. The chemist should have the 



1 "The results of molecular physics point unmistakably to the atom as a magnet, in 
its chemical activitiea.**— A. B.Dolbear, in a personal communication. 



ALBERT B. PRESCOTT. 5 

comfortable assurance, every d&y, as he plies his balance of pre- 
cision, that the atom-made molecules are there, in their several ra- 
tios of quantity, however many unsettled questions may lie around 
about them. Knowledge of molecular structure makes chemistry 
a science, nourishing to the reason, giving dominion over matter, 
for beneficence to life. 

Every chemical pursuit receives strength from every advance in 
the knowledge of the molecule. And to this knowledge, none the 
less, every chemical pursuit contributes. The analysis of a min- 
eral, whether done for economic ends or not, may furnish a distinct 
contribution toward atomic valence. The further examination of 
steel in the cables of a suspension bridge is liable to lead to unex- 
pected evidence upon polymeric unions. Rothamsted farm, where 
ten years is not a long time for the holding of an experiment, yields 
to us a classic history of the behavior of nitrogen, a history from 
which we correct our theories. The analysis of butter for its sub- 
stitutes has done something to set us right upon the structure of 
the glycerides. Clinical inspection of the functions of the living 
body fain finds a record of molecular transformations too difficult 
for the laboratory. The efforts of pharmaceutical manufacture 
stimulate new orders of chemical combination. The revision of 
the pharmacopoeia every ten years points out a humiliating num- 
ber of scattered errors in the published constants on which science 
depends. The duty of the engineer, in his scrutiny of the quality 
of lubricating oils, brings a more critical inquiry into the laws of 
molecular movement. There is not time to mention the many pro- 
fessions and pursuits of men who contribute toward the principles of 
chemistry and hold a share therein. If it be the part of pure sci- 
ence to find the law of action in nature, it is the part of applied 
science both to contribute facts and to put theory to the larger 
proof. In the words of one who has placed industry in the great- 
est of its debts to philosophic research, W. H. Perkin, "There is 
no chasm between pure and applied science, they do not even stand 
side by side, but are linked together." So in all branches of chem- 
istry, whether it be termed applied or not, the best workers are 
the most strongly bound as one, in their dependence upon what is 
known of the structure of the molecule. 

Studies of structure were never before so inviting. In this di- 
rection and in that especial opportunities appear. Moreover the 
actual worker here and there breaks into unexpected paths of 



6 ADDRESS BT 

promise. Certainly the sngar gronp is presenting to the chemist 
an open way from simple alcohols on through to the cell substances 
of the vegetable woiid. And nothing anywhere coald be more 
suggestive than the extremely simple unions of nitrogen lately dis- 
covered. They are likely to elucidate linkings of this element in 
great classes of carbon compounds, all significant in general chem- 
istry. Then certain comparative studies have new attractions. 
As halogens have been upon trial side by side with each other, so 
for instance, silicon must be put through its paces with carbon, 
and phosphorus with nitrogen. Presently, also, the limits of mo- 
lecular mass, in polymers and in unions with water, are to be 
nearer approached from the chemical side, as well as from the side 
of physics, in that attractive but perplexing border ground between 
affinity and the states of aggregation. 

Such is the extent and such the diversity of chemical labor at 
present that every man must put limits to the range of his study. The 
members of a society or section of chemistry, coming together to 
hear each other's researches, are better able, for the most part, to 
listen for instruction than for criticism. Still less prepared for hasty 
judgment are those who do not come together in societies at all. 
Even men of eminent learning must omit large parts of the sub- 
ject, if it be permitted to speak of chemistry as a single subject. 
These considerations admonish us to be liberal. When metallur- 
gical chemistry cultivates skepticism as to the work upon atomic 
closed chains, it is a culture not the most liberal. When a dev- 
otee of organic synthesis puts a low value upon analytic work, he 
takes a very narrow view of chemical studies. When the chemist, 
who is in educational service, disparages investigations done in in- 
dustrial service, he exercises a pitiful brevity of wisdom. 

The pride of pure science is justified in this, that its truth is for 
the nurture of man. And the ambition of industrial art is honored 
in this, its skill gives strength to man. It is the obligation of sci- 
ence to bring the resources of the earth, its vegetation and its an- 
imal life, into the full service of man, making the knowledge of 
creation a rich portion of his inheritance, in mind and estate, in 
reason and in conduct, for life present and life to come. To know 
creation is to be taught of God. 

I have spoken of the century of beginning chemical labor, and 
have referred to the divisions and specialties of chemical study. 
What can I say of the means of uniting the earlier and later years 



ALBERT B. PRE8C0TT. 7 

of the past, as well as the separated pursuits of the present, in one 
mobile working force ? Societies of science are among these means, 
and it becomes us to magnify their office. For them, however, 
all that we can do is worth more than all we can say. And there 
are other means, even more effective than associations. Most nec- 
essary of all the means of unification in science is the use of its 
literature. 

It is by published communication that the worker is enabled to 
begin, not where the first investigation began, but where the last 
one left off. The enthusiast who lacks the patience to consult 
books, presuming to start anew all by himself in science, has need 
to get on faster than Antoine L. Lavoisier did when he began, 
an associate of the French Academy in 1768. He of immortal 
memory, after fifteen eventful years of momentous labor, reached 
only such a combustion of hydrogen as makes a very simple class 
experiment at present. But however early in chemical discovery, 
Lavoisier availed himself of contemporaries. They found oxygen, 
he learned oxidation : one great man was not enough, in 1774, both 
to reveal this element and show what part it takes in the forma- 
tion of matter. The honor of Lavoisier is by no means the less 
that he used the results of others, it might have been the more had 
he given their results a more explicit mention. Men of the larg- 
est original power make the most of the results of other men. 
Discoverers do not neglect previous achievement, however it may 
appear in biography. The masters of science are under the limi- 
tations of their age. Had Joseph Priestley lived in the seventeenth 
century he had not discovered oxygen. Had August Kekul6 
worked in the period of BerzeliuSj some other man would have set 
forth the closjsd chain of carbon combination, and Keku]6, we may 
be sure, would have done something else to clarify chemistry. 
Such being the limitations of the masters, what contributions can 
be expected in this age from a worker who is without the literature 
of his subject? 

In many a town some solitary thinker is toiling intensely over 
some self-imposed problem, devoting to it such sincerity and 
strength as should be of real service, while still he obtains no rec- 
ognition. Working without books, unaware of memoirs on the 
theme he loves, he tries the task of many with the strength of one. 
Such as he sometimes send communications to this association. 
An earnest worker, his utter isolation is quite enough to convert 



8 ADDRESS BT 

him into a crank. To every solitary investigator I shoald de- 
sire to say, get to a library of your subject, learn how to use its 
literature, and possess yourself of what there is on the theme of 
your choice, or else determine to give it up altogether. You may 
get on very well without college laboratories, you can survive it 
if unable to reach the meetings of men of learning, you can do 
without the counsel of an authority, but you can hardly be a contrib- 
utor in science except you gain the use of its literature. 

First in importance to the investigator are the original mem- 
oirs of previous investigators. The chemical determinations of the 
century have been reported by their authors in the periodicals. The 
serials of the years, the continuous living repositories of all chemis- 
try, at once the oldest and the latest of its publications, these must 
be accessible to the worker who would add to this science. A library 
for research is voluminous, and portions of it are said to be scarce, 
nevertheless it ought to be largely supplied. The laboratory itself 
is not more important than the library of science. In the public 
libraries of our cities, in all colleges now being established, the 
original literature of science ought to be planted. It is a whole- 
some literature, at once a stimulant and a corrective of that im- 
pulse to discovery that is frequent among the people of this coun- 
try. That a good deal of it is in foreign languages is hardly a 
disadvantage; there ought to be some exercise for the modern 
tongues that even the public high schools are teaching. That the 
sets of standard journals are getting out of print is a somewhat 
infirm objection. They have no right to be out of print in these 
days when they give us twenty pages of blanket newspaper at 
breakfast, and offer us Scott's novels in full for less than the cost 
of a day's entertainment. As for the limited editions of the old 
sets, until reproduced by new types, they may be multiplied through 
photographic methods. When there is a due demand for the orig- 
inal literature of chemistry, a demand in accord with the prospec- 
tive need for its use, the supply will come, let us believe, more 
nearly within the means of those who require it than it now does. 

What I have said of the literature of one science can be said, in 
the main, of the literature of the other sciences. And other things 
ought to be said, of what is wanted to make the literature of sci- 
ence more accessible to consulting readers. A gxecU deal of in- 
dexing is wanted. Systematic bibliography, both of previous and of 
current literature, would add a third to the productive power of a 



ALBERT B. PRESCOTT. 9 

large number of workers. It would promote common acquaintance 
with the original communications of research, and a general de- 
mand for the serial sets. Topical bibliographies are of great serv- 
ice. In this regard I desire to ask attention to the annual re- 
ports of the committee on Indexing Chemical Literature, in this 
association for nine years past, as well to recent systematic un- 
dertakings in geology, and like movements in zoology and other 
sciences. Also to the Index Medicus, as a continuous bibliogra- 
phy of current professional literature. 

Societies and institutions of science may well act as patrons to 
the bibliography of research, the importance of which has been 
recognized by the fathers of this Association. In 1855, Joseph 
Henry, then a past president of this body, memorialized the Brit- 
ish Association for cooperation in bibliography, offering that aid 
of the Smithsonian Institution which has so often been afforded to 
publications of special service. The British Association appointed 
a committee, who reported in 1857, after which the undertaking 
was proposed to the Royal Society. The Royal Society made an 
appeal to her Majesty's government, and obtained the necessary 
stipend. Such was the inception of the Royal Society Catalogue 
of scientiOc papers of this century, in eight quarto volumes, as 
issued in 1867 and 1877. Seriously curtailed from the generous 
plan of the committee who proposed it, limited to the single fea- 
ture of an index of authors, it is nevertheless of great help in lit- 
erary search. Before any list of papers, however, we must place 
a list of the serials that contain them, as registered by an active 
member of this Association, an instance of indtistry and critical 
judgment. I refer to the well-known catalogue of scientific and 
technical periodicals, of about five thousand numbers, in publica- 
tion from 1665 to 1882, together with the catalogue of chemical 
periodicals by the same author.^ 

Allied to the much needed service in bibliography, is the service 
in compilation of the Constants of Nature. In the preface of his 
dictionary of solubilities, in 1856, Professor Storer said ^'that chem- 
ical science itself might gain many advantages if all known facts 
regarding solubility were gathered from their widely scattered orig- 
inal sources into one special comprehensive work.'' That the time 

1 Bolton's Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals (1885: Smithsonian) 
omits the serials of the societies, as these are the subject of Soudder's Catalogue of 
Scientific Serials (1879: Harvard Univ.). On the contrary Bolton's Catalogue of Chem- 
ical Periodicals (1885: N. Y. Acad. Sci.) includes the publications of societies as weU 
as other serials. Chemical technology is also represented in the last named work. 



10 ADDRESS BT 

of the philosophical study of solation was near at hand has been 
verified by recent extended monographs on this subject. In like 
manner Thomas Camelley in England, and early and repeatedly 
our own Professor Clarke in the United States,^ bringing multitudes 
of scattered results into coordination, have augmented the powers 
of chemical service. 

What bibliography does for research, the Handw5rterbuch does 
for education, and for technology. It makes science wieldy to the 
student, the teacher, and the artisan. The chief dictionaries of 
science, those of encyclopedic scope, ought to be provided gener- 
ally in public libraries, as well as in the libraries of all high schools.^ 
The science classes in preparatory schools should make an acquaint- 
ance with scientific literature in this form. If scholars be assigned 
exercises which compel reference reading, they will gain a begin- 
ning of that accomplishment too often neglected, even in college, 
how to use books. 

The library is a necessity of the laboratory. Indeed, there is 
much in common between what is called the laboratory method, 
and what might be called the library method, in college training. 
The educational laboratory was instituted by chemistry, first tak- 
ing form under Liebig at Giessen only about fifty years ago. Ex- 
perimental study has been adopted in one subject after another, 
until, now, the ^Maboratory method" is advocated in language and 
literature, in philosophy and law. It is to be hoped that chem- 
istry will not fall behind in the later applications of ^Hhe new ed- 
ucation" in which she took so early a part. 

The advancement of chemical science is not confined to discov- 
ery, nor to education, nor to economic use. All of those interests 
it should embrace. To disparage one of them is injurious to the 
others. Indeed, they ought to have equal support. It would be 
idle to inquire into their respective advantages. This much, how- 
ever, is evident enough, chemical work is extensive and there is 
immediate want of it. 



^ The service of compilation of this character is again indicated by this extract from 
Clarice's Introdaction to the first edition of his "Constants'' (1873): "While engaged 
upon the study of some interesting points in theoretical chemistry, the compiler of tbe 
following tables had occasion to make frequent reference to the then existing lists of 
specific gravities. None of these, however, were complete enough. . . ." 

* The statistics of school libraries in the United States are very meagre, the expendi- 
tures for them being included with that for apparatus. For libraries and apparatus of 
all common schools, both primary and secondaiy, the annual expenditure is set at 
$987,048, which is about seven-tenths of one per cent of the total expenditure for these 
schools. 



ALBERT B. PRESOOTT. 11 

Various other branches of sciepce are held back by the delay of 
chemistry. Many of the material resources of the world wait upon 
its progress. In the century Just before us the demands upon the 
chemist are to be much greater than they have been. All the in- 
terests of life are calling for better chemical information. Men 
are wanting the truth. The biologist on the one hand, and the 
geologist on the other, are shaming us with interrogatories that 
ought to be answered.! Philosophy lingers for the results of molec- 
ular inquiry. Moreover the people are asking direct questions 
about the food they are to eat, or not to eat, asking more in a day 
than the analyst is able to answer in a month. The nutritive 
sources of bodily power are not safe, in the midst of the reckless 
activity of commerce, unless a chemical safeguard be kept, a guard 
who must the better prepare himself for his duty. 

Now if the people at large can but gain a more true estimation 
of tbe bearing of chemical knowledge, and of the extent of the 
chemical undertaking, they will more liberally supply the sinews 
of thorough-going toil. It must be more widely understood that 
achievements of science, such as have already multiplied the hands 
of industry, do not come by chances of invention, nor by .surprises 
of genius. It must be learned of these things that they come by 
breadth of study, by patience in experiment, and by the slow ac- 
cumulations of numberless workers. And it must be made to ap- 
pear that the downright labor of science actually depends upon 
means of daily subsistence. It must be brought home to men of 
affairs, that laboratories of seclusion with delicate apparatus, that 
libraries, such as bring all workers together in effect, that these 
really cost something in the same dollars by which the products of 
industrial science are measured. Statistics of chemical industry 
are often used to give point to the claims of science. For instance 
it can be said that this country, not making enough chemical wood 
pulp, has paid over a million dollars a year for its importation. 
That Great Britain pays twelve millions dollars a year for artificial 
fertilizers, from without. That coal tar is no longer counted a by- 
product, having risen in its value to a par with coal gas. But these 
instances, as striking as numerous others, still tend to divert at- 
tention from the more general service of chemistry as it should be 
known in all the economies of civilization. 

It is not for me to say what supplies are wanted for the work of 
chemists. These wants are stated, in quite definite terms, by a 



12 ADDRESS BT 

sufficient number of those who can speak for themselves. Bat if 
my voice could reach those who hold the supplies, I would plead a 
most considerate hearing of all chemical requisitions, and that a 
strong and generous policy may in all cases prevail in their behalf. 

If any event of the year is able to compel the attention of the 
world to the interests of research, it must be the notable close of 
that life of fifty years of enlarged chemical labor, announced from 
Berlin a few months ago. When thirty years of age, August Wilhelm 
von Hofmann, a native of Giessen and a pupil of Liebig, was called 
to work in London. Taking hold of the organic derivatives of 
ammonia, and presently adopting the new discoveries of Wurtz, 
be began those masterly contributions that appear to have been so 
many distinct steps toward a chemistry of nitrogen, such as indus- 
try and agriculture and medicine have thriven upon. In 1850 be 
opened a memoir in the philosophical transactions with these words 
*Hhe light now begins to dawn upon the chaos of collected facts." 
Since that time the coal tar industry has risen and matured, med- 
icine has learned to measure the treatment of disease, and agricult- 
ure to estimate the fertility of the earth. It seems impossible 
that so late as March of the present year, he was still sending his 
papers to the journals. If we could say something of what he has 
done we could say nothing of what he has caused others to do. 
And yet, let it be heard in these United States, without such a gen* 
erous policy of expenditure for science as gave to Dr. Hofmann 
his training in Giessen, or brought him to London in 1848, or built 
for him laboratories in Bonn and Berlin, without such provision by 
the 8tate^ the fruits of his service would have been lost to the world. 
Aye, and for want of a like broad and prudent provision for re- 
search with higher education, in this country, other men of great 
love for science and great power of investigation every year fail 
of their rightful career for the service of mankind. 

For the prosecution of research, in the larger questions now be- 
fore us, no training within the limitations of human life can be too 
broad or too deep. No provision of revenue, so far as of real use 
to science, can be too liberal. The truest investigation is the most 
prudent expenditure that can be made. 

In respect to the support that is wanted for work in science, 
I have reason for speaking with confidence. If I go beyond the 
subject with which I began I do not go beyond the warrant of the 
Association. This body has lately defined what its members may 



ALBERT B. PRESOOTT. 13 

say, by creating a committee to receive endowments for the support 
of research. 

There are men and women who have been so far rewarded, that 
great means of progress are in their liands, to be vigorously held 
for the best advantage. Strength is required to use large means, 
as well as to accumulate them. It is inevitable to wealth, that it 
shall be put to some sort of use, for without investment it dies. 
By scattered investment wealth loses personal force. The Amer- 
ican Association, in the conservative interests of learning, pro- 
poses certain effective investments in science. If it be not given 
to every plodding worker to be a promoter of discovery, such at 
all events is the privilege of ii/ealth, under the authority of this 
Association. If it be not the good fortune of every investigator to 
reach knowledge that is new, there are, every year, in every sec- 
tion of this body, workers* of whom it is clear that they would 
reach some discovery of merit, if only the means of work could be 
granted them. Whosoever supplies the means fairly deserves and 
will receive a share in the results. It is quite with justice that the 
name of Elizabeth Thompson, the first of the patrons, has been 
Associated with some twenty-one modest determinations of merit 
recognized by this Association. 

"To procure for the labors of scientific men increased facilities" 
is one of the constitutional objects of this body. It is time for ef- 
fectiveness towards this object. The Association has established 
its character for sound judgment, for good working organization, 
and for representative public interest. It has earned its responsi- 
bility as the American ti^stee of undertakings in science, 

"To give a stronger . . . impulse ... to scientific 
research" is another declaration of what we ought to do. To this 
end larger endowments are necessary. And it will be strange if 
some clear-seeing man or woman does not put ten thousand dollars, 
or some multiple of it, into the charge of this body for some search- 
ing experimental inquiry now waiting for the material aid. The 
committee upon endowment is ready for consultation upon all re- 
quired details. 

"To give . . . more systematic direction to scientific re- 
search" is likewise stated as one of our objects. To this intent 
the organization of sections affords opportunities not surpassed. 
The discussions upon scientific papers give rise to a concord of com- 
petent opinions as to the direction of immediate work. And ar- 



14 ADDHESS BT ALBERT B. PBE8COTT. 

rangements providing in advance for the discassion of vital ques- 
tions, as formally moved at the last meeting, will in one way or 
another point out to saitable persons such lines of labor as will in- 
deed give systematic direction to research. 

In conclusion I may mention another, the most happy of the 
duties of the American Association. It is to give the hand of hos- 
pitable fellowship to the several societies who year by year gather 
with us upon the same ground. Comrades in labor and in refresh- 
ment, their efforts reinforce us, their faces brighten our way. May 
they join us more and more in the companionship that sweetens 
the severity of art. A meeting of good workers is a remembrance 
of pleasure, giving its zest to the'aims of the year. 



SECTION A. 



MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 



OFFICERS OF SECTION A. 



Vice President. 
J. R. Bastman, Washington, D, C. 

Secretary, 
WiNSLOw Upton, Providence, R. I. 

Member of Council, 
G. W. Hough, Eyanston, HI. 

Members of Sectional Committee. 

J. R. Eastman, Washington, T>. C. Winslow Upton, Providence,; R. I. 
E. W. Hydb, Cincinnati, Ohio. F. H. Bigelow, Washington, D. C. 
R. S. Woodward, Washington, D. C. C. L. Doolittijc, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. G. £. Haue, Chicago, lU. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
Charles H. Rockvtell, Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Members of Sub-committee on Nominations. 

J. R. Eastman, Washington, D. C. Winslow Upton, Providence, R. I. 
T. H. Safford, Williamstown, Mass. H. T. Eddy, Terre 
Haute, Ind. £. B. Frost, Hanover, N. H. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

J. R. EASTMAN, 

VICE PRESIDENT, SECTION A. 



THE NEGLECTED FIELD OF FUNDAMENTAL ASTRONOMY. 



If a comparison were instituted between the position of the 
modem astronomer and that of his prototype, on the plains of 
Chaldea, it would not be altogether to the disadvantage of the 
ancient student of the heavens. He stood at the gateway of the 
unexplored Uranian mysteries, unfettered by the dogmatic theories 
of a long line of predecessors. From his own imagination he con- 
structed hypotheses and theories, with no feeling of uncertainty 
about the priority of invention and with little anxiety concerning 
the agreement of theory and observation. The modem questions 
that distract the astronomical world had no place among the 
thoughts that disturbed the tranquillity of his soul. He had not 
reached that critical epoch when he must choose between the "old" 
and the "new" astronomy; and he was free from the harassing per- 
plexity that besets the luckless astronomer of this age who seeks 
to learn the mysteries of the moon's motion, or strives to formulate 
the cause and the law of the variation in the terrestrial latitude. 
The iniquitous behavior of the astronomical clock and level, com- 
bined with the possible, but unknown, influences of temperature, 
were not then in league to vex his waking hours and fill his dreams 
with illusory solutions that ever floated just beyond his grasp. He 
was not obliged to search the ancient records in musty volumes and 
strain the limits of conjecture in the interpretation^of careless obser- 
vations and imperfect memoranda : — in short, he was a happy ilian, 
free to work in any direction, and not liable to be called upon from 
time tQ time to amuse or to instruct his fellows, or even to weary 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 2 (17) 



18 8ECTIOK A. 

them, with prosy diBConrse on his own work or a stale resmn^ 
of astronomical progress. 

Unfortunately for us, we live in an age where astronomy is no 
longer a simple subject, stimulating the imagination by the nightly 
display of stellar and planetary glories and inTolving in its study 
only the elements of geometrical analysis. Within the last fifty 
years the science has been separated into many divisions; and 
within a few years several of these branches have assumed new 
phases. As a result of this continued division, the range of study 
and investigation has spread beyond the efficient grasp of any in- 
dividual and specialists are rising up in all directions. 

It has been the custom for the presiding officer of this section to 
present, on the first day of the annual session, an address setting 
forth either the progress in general astronomy or in some branch 
of the science, or the history or development of some department of 
mathematics ; each confining himself to his own special branch of 
scientific work. 

It has seemed to me that a formal statement, to this section, of 
the general progress of astronomy within the last year or the last 
decade would be to lay before you a mass of data with which you 
are already familiar. This view of the case has led me to attempt 
the presentation of the importance of one branch of astronomical 
work, in which for several years I have taken a deep personal in- 
terest, and which, owing to the present tendency towards special- 
ization, is likely to suffer from serious neglect. 

It is not many years since we first heard of the distinction be- 
tween the "old" and the "new" astronomy, but in the comparative- 
ly short interval since those terms were first used, the scope of 
Physics has so expanded in all directions and so adapted itself to 
its new surroundings, that we find it, in one department at least, 
casting aside its former title and masquerading under the name of 
Astronomy. That this departure has quickeped the zeal of many 
students, stimulated the development of numerous and valuable 
modes of research and resulted in grand and important discoveries 
is one of the most gratifying scientific facts of this epoch. The di- 
rection of this new movement has followed rigorously the line of 
least resistance. Except in rare instances, that line of work which 
promises the quickest returns, in the proper form for publication, 
is most attractive to the young student of Physics and Astronomy, 
and the comparatively inexpensive apparatus required for the sim- 



ADDRESS BT J. B. EASTMAN. 19 

pier astro-physical work is apt to lead him in that direction. The 
new and imp^rtant changes that have been wrought within a few 
years in the methods of teaching and in the laboratory work in Phy- 
sics, together wit^ the apparent ease with which an account of a few 
hours' labor with the spectroscope or camera may be spread attract- 
ively over several printed pages, have doubtless had their influence 
in leading the candidates for honors into the new fields of astro- 
physical research. 

The advance in the development of methods of research and 
the improvements in apparatus are so rapid, while the field is so 
broad and increasing, that constant vigilance is necessary to keep 
even in touch with the progress of the "new** astronomy. One of 
the most striking examples of the achievements in this new line of 
work has resulted, from a skilful combination of the spectroscope 
and the camera, in the determination of stellar motion in the lin)e 
of sight with a remarkable linear exactness. 

The limits of this address would scarcely suffice simply to name 
the problems now under discussion, by the more modem methods, 
without essaying even a cursory review of their importance or their 
bearing on current scientific investigation; — and yet, from the 
true astronomical point of view, all these questions are at least 
secondary to the fundamental problems of finding the true position 
of the solar system in the stellar universe and determining the rela- 
tive positions and motions of those stars that, within the range of 
telescopic vision, compose that universe. 

To this latter phase of our science I ask your attention for a few 
minutes. These problems still lie at the foundation of the "old" 
astronomy and cannot be relegated to the limbo of useless rubbish 
or to the museum of curious relics, not even to make room for the 
newborn astro-physics. On this foundation must rest every astro- 
nomical superstructure that hopes to stand the tests of time and of 
observation, and the precision of the future science depends rigor- 
ously upon the accuracy with which this groundwork is laid. 

This work was begun in the sixteenth century but, in spite of all 
the improvements in apparatus and in methods of analysis and 
research, a really satisfactory result has not yet been reached. 

There is no more fascinating phase of the evolution of human 
thought and skiU in the adaptation of means to ends than is found 
in the development of the mathematical and instrumental means 
for the determination of the positions and motions of the bodies 



20 SECTION A. 

included in the solar system. Accuracy in astronomical methods 
and results did not exist, even approximately, until after the re- 
vival of practical astronomy in Kurope about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century ; and, before the end of that period, the crude 
instruments of the early astronomers reached their highest perfec- 
tion in the bands of the skilful genius of Uraniborg. 

The invention of the telescope, the application of the pendulum 
to clocks, the invention of the micrometer, the combination of the 
telescope with the divided arc of a circle, the invention of the tran- 
sit circle by Roemer, with many improvements in minor apparatus 
distinctly stamp the seventeenth century as a remarkable period of 
preparation for the achievements of the next century. 

From the standpoint of the modem mechanician the instruments 
at the Greenwich Observatory, in Bradley's time, were very imper- 
.fect in design and construction ; and yet, on the observations ob- 
tained by his skill and perseverance, depends the whole structure 
.of modem fundamental astronomy. The use of the quadrant 
xeached its highest excellence under Bradley's management. 

The next advance, the real work with divided circles, began at 
>Greenwich in 1811 , under the du*ection of Pond. Since that epoch, 
JJieory and observation have held a nearly even course in the 
iriendly race toward that elusive goal, perfection ; and the end is 
.not yet. A careful, but independent, determination of the relative 
iright ascensions of the principal stars, supplemented by a rigorous 
adjustment of such positions with regard to the equinoctial points : 
and a similar determination of the relative zenith or polar distance 
of the same bodies, finally referred and adjusted to the equator or 
the pole, — seem in this brief statement to be, at least, simple prob- 
lems. If, however, we examine the conditions in detail, the sim- 
plicity may not appear so evident; and this characteristic may 
prove to be one reason why this important branch of astronomical 
research is now so generally neglected. 

In the first place, it must be understood that such an investiga- 
tion cannot be completed in a few months. At least two and pref- 
erably three years work in observing are necessary to secure good 
results. Skilled observers, and not more than two with the same 
instrument, are absolutely necessary. Such work cannot be con- 
fided to students or beginners in the art of observing, or to observ- 
ers who have acquired the habit of anticipating the transit of a 
star. The telescope and the circles, the objective and the microm- 



ADDRESS BT J. R. EASTMAK. 21 

eter, the clock and the level must be of the best" quality, for im- 
perfections in any of these essentials render the best results im- 
possible. A thoroughly good astronomical clock is the rarest 
instrument in the astronomer's collection. It is not sujOSicient that 
a clock should have a uniform daily rate, the rate should be uni- 
form for any number of minor periods during the twenty- four 
hours. The absolute personal error in observing transits should 
be determined at least twice a week, and when it is not well estab- 
lished it should be found every day. The level error should be 
found every two hours and the greatest care should be exercised 
in handling this important instrument. The division marks should 
not be etched on the level tube unless the values of the divisions 
are frequently examined, for, sooner or later, such tubes become 
deformed on account of the broken surface and are then worth- 
less. 

In the determination of zenith distances the effect of refraction 
plays such an important part that no work can rightly claim to be 
fundamental until the local refraction has been carefully investi- 
gated and special corrections to the standard tables, if necessary, 
have been deduced for each observing station. The ordinary mode 
of observing temperatures is quite inadequate to the importance of 
the phenomena. These observations should be made as near as 
possible in the mass of air through which the objective of the tele- 
scope is moved and also in the opening in the roof and the sides of 
the observing room where the outside air comes in contact with 
that in the building. The thermometers should all be mounted so 
that they may be whirled in that portion of the air where the tem- 
perature is desired, and they should be tested at least once a year 
to determine the change in the position of the zero of the scale. 
But a complete list of the things to be done, and of the errors to 
be avoided, are too voluminous for this occasion and are not nec- 
essary to show the complex character of the problem ; — the sug- 
gestions, already made, must suffice. 

For many years an immense number of observations of the larger 
or the so-called standard stars have been made at the principal 
observatories, for different purposes and with varying degrees of 
accuracy, but it is not certain that the work of the last thirty years, 
with all the advantages of improved apparatus, has resulted in 
more exact determinations of even the relative right ascensions of 
such stars. There can be no doubt that the chronographic regis- 



22 ncnoK a. 

tration of star transits has given more accnrate resolts for the 
smaller stars, but I think it is equally true that, in the case of first 
and second magnitude stars, at least, no improvement has been 
made m accuracy. 

With double threads it is possible to observe the zenith distances 
of such stars with a fair degree of precisicm, because the operation 
is one of comparative deliberation and the centre of the mass of 
light can be placed midway between the threads with little difltodty • 
But the attempt to note with a chronograph key, the instant when 
a swiftly moving and irr^ular mass of light, like a Canis Majoris 
or a Lyrse, is bisected by a transit thread, is an operation that rises 
but little above the level of ordinary guesswork. Transits of first 
and second magnitude stars cannot be observed with an objective 
of more than four inches apeiture, with the desired accuracy, unless 
the apparent magnitude is reduced, by means of screens, to that of 
a fourth or fifth magnitude star. It is necessary in this connection 
to avoid confounding the methods employed in the observations of 
the bodies of the solar system with those for obtaining fundamental 
places of the stars. The obsenrations of the Sun, Moon, Mercury 
and Venus with a transit circle are, from the unavmdable conditions, 
necessarily uncertain to a degree even beyond the probable error 
involved in the observations of the large stars. In spite of these 
unfavorable conditions, however, the continued observations of 
these bodies at the principal ol)servatories, for many years, have 
produced the most valuable results even when the work on the 
standard stars, on which their results depend, has no claim, what- 
ever, to a fundamental character. 

In geographic exploration the first endeavor is to secure approx- 
imate positions of salient points from a rapid reconnoissance. 
This is followed by more careful work fixing the observing stations 
with that degree of precision which insures good results. Finally, 
the highest qualities of skill and science are combined to exhaust 
all available means to reach the greatest attainable accuracy. In 
the exploration of the heavens, the first two of these steps have 
already been taken, and most of the stars of the larger magnitudes 
have been so well observed, that the accuracy of their positions is 
not only far higher than is required by the greatest skill of the 
navigator, but it is equal to all the demands of Ordinary practical 
work. . It is the next step which challenges the skill of the mecha- 
nician, the observer and the computer ; and astronomers cannot rest 



ADDRESS BT J. R. EASTMAN. 23 

at ease until all known resources have been exhausted in the at- 
tempt to reach the best results. It is not a very difficult matter 
to fix the position of stars within a range, in the individual obser- 
vations, of three or four seconds of arc, but that degree of accuracy 
is not sufficient for the more exact problems of astronomy, and it 
falls far short of what is required in the important discussions of 
solar and stellar motions. 

Bradley's observations furnished the data for Bessel's Fundamenta 
Astronomise and many astronomers have since attempted by re- 
reductions to obtain improved positions for Bradley's stars. The 
value of these observations in the development of modem astronomy 
can hardly be exaggerated . Their importance in the determination of 
stellar proper motions increases with the lapse of time ; and yet, the 
accuracy of the original observations was far inferior to that ob- 
tained in ordinary routine work with modern methods and improved 
instruments. 

Fundamental Catalogues of stars have notably increased since 
the Fundamenta Astronomic, but the demand has not yet been sat- 
isfied. The catalogues of declinations or north-polar distances are 
more numerous than those of right ascension, evidently because, 
for many reasons, independent declinations are more readily deter- 
mined. 

There is probably no collection of the right ascension of the 
large stars that has attained, or justly deserved, a higher reputa- 
tion than the Pulkowa Catalogue. The observations on which this 
catalogue is founded were made by Schweizer, Fuss, Lindhagen 
and Wagner, at the Pulkowa observatory between 1842 and 1853. 
The observations were reduced by the several observers, thoroughly 
discussed by Wagner and published in 1869. Only one observer 
was employed at any period. As these results have received high 
praise for their accuracy and for their freedom from systematic 
errors, it may be of some interest to consider briefly, and in a gen- 
eral way, the character of the data on which the results depend. 

The objective of the transit instrument with which these obser- 
vations were made, had a focal length of 8 feet and 6 inches and 
a diameter of 5.85 inches. It was so constructed that the oc- 
ular and the objective could be interchanged. It was also rever- 
sible, and a part of the observations were made with the clamp 
east and the remainder with the clamp west. This construction 
permitted the observations to be made under four different sets of 



24 SEcnoK A. 

conditions, and for that reason the observed right ascensions of 
each star were arranged, for facility of discussion, in four separate 
groups. 

An examination of the results in each group discloses some in- 
teresting facts that are worth considering somewhat in detail. 
The whole number of stars in the catalogue that are reckoned as 
standard stars, and are south of 70"* north declination, is 365. Of 
this number seventy per cent have a range, in the individual results, 
in at least one of the four groups, of two-tenths, or more, of a 
second of time. This range is between 0^.20 and 0^.29 for 142 
stars; between 0^80 and 0^39 for 92 stars; between 0^.40 and 
0^.49 for 15 stars, and 0^.50 or more for 6 stars. The mean range 
for the 255 stars is 0^.297. In general, the accordance between 
the individual results is quite good but the discordance just men- 
tioned sometimes occurs more than once in the collected observations 
of the sane star, and these doubtful data have been used in de- 
ducing the standard places given in the catalogue. It is not neces- 
sary to look for minor discrepancies, for enough of appreciable 
magnitude have been cited already to warrant the conclusion that 
better observing can, and ought to be done with modem instru- 
ments and that the needs of astronomical science to-day demand a 
more comprehensive, and a more accurate, standard catalogue of 
right ascensions. 

These remarks must not be interpreted as unfavorable criticism 
of the Pulkowa catalogue, by far the best work of its period, but 
they are made simply to call attention to the fact, that the present 
state of stellar astronomy and the direction which the investigations 
of the immediate future are likely to take, plainly require the most 
accurate fundamental catalogue of the standard stars that modem 
instruments and appliances, modern methods and the most skilful 
observers can produce. All of these conditions are essential and 
they must be carefully coordinated to obtain the desired results. 

It must be plain to every astronomer that the needed fundamen- 
tal catalogue must -be deduced from new observations. The re- 
duction and discussion of old observations of doubtful quality are 
a waste of time and energy. Under existiag circumstances the 
greatest weight must be given to the observations. Neither 
amount of labor nor skill in computation can derive results of the 
desired accuracy from careless, incomplete or incorrect observations. 
An attempt on the part of the computer to apply any system of 



/ 



ADDBESS BY J. B. EASTMAK. 25 

theoretical weights, either simple or complex, to such observations 
is almost certain to lead, at least, to self deception ; and the safe 
as well as reasonable rule in such case would be to use the weight 
zero. 

One example may serve to illustrate the effect of dealing con- 
tinuously with old observations. In standard star positions the 
four principal national ephemerides are not only not in accord with 
each other, but they generally do not exhibit results, even from the 
few best modern observations. The many discrepancies, of vary- 
ing magnitude, in these volumes, present with marked emphasis 
the undesirable results arising from the custom of ** threshing old 
straw." 

The data on which these several ephemerides are founded are 
the common property of all astronomers, and no one can claim the 
exclusive use of any published observations ; and yet national pride 
or national obstinacy, which is sometimes mistaken for the nobler 
sentiment, or some Qomputer's pet scheme or system of combina- 
tion, has led to the adoption of a variety of assumptions in the in- 
terpretation and treatment of the original data, until our standard 
ephemerides are so complex in their structure that the exact details 
of their preparation are practically unknown outside their respect- 
ive computing ojOSces. The accuracy of the star positions is un- 
checked by any recent fundamental observations, and they lack 
that trustworthy character that sliould inhere in a system intended 
to serve as a basis for even good differential work. 

If this character were wholly satisfactory, we should soon see 
the representatives of Astronomy, Geodesy and Geology gathering 
about the zenith telescope, confident of reaching, by the systematic 
use of this simple instrument, some definite conclusion in regard 
to the variation of terrestrial latitudes. But the accurate star 
positions do not exist, and under the present conditions the most 
feasible plan for utilizing this instrument is to arrange the ob- 
serving stations so as to eliminate the effect of errors in the star 
places. 

If it be admitted that sidereal astronomy is worthy of further 
and more accurate study, that the needs of astronomical research 
at the present time and in the inmiediate future demand more^exact 
positions of the standard stars, it may be desirable to consider 
briefly the status of those agencies to which we must look for the 
successful prosecution of such an investigation. 



26 SECTION A, 

It \b not an easy task to determine the exact number of active 
obsei-vatories, in the world. Some published lists contain the names 
of all observatories, from the most expensive and fully equipped 
government establishments, to the temporary shelter that protects 
a small equatorial telescope, and perhaps a chronometer, which is 
kept by the owner for the amusement and possibly for the instruc- 
tion of himself and his friends. A fair enumeration however would 
probably give a list of about two hundred and fifty observatories 
BufSciently equipped to do some kind of astronomical work. Of 
this number more than twenty per cent are found in North America. 
In the equipment of these two hundred and fifty observatories are 
to be found about sixty Transit Circles with objectives ranging 
from nine to about three inches. The quality of about one-fourth of 
these instruments is such that good results may be expected from 
their proper employment. To the latter class of instruments we are 
limited when we seek for the highest class of work now under con- 
sideration. If we take account of the modem subsidiary apparatus 
and of the electric methods of recording transit observations and 
illuminating the different parts of the instrument, it does not seem 
extravagant to conclude that, if one-third of the best Transit Cir- 
cles were devoted for the next four years to observations for the 
formation of a fundamental star catalogue of right ascensions 
and north-polar distances, the aggregate result would be not only 
the best positions ever published, but it would be of the greatest 
value in the discussion of current, as well as future, astronomical 
problems. Unfortunately, however, we do not find any such num- 
ber of instruments employed in fundamental work. At the present 
time there is no general fundamental work in progress in any por- 
tion of the world, and within the last thirty years there have been 
no results of that character to take the place of the Pulkowa de- 
terminations. This statement does not refer to observations of 
one ordinate only, or to those cases where several observers, both 
trained and untrained, are accustomed to observe in turn with the 
same instrument, and their several results are indiscriminately 
mingled in such a way that critical discussion is out of the question. 
Several observers may work together in the determination of dec- 
linations with a fair degree of success, because, to a large extent, 
each observer's work in a period of twelve or twenty-four hours is 
independent of that of his fellows ; but even this work is better 
when done by one skilled observer alone. Fundamental right as- 



ADDRESS BY J. B. EASTMAN. 27 

censions however cannot be determined with the requisite accuracy, 
and the necessary freedom from systematic errors, if more than 
one or, at most, two observers work with the same instrument. If 
only accidental errors of observation, or such as are due to atmos- 
pheric disturbances, uncomfortable positions or the unsteady nerves 
of the observer, were introduced by increasing the number of ob- 
servers, then increasing the number of observations would tend to 
diminish the error of the result. But the personal errors of ob- 
servers and their various habits of manipulation are of the same 
nature as systematic errors and cannot be eliminated by increasing 
the list of observers or the number of observations. 

Of the many valuable star catalogues in existence I know of 
none in which the right ascensions depend upon the observations 
of more than one astronomer, where it is possible to know, or to 
eliminate, either the constant or the variable errors due to the per- 
sonal equation of the observers. 

In the current astronomical work of this country in which we, 
as members of this Section, are especially interested, observations 
and discussions, planned solely, and properly carried out, for the 
determination of absolute star places, are quite unknown. The 
necessary instrumental outfit, with the exception in some eases of 
a clock of the requisite quality, exists in several observatories, 
and I have no doubt that trained observers of the highest character 
can be found to meet all demands. 

With the exception of a few government establishments and of 
those built to promote a higher grade of instruction, the observa- 
tories througliout the world have been founded generally for some 
special purpose. Their existence depended upon some endowment 
or bequest originating in the real or fancied interest which the 
wealthy benefactor took in some popular branch of the science, and 
this founder, with a real enthusiasm for the stimulation of research 
and a noble generosity that deserved recognition in a broader field, 
often unwittingly limited the scope of his foundation and restrained 
the usefulness of his gift. Utility or novelty, separately or in 
combination, were frequently the groundwork on which were based 
the successful claims for pecuniary assistance in founding and 
maintaining astronomical observatories. The working observa- 
tories founded fifty years or more ago, with scarcely an exception, 
were supported entirely in the belief that the results of the obser- 
vations would be, directly or indirectly, beneficial to navigation 



28 SECTION A. 

and to commerce. At that time this belief rested upon a reason- 
able basis. This plea for the construction and support of obser- 
vatories is sometimes heard, even at this period in the evolution of 
science, in spite of the fact that, if every fixed observatory in the 
world were destroyed to-day, no interest ofnavigation or commerce 
would suffer for the next fifty years. The function of astronomy 
in promoting the development of navigation and in fostering the 
extension of commerce has been completed. 

In the periodical struggle with wealthy patrons to secure the 
yenrly stipend, and with corporations and legislative bodies to ob- 
tain the annual appropriations for the support of observatories, 
may be found perhaps an apparent, if not a sufiScient, motive for 
selecting the class of work that is pursuM in most of the American 
observatories at this time. The apparent conclusion of those who 
have souglit financial support for astronomical observatories seems 
to have been that such aid could not be secured except for some 
special work or research, and that the particular branch of inves- 
tigation selected must be one that promised either immediate and 
novel results, or such as would enable capital to win, either in 
material benefits or in popular reputation, some returns for the 
risks incurred in speculative advances. Persistence in these 
theories and in the consequent lines of action, has doubtless re- 
sulted in the evolution of a certain type of astronomer, and also of 
a con*esponding type of astronomical patron, whether the latter be 
an individual, a corporation or the legislative agents of millions of 
intelligent people. Such a result would be the obvious outcome of 
the forces in action. 

The motives that actuate the early settlers in new countries, 
that guide them in the struggle With the untamed forces of nature, 
arise mainly from the material interests of the pioneer. As the 
subjugation of the land progresses and the comforts and the luxuries 
of life are substituted for the bare necessities of existence, the high- 
er, intellectual side of humanity asserts itself and demands, not 
only a hearing in the councils, but also its share in the advantages 
won in the campaign for material prosperity. 

The progress in the development of the various stages of civil- 
ization has its parallel in the evolution of the science of modern 
astronomy. For many centuries the timid navigator skirted the 
familiar shores of his native land, or, occasionally lured by the 
hope of unusual gains, he rashly tempted fate by adventurous cruises 



♦ 



ADDRESS BT J. B. EASTMAN. 29 

along distant shores that bore no name in the traditions of his 
forefathers. But, however lofty his ambition, he never allowed 
the known or unknown peaks and headlands to sink below his 
horizon. To him, the open ocean was a symbol of infinite space 
that he dared not explore until astronomy furnished the key to its 
uttermost recesses, and the art of navigation rose to the dignity of 
a science. 

Greenwich observatory was founded in 1675 to promote the in- 
terests of navigation. The royal warrant appointing the first as- 
tronomer-royal also declares that his duty is •■'forthwith to apply 
himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying 
the tables of the motions of the heavens and the places of the fixed 
stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for 
the perfecting of the art of navigation." Right faithfully have the 
successive astronomers-royal carried out the spirit of the regal 
mandate. For many years the success was far from uniform, nor 
was the progress always satisfactory, but, through adversity as 
well as prosperity the original design of the foundation was always 
kept in view and the results have been commensurate with the ef- 
fort. If the work of all the other obsei-vatories of the world were 
neglected or destroyed the data in the annual volumes of the Green- 
wich Observatory would be suflSicient, not only to build anew the 
science of navigation but to reconstruct the entire planetary and 
lunar theories. ^ Surely there can be no more flattering commentary 
on the value of a well-planned system of observatory work closely 
followed, through two centuries, with true Anglo-Saxon pertinac- 
ity. 

The history of Greenwich Observatory is, in many respects, that 
of neai'ly all the observatories of that early epoch which have sur- 
vived to the present time, but most of the urgent needs that led to 
their foundation have ceased to exist, and new problems have arisen 
to take their place. The immediate material and commercial ad- 
. vantages, sought for in obedience to the demands of the original 
foundations, have been fully gained, and the scientific results ob- 
tained from those early researches remain a permanent benefaction 
to the whole world. 

To this extent the science of astronomy is deprived of some, 
perhaps the most efiOicient, of the influences that commended it to 
public approval and support during the last two centuries ; and the 
science has now reached a period in its development where we may 
with propriety consider two pertinent questions. 



80 8BCTI0K A. 

First, — what has astronomy gained for itself in the effort to pre- 
sent, in its results, commercial advantages or popular reputation 
to its patrons, in return for financial support? 

Second, — what 'shall be its future attitude when seeking aid in 
the foundation and endowment of new observatories or in the main- 
tenance of those already in existence ? 

It may be assumed without fear of contradiction, that, after the 
revival of astronomical studies in Europe, the rapid development 
of practical and applied astronomy and the consequent establish- 
ment of a large number of observatories was due to the stimulus 
derived from newly awakened interests of navigation and commerce. 
Around these centres of scientific activity the astronomers of the 
world gathered to discuss not only the problems of practical as- 
tronomy but the more abstruse, theort*tical questions which lay at 
the foundation of the higher branches of the science. The work 
of each observatory not only furnished the means for determining 
the accuracy of the numerous theories then extant, but it produced 
original data on which new theories were constructed to be in their 
turn subjected to the rigid test of observation. In the extreme 
interest evolved in such discussions, by those who eagerly sought 
the key to nature's methods in the simple form of general laws, the 
minor problems of practical astronomy were soon solved, or passed 
over, to clear the way for the more profound questions that involved 
the motions in the solar system and the structure of the stellar uni- 
verse. ^)0, indirectly, at first, with a zeal superior to all obstacles 
and an ambition that looked beyond the simple and practical ideas 
underlying the original foundation, astronomers have steadily but 
persistently sought for nature's general laws in the labyrinth of 
complex phenomena, have devoted years of intense labor to the 
most refined tests of methods and theories, and finally, have won 
for their exacting but fascinating study, the foremost place among 
the sciences. Success in all these labors has justified the wisdom 
of those royal and wealthy patrons who generously gave their sup- 
port when a favorable issue was by no means certain. 

In its practical results astronomy has returned to mankind a 
thousand fold the cost of founding and maintaining its observa- 
tories and, at the same time, it has developed a science whose field 
of action includes, not only the figure, motions and positions of 
our own insignificant planet, but it reaches the uttermost limits of 
the universe. 

If the second question be regarded as involving only a simple 



\ 



ADDRESS BY J. R. EAbTMAN. 81 

problem in ethics it could be readily answered by following the 
homely, but sometimes pertinent, injunction to * 'speak the truth." 
Biii in view of the complexity of interests noW existing, this ques- 
tion has a wider signification and deserves some consideration. 
As already stated, utility or commercial advantage can no longer 
be given as a reason for carrying on astronomical investigations. 
Novelty, combined with a desire for architectural display and an 
absurd ambition to secure the largest telescope and the greatest 
variety of astronomical instruments has even at the present time, 
a place, and sometimes a prominent one, among the reasons assigned 
for establishing new observatories. In view of these facts, it is 
surely the duty of astronomers to see to it that, for their own rep- 
utation and for the present and the ultimate welfare of their science, 
the true purpose of astronomical study and research and the grounds 
for the existence and the support of observatories should be frankly 
given and courageously maintained. It is possible that pecuniary 
profit may sometimes indirectly arise from some branches of astro- 
nomical work or investigation ; but the only sound and honest 
reason that can be given for such work is that it stimulates the 
highest form of intellectual activity, widens the already broad field 
of investigation and increases the sum of human knowledge. Who- 
ever pleads the cause of astronomy on a lower plane discounts the 
intelligence of himself or of his audience. Why should the astron- 
omer stoop to select a less noble theme, or consider it from a lower 
point of view? He who leads an intelligent and thoughtful life 
must feel himself in daily touch with those phenomena that are in- 
volved in the most important astronomical problems of the present 
time and of the immediate future. The figure and motions of the 
earth which he treads ; the constitution and translation of the sun that 
invigorates his life and lights his days ; the movements and struct- 
ure of the moon and planets that beautify his nights ; the proper 
motions and distances of the countless stars that nightly set before 
his eyes the highest types of rigorous law and of boundless space 
that the mind can grasp ; — all of these, and more, tend to convince 
him that the constantly growing demand for broader and more ex- 
act knowledge is ample warrant for the time and expense involved 
in the most profound astronomical investigation. In this direction 
lies the justification of astronomical research ; on this basis the 
astronomer is sure of the stimulating support of every cultivated 
mind as long as the questions '' why?" and *' how?" are constantly 



82 SECTION A. 

reiterated and are still unanswered ; on this ground, and on this 
alone, rest the valid reasons for the expenditure of corporate, 
municipal or national funds for the establishment of expensive Qb- 
servatories and the prosecution of astronomical investigations; 
and in the closing years ofthis century the conscientious astronomer 
can in no way more thoroughly vindicate the highest claiips of his 
science than by holding the standard of work well above the popu- 
lar fancies of the hour, and by devoting his time and energy to that 
class of fundamental work that shall not only satisfy the rigorous 
demands of the present time, but shall make the last decade of the 
nineteenth century an important epoch in the real progress of 
astronomy. 



PAPERS READ. 



On the imaginary of algkbiia. By Prof. A. Macfarlanb, University 
of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

The student, if he shonld hereafter inquire into the asBertions of different writers, 
who contend for what each of them considers as the explanation of ^^^I^ will do well 
to substitute the indefinite article."— Ds Morqan, Double Algebra^ p. 94.' 

With respect to the theory and use of iZ—T analysts may be divided 
into three classes : Jlrstj those who have considered it as undefined and 
uninterpreted, and consequently make use of it only in a tentative manner ; 
second, those who have considered it as undefinable and uninterpretable^ 
and build upon this supposed fact a special theory of reasoning ; third, 
those who, viewing it as capable of definition, have sought for the defi- 
nition in the ideas of geometry. 

Of the first class we have an example in the view laid down by the 
astronomer Airy {Cambridge Philosophical Transactions^ vol. x, p. 827). 
*'I have not the smallest confidence in any result which is essentially ob- 
tained by the use of imaginary symbols. I am very glad to use them as 
conveniently indicating a conclusion which it may afterwards be possible 
to obtain by strictly logical methods; but imtil these logical methods 
shall have been discovered, I regard the result as requiring further dem- 
onstration.** This view admits that conclusions are indicated by methods 
which are not strictly logical ; that a method which is not strictly logical 
can indicate and always can indicate a conclusion is a paradox which it Is 
very desirable to explain. 

Of the second class we have an example in the mathematician and logic- 
ian, Boole. Instead of conforming analysis to ordinary reasoning, he 
endeavors to conform reasoning to analysis by introducing a transcend- 
ental species of logic. In his Laws of Thought, p. 68, he lays down the 
following as an axiomatic principle in reasoning : The process of solu- 
tion or demonstration may be conducted tliroughout in obedience to cer- 
tain formal laws of combination of the symbols, without regard to the 
question of the interpretabUity of the intermediate results, provided the 
final result be interpretable. Our knowledge of the foregoing principle is 
based upon the actual occurrence of an instance, that instance being the 
imaginary of algebra. In support of this view he says : *' A single example 
of reasoning in which symbols are employed in obedience to laws founded 
upon their interpretation, but without any sustained reference to that in- 
terpretation, the chain of demonstration conducting us through intermedi- 

A. A. A. S. TOL. XLI. 3 (88) 



84 SECTION A. 

ate steps which are not Interpretable to a final result which is interpretable, 
seems not only to establish the yalicUty of the particular application, but 
to make known to us the general law manifested therein. No accumulation 
of instances can properly add weight to such eridence. The employment of 
the uninterpretable symbol )/ — 1, in the intermediate processes of trigo- 
nometry, furnishes an illustration of what has been said. I apprehend 
that there is no mode of explaining that application which does not cov- 
ertly assume the yery principle in question. But that principle, though 
not, as I conceive, warranted by formal reasoning based upon other 
grounds, seems to deserve a place among those axiomatic truths, which 
constitute, in some sense, the foundation of the possibility of general 
knowledge, and which may properly be regarded as expressions of the 
mind's own laws and constitution.*' 

Inasmuch as the successful use of the undefined symbol l/^^ by analysts 
is thus made the basis of a sort of transcendental logic, it is a matter of 
interest to investigate whether the intermediate j»teps in such demonstra- 
tions are not uninterpretable but merely uninterpreted. If it can be shown 
that some at least of the expressions in which \/ — 1 occurs have a real 
geometrical meaning, the argument for a transcendental logic will fall. 

The * 'principle of the permanence of equivalent forms," which was 
by Peacock made the foundation of the operations and results of algebra, 
is scarcely so transcendental, but is certainly a very vague and imsonnd 
principle of generalization. He states it as follows {Symbolical Algebra, 
p. 631) : ^''Whatever algebraical forms are equivalent, token the symbols are 
general in form but specific in value, tiHll be equivalent likewise whcfi the sym- 
bols are general in value as well as in form. It will follow from this* 
principle that all the results of arithmetical algebra will be results like- 
wise of symbolical algebra, and the discovery of equivalent forms in the 
former science possessing the requisite conditions will be not only their 
discovery in the latter, but the only authority for their existence; for 
there are no definitions of the operations in symbolical algebra by which 
such equivalent forms can be detected." 

The principle is applied to indices in the following manner : "Observing 
that the indices m and n in the expressions which constitute the equation 
(1^X0^=^ a*" "****, though specific in value, are general in form we are 
authorized to conclude by the principle of the permanence of equivalent 
forms that in symbolical algebra the same expressions continue to be 
equivalent to each other for all values of those indices ; or, in other words, 
that a^ X a^ = flj«»+» whatever be the values of m and n." 

The question Is : How general may the symbols be made, yet the equa- 
tion still retain the same form? This is not a question of nominal defi- 
nition and merely symbolical truth, but of real definition and of real 
truth; as may be shown by considering the above principle of indices. 
For a certain generalized meaning of m and w, Hamilton (Elements of 
Quaternions, p. 388) investigates whether or not a^ X a** = a*" "**'*, and 
concludes that it is not true. With him the question is one of material 
truth, not of symbolical definition. 



MATHEMATICS AMD ASTRONOMY. 85 

The above principle of generalization may be tested in another way. 
If r denote the ordinary algebraic quantity which may be positive or neg- 
ative, r * may represent that quantity when generalized so as to have any 
angle with an initial line in a given plane. For this generalized magni- 
tude 

in words, the length of the product is the product of the lengths, and 
the angle of the product is the sum of the angles. Now the principle of 
the permanence of equivalent forms does not help us to generalize this 
proposition for space. A plausible hypothesis likely to present itnelf at 
first is : Let <p denote the angle between the given plane and a fixed plane, is 

This is a question not of symbolism, but of truth. 

At the time of De Morgan there was no adequate theory of \/^, as is 
evident from the quotation prefixed ; nor is there at the present time. 

The view at present held about i =»]/ — 1 by analysts is thus stated by 
Cay ley in a paper "On Multiple Algebra,** printed in the Quarterly Journal 
of Mathematics, vol. xxn. 

"We have come to regard a + bi m an ordinary analytical magnitude, 
viz. : in every case an ordinary symbol represents or may represent such 
a magnitude, and the magnitude (and as a particular case thereof the 
symbol i) is commutable with the extraordinaries of any system of mul- 
tiple algebra; and similarly in analytical geometry without seeking for 
any real representation we deal with imaginary points, lines, etc., that is, 
with points, lines, etc., depending on parameters of the form a + bi.** 

I propose to review critically the dlfi^erent explanations or elements of 
explanation which have been contributed, with the hope of finding a theory 
which will tend to imif y them, and to diminidh still further that region of 
analysis where we have mere symbolism without real definition. 

The Investigation of this subject arose with the celebrated controversy 
about the nature of the logarithms of negative numbers ; whether they are 
real or impossible. Leibnitz maintained that the logarithm of a negative 
number is impossible, because if log ( — 2) is real, so is i log ( — 2), that 
is log t/ZI2» which would lead to the supposed absurdity of the logarithm 
of an impossible quantity being real. John Bernoulli held that the log- 
arithm of a negative number is as real as the logarithm of a positive 
number ; for the ratio — m : — n does not differ from that of + m ; 
+ n. The former view was afterwards maintained by Euler, the latter 
by D*Alembert. Euler claimed to demonstrate that every positive number 
has an infinite number of logarithms, of which only one is possible; fur- 
ther, that every negative as well as every impossible number has an infi- 
nite number of logarithms, which are all Impossible. He reasoned from 
the values of the n*^ root of -f- 1 and of — 1, viewing -f- as denoting an 
even number, and — as denoting an odd number, of half revolutions. 
D'Alembert pointed out that the logarithm o£ a negative number may be 



86 SECTION A. 

real. Thus e^ =* +V^^ ^' — V^» ^^ ^^® logarithm of e^iaii therefore 
the logarithm of — y^eBs well as of +|/^i8 4* 

These opposing views arise from different conceptions of the negatiye 
symbol and of the magnitude treated by algebra. The magnitudes con- 
sidered in elementary algebra are, first, a mere number or ratio; second, 
a magnitude which may have a given direction, or the opposite, and third, 
a geometric ratio which combines a number with a certain amount of 
change of direction. The logarithm of a ratio is Itself a ratio, and is 
unique. If a directed magnitude has a logarithm, it is difficult to see how 
the direction of the logarithm, if it has any direction, can be different 
from that of the magnitude. It is of number in the sense of a geometric 
ratio that £uler*s proposition is true. This conception of number imme- 
diately transcends representation by a single straight line ; consequently a 
part of the ratio generally appears as impossible. 

In his Geometrie de Position, Carnot asks the following among other 
questions : **If two quantities, of which the one is positive and the other 
negative, are both real, and do not differ excepting in position, why 
should the root of the one be an imaginary quantity, while that of the 

other is real? Why should \/ — a not be as real as 1/+ a?" In this ques- 
tion it is assumed that — a and + a denote directed magnitudes, the one 
being opposite to the other ; and if such a quantity has a square root, it is 
difficult to understand why throne direction should differ from the other. 
But the — a which has the imaginary square roots, while + a has real, do 
•not differ in direction ; they differ In the amount of change of direction. 

In 1806, M. Bue6 published in the Philosophical Transtictions a memoir on 
Imaginary Quantities, and in it he endeavors to answer some of the ques- 
tions raised by Carnot. His main idea is that +> — t ft^d 1/ — 1 are purely 

descriptive signs ; that is, signs which indi- 
cate direction. Suppose three equal lines 
AB, AC, AD, drawn from a point A (fig. I), 
of which AC \b opposite to AB, and AD 
perpendicular to BAC; then if the lin^ AB 
is designated by +1> the line AC will be — I, 

and the line AD will be ^/—l. Thus l/^ 
is the sign of perpendicularity. It follows 

from this view of |/ — 1 that it does not in- 
dicate a unique direction, the opposite line 
AD\ or any line in the plane as AD** is also 

indicated by \/ — 1* Bue6 admits the conse- 
quence. But it may be asked: If every 

perpendicular is represented by V—^i vfhsX meaning is left for — y^Hi? 
Bue6 applies his theory to the interpretation of the solution of a quad- 
ratic equation which had been considered by Carnot, namely : To divide a 
line AB into two parts such that the product of the segments shall be equal 
to half the square of the line. 




MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 



87 



Let AB (flg. 2) be the given line, and suppose K to be the required 
point; let AB be denoted by a, and AKhy x\ then by the given condition 

as (a — a) = Y 
and by the ordinary process of solution 



2 -^ ^ 4 2 



f — 1 -_, 



= V - 2 

According to Carnot, the appearance of the imaginary indicates that there 
is no such point as is required between A and B^ but that it is outside AB 



K 

Fia. 2. 



B 




Fia. 8. 

on the line prolonged. If it i*s supposed to be beyond B on the line pro- 
duced, the equation takes the modified form x (« — a) = J a*, giving 

x^ha±V^ 
Of these two roots he considers 

only to be a true solution of the question ; while 

2 *^ 4 

is the solution on the hypothesis that the point is on the line produced, but 
on the side of A, Bue6 views these answers as the solutions of connected 
equations, not of the given equation. His solution is represented (flg. 8} 

by drawing two mutual perpendiculars KG and KE to represent |/^ - 

2 

and their opposites KD and KG to represent — 1/--1 ^ ; O and DotE and 
Q are the points required. But Bue6 does not show how the square of 
5 + l/ — 1 ^ is to be represented? If the one component of the line is 
perpendicular to the other, ought not the square of the sum to be equal to 
the sum of the squares? But this does not agree with the principles of 
algebra, for 

(x + i/=I yy =s «« — y« + 2]/^ xy. 



88 



SECTION A. 



This is a difficulty which a theory of mere direction cannot get over. 
Led by his theory of perpendicularity, Bae6 considers the question : Wbat 
does a conic section become, when its ordinates become imaginary? Con- 
sider a circle ; when x has any value between — a and + <>> then 

y = dr|/a*— as* ' 

But when x is greater than a, or less than — a, let it be denoted by x', and 
the analogue of y by y', then 

yf » ±i/^ >/«'• — a«. 

Bue6 advances the view that the circle in the plane of the paper changes into 
an equilateral hyperbola in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the paper ; 
but he does not prove the suggestion, or test it by application to calculation. 
A similar view has been developed by FhiUips and Beebe in their *' Graphic 
Algebra." It appears to me that here we have a fundamental question in 

the theory of |/ — 1. The expression |/a'— ac* denotes the ordinate of the 

circle, what is represented by \/ — 1 ^/x" — a*, x' being greater than a? 
The former is constructed by drawing from the extremity of x a straight 

line at right angles to it in 
P the given plane, and de- 

scribing with centre O a 
circle of radius a the point 
of intersection P determin- 
ing the length of the ordi- 
nate, and — v^a*— X* is equal 
and opposite. Now (fig. 4) 
l/x" — a* is equal in length 
to the tangoat from the ex- 
treniity of x' to the circle, 
and |/ — 1 appears to indi- 
cate the direction of the 
tangent, which varies in inclination to the axis of x, but is determined by 
always being perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact. Hence 
if x' be considered a directed magnitude, the expression 

denotes the radius from O to the one point of contact T, while 

x*— i/=T i/x" 




FlO. 4. 



denotes the radius to the other point of contact T. This construction 
does not necessitate going out of the given plane ; and if space be consid- 
ered we have a whole complex of ordinates to the sphere, as well as a 
complex of tangents to the sphere. The ordinary theory of minus gives 
no explanation of the double sign in the case of the tangent. It is true in 
the case of the two ordinates, that the one is opposite to the other in direc- 
tion, but it is not true of the two tangents. In the case of the sphere the 
ordinate may have any direction in a plane perpendicular to x, whUe tiie 
tangent may have any direction in a cone of which x is the axis. This 

other and hitherto unnoticed meaning of i/ — 1 wUl be developed more 
fully in the investigation which follows (p. 52). 



MATHEMATICS Ain> ASTRONOMT. 



39 



The same year, Argand published his **E88ai mr une manUre de reprS- 

Benter les quantiUa imaginaires dans les constructions g^omUriques." His 
method is restricted to a plane (flg. 5). According to his view +is a 

sign of direction, — of the opposite direction, \/ — 1 of the upward per- 
pendicular direction and — l/— -1 of the downward perpendicular direc- 
tion. The general quantity a + 6i/^ is represented by a line OP (flg. 6) 
having a and h\/^^ for rectangular components. The product of two 
lines a + 6]/^ and a' + fcV^ is 

(a + & V^) (a' + &' l/^) = ««' — ^^' + l/^(«&' + a'h) 
and it too is represented by a line, namely, the line which has aa' — b6' and 

\/^—i(jab* + 6a') for rectangular components. 

A very important advance was made by Fran9ais, who perceived 

that +, — , i/^ and — i/^ did 
not denote directions, but rather 
amounts of angle. He introduced 
the notation aa to denote the gen- 
eral line where a denotes its mag- 
nitude and a the angle between it 
and a fixed initial line. Thus -f- a 
is Oo, — a is Ov, i/ — la is an, and 

2 

— |/ — la is a ». So long as a is 



t— 




Fia. 5. 



supposed to denote the angle speci- ^ 

fying the position of a line, it is 
difficult to perceive what is the 
meaning of the multiplication or division of two lines. It was cus- 
tomary to look upon the product line as forming a fourth proportional to 
the initial line and the two given lines. But when it is perceived* that the 
angle does not refer to a flxed initial line, but to any line in the plane, it 
becomes evident that the product of two quantities r^ and r*B' is rr's + •', 
the ratio of the product being the product of the ratios, and the angle of 
the product being the sum, or what appears to be the sum, of the angles. 

In the investigation of Fran^ais, the symbol l/^-T, though replaced by 
|- in the primary quantity, reappears again in the exponential expression 
for a line ; he writes ' 

ae •'^^ = a.. 
He does not appear to have considered the question : Can the y"^ — 1 in 
this index be replaced by ^? It is evident that ^ cannot be substituted 
for it as a simple multiplier; does the index really mean a,r) a quantity 

similar to Oa? This question is, I believe, correctly answered by an affirm- 
ative. The view which has been commonly taken by analysts is that every- 
thing is explained provided a + b \/ — 1 is explained, and provided every 



^Nbte^an Plane Algebra, by the author. Proc. B. S. E., 1883, p. 184. 



40 SKcnoN A. 

other function Involving v^"^ ^^^ ^ reduced to the form P+ Q i/—i' 
But It cannot be proved that this redaction is always possible, unless on 
the assumption that aU the imaginarles refer to one plane. For example, 

I>e Morgan, In Ms Double Algebra, does not Interpret directly e*^'^ or the 

more general expression (a+b y/ — I )''*" * '^~^, but the expression is reduced 

to 8ign\/Uance by being reduced to the form P+ Q y — 1. And this is the 
current mode in modern analysis of explaining Amotions of the imaginary. 
In a subsequent paper Argand adopted the notation of Frangais for a 

line in a plane ; but used i instead of j* to denote the quadrant, which, as 
Fran^ais pointed out, is not an Improvement. So imbued was he with the 

directum theory of \^ — 1 that he sought to express any direction in space 
by means of an imaginary function. He arrived at the view that the third 

mutual perpendicular KP (flg. 6) is expressed by ]/' — 1»^*"^, the opposite 

line KQ by j/^'^^^* ^J**^ ^^^ ^°® ^^ ^^ ***® perpendicular plane by 

r/Zri «>« I* + 1^—1 •*** ** where fi denotes the angle between KB and JOf. 

He remarks that If the above be the cor- 
rect meaning of \/^~i^'~^, then it Is not 
true that every function can be reduced to 

the form p + q l/^ and he doubts the 

validity of the current demonstration 

. ^ which aims at proving tliat the function 

(0 + 6 j/— l)"*"^* J^"* can always be re- 
duced to the form p + g ]/ — 1. Accord- 
ing to that reduction, as was shown by 

^ Euler, ]/^»^~^=e~3', and tMs mean- 

ing of the expression was maintained by 

^^^'^ Fran9ais and Servois. The latter, fol- 

lowing the analogy of a + 6 |/— 1 for a line in one plane, suggested that 
the expression for a line in space had the form 

pcos a + qco8 p -\- r cob y, 
where p, q, r are imaginarles of some sort, but he questioned whether they 

are each reducible to the form A + B \/'^. In reply to the criticisms 
of Frangals and Servois, Argand maintained that Euler had not demon- 
strated that 

^V—^ _, CO* « + v^^ sin X 
but had defined the meaning of e^""^ by extending the theorem 

e« = 1 + a; + 2l + ®*c. 
It will be shown afterwards that In the equation of Euler, namely 




-J--I 



HATHBMATICS AKD ASTRONOMY. 41 

there is an assumption that the axes of the two angles are coincident ; 
and that Argand's meaning is incorrect. 

The ideas of Warren in his Treatise on the geometrical representation of 
the square roots of negative qvantitieSy 1828, are essentially the same as 
those of Fran^ais, lut they receive a more complete development. 

It is curious to find, considering the intensely geometrical character of 
quaternions, that Hamilton was led by the Kantian ideas of space and time 
to start out with the theory that algebra is the science of time, as geometry 
Is the science of space, and that he strove hard to find on that basis a 
meaning for the square root of minus one. But having observed the suc- 
cess, so far as the plane is concerned, of the geometrical theory of Argand, 
Fran^ais and Warren, he adopted a geometrical basis and took up the 
problem of extending their method to space. What he sought for was 
the product of two directed lines in space, in the sense of a fourth pro- 
portional to two given lines and an initial line. He perceived that one 
root of the difficulty which had been experienced lay in regarding the 
Initial line as real, and the two perpendiculars as expressed by imagina- 
ries ; and, looking at the symmetry of space, adopted the view that each of 
the three axes should be treated as an imaginary. He was thus led to the 
principle that if {, j, k denote three mutually rectangular axes, then 

<• = — l,j«--l,A:» = -l, 
and if Ua denote any vector of unit length ( Ua)* = — 1. Hence follows 
the paradoxical conclusion that the square of a directed magnitude is 
negative, which is contrary to the principles of analysis. An after devel- 
opment of Hamilton's was to give to i, J, k a double meaning, namely : to 
signify not only unit vectors, but to signify the axes of quadrantal ver- 
sors. But in the quaternion we have for the first time the clear distinc- 
tion between a line and a geometric ratio. In a paper read before this 
Association last year I have given reasons for believing that the identifi- 
cation of a directed line with a quadi>antal quaternion is the principal 
cause of the obsci^rity in the method, and of its want of perfect harmony 
with the other methods of analysis. 

The imaginary symbol, notwithstanding its apparent banishment from 
space, reappears in Hamilton's works as the coefficient of an unreal qua- 
ternion. He appears to hold that there is a scalar y^—l distinct from 

that vector |/ — 1 which can be replaced by »', j, k. In the recent edition 
of Tait's Treatise on Quaternions, Prof. Cay ley contributes an analytical 
theory of quaternions, in which the components w, x, y, z of a. quaternion 

are considered in the most general case to have the form a + h\^^-i 

where j/ — 1 is the imaginary of ordinary algebra. Thus it appears as 
if we were landed in an analytic theory of quaternions instead of a qua- 
temionic theory of analysis. 

In a work recently published on quaternions (Theorie der Quaternionen, 
by Dr. Molenbroek), the principal novelty is the introduction of the sym- 
bol i/ — 1 with the meaning attached to it by Bue6, namely: to denote 



42 BECnON A. 




perpendicnlaritj. Thus (flg. 7) y — 1 a denotes any vector snch as OP or 
OQ, which is equal in length to a, and perpendicular to a, and \/ — 1 is 
thus made to mean a quadrantal versor with an indefinite axis ; but the 
axis is not entirely indefinite, for it must be perpendicular to a. Doubtless 
it is convenient to have a notation for any direction from which is 
perpendicular to a ; but it does not follow that \/^^ denotes it properly. 

I have found the following notation convenient : 
Let a, fi denote two independent axes, then the 
axis perpendicular to both may be denoted by 

afi. In harmony with this notation a denotes 

any of the perpendiculars to a ; but a may also 
be used to denote a definite perpendicular, when 
the conditions make the perpendicular definite. 

In a paper read before this Association last 
year* I showed that the products of directed 
magnitudes may be considered in complete inde- 
pendence of the idea of rotation ; consequently 
^^' '^' that the method of dealing with such quantities 

forms a special branch of the algebra of space, of great importance to 
the physicist. The method of dealing with versors forms another distinct 
branch; and in the idea of a versor, or more generally of a geometric 

ratio or quaternion we find a true explanation of \/ — 1, and I believe that 
the following development wUl show that it has at least one other geo- 
metric meaning. 

SPHERICAL TRIOONOMBTBT. 

Notation for a quaternion. 

A quaternion, or geometric ratio, will be denoted synthetically by a, 
and analytically by aa^ where a denotes the arithmetical ratio, a the 
axis, and A the angle in circular measure. The factor a^ forms the ver- 

flr 

SOT or circular sector. Let A become 7, then a^ is an imaginary made 

definite; 0^ is another differing from the former as regards its axis. 

According to the notation of Hamilton, a* denotes a qoadrantal versor, 
whereas, according to the above definition, it denotes a circular sector of 
which the arc is unity the radius also being unity. Viewed merely as a 
matter of convenience in writing and printing, the notation a^ is pref er- 

able to a •- . For the sake of the extension to hyperbolic sectors, it is found 
necessary to consider A as denoting not the circular arc but double the 

iProc. A. A. A. 8., Vol. XL, p. 65. 



HATHEMATICS AND ASTBOHOMT. 48 

area of the sector incladed by the arc. This notation is capable of gener- 
alization, while the other is not. 

Meaning of the equation a t^acos A + 9inA'a?^ 

Xret OP (fig. 8) be any line of* unit lengtli in the plane of a, and let OQ 

be the line Arom to the extremity of the circular sector of area ^ en- 
closed between OP and the circular arc : then 

0^== OM+MQ 

rr 

=>C08A' 0P + 8inAa^ 'OP 

IT 

es ^co8 A +8inA* a^^ OP 
^a^ OP 

flr 

therefore a^ =cos A-^- sin A* a^. 




This equation is true so far as the amount of angle is concerned but not 
it may be as regards the whole amount of turning. In this sense cos A 

and sinA'a^ are the components of a^ . 

flr 

To prove ^lat CL^ == e^"^ • 
We have a^ = cos A + ein A-a^, 

and co«^ = l-4|+f*-, 

and sinA^^A^Yi'i'ET^' 

IT 

By restoring the powers of a^ in the expression for cos A we obtain 
and by a similar restoration in the series for Sin A 



44 8ECTION A. 

and by adding the two series together we get 

It W 

Also (— a)^ = a~^ -•^•"^ - «-^ * •^ 

and a — « 

So far as angle Is concerned, irrespective of the whole amount of turn- 
ing, we have 

It follows that Aa? is the logarithm of a^ ; and a^ the logarithm of a^. 
As the most general expression for minus Is a^^^+^^'i 

log (—1) - (2»+l)ir • a^. 

The general expression for y~i is a^**'» therefore 

Zo^ l/— 1 — (2wr+y)- a^ ; and for + it is a*»», therefore Zoflr + « 2njr • o^ . 

w 

Hence generally log {aa^^ -■ lo^ a + ^ • €?, 

In his Qeometrie de Position Carnot says, in reference to the celebrated 
discussion about the logarithms of negative quantities '*Qnoique cette 
discussion solt aujourd'hul terming, 11 reste ce paradoxe savoir que quolqu' 
on alt log (— ^r)* = log (z)*, on n*a cependant pas 2 log (— «) =a 2 log z,** 

The paradox may be explained as follows : Suppose the complete ex- 
pression for « to be ««***, then that for — « is «a(*H-i)»; then 

logz*^2 logz+ inifo? andZo^ (— «)* = 2 Zo^« + (4n+2)7r • (?. 

As the latter is twice the logarithm of ^aC^H-i)*-, the supposed paradox 
vanishes. 

To prove that 

a^fi^ =s coaAcosB — sin A sin Bcos afi 

+ COS AsinB ' fi^ + cos BsinA'o^ — sin A sin Bsinafi » afi^' 
Since a4 mm cos A + sin A • a^i 

r 

and p^ mmcosB + sinB * ^^. 

by multiplying the two equations together we obtain 

ir w ir w 

a^fiB^cosAco8B+cosAsinB'fi^ + cosBsinA'a7 + 8inAsinB'a^fi^. 
Now, as was shown in the previous paper (p. 98) 

a^ P^ mm^cosafi'-sinaP' a^^'^ ' . 



MATHEMATICS AND A8TB0N0MT. 45 

hence 

cos a^ fi^ s= cos A cos B — sin A sin B cos afi (1), 

and 

flr 

J3ina^fi^= ^cosAsinB'fi+cosBsinA'a^sinAsinBsinaP'afi\ (2). 

Equation (1) expresses what is held to be the fundamental theorem of 
spherical trigonometry; but the complementary theorem expressed by 
(2) is never considered. So far as magnitude is concerned, it may be de- 
rived from (1) by the relation cos* $ + sin* = 1; but it is not so as regards 

the axis. Equation (1) is the generalization of the theorem of plane trig- 
onometry 

cos (-4 + -B) s= cos Acos B — sin A sin B; 
while equation (2) is the true generalization of tlie complementary theorem 

sin (j1 -(- -B) = cos Asin B -{- cos B sin A. 
The one theorem may perhaps be derived logically from the other, when 
restricted to the plane, but it is not so in space. The two equations form 
together what is called the addition theorem in plane trigonometry. Why 
do we have addition on the one side of the equation, while we have mul- 
tiplication on the other? Because ^-f- ^ is the sum of two indices of an 
axis which is not expressed, the complete expression being 

cos a '^ ma cos A cos B — sin A sin B 

Sin a^'^^ =? (cos AsinB + cosB sin A) • a^- 
Proslhaphaeresis in ^herical trigonometry. 

The formula for a ^T is obtained from that for d^^^ by putting a 
minus before the sin B factor. Hence 

cosa P^ « cos Acos B + sin A sin B cos aft, and 

8ina fi = — cosAsinB' +cosBsinA'a +sinAsinBsinafi'a(i ' 
Hence the generalizations for space of 

cos (A^B) + cos (A+B) = 2 cos Acos B, 
cos \A—B) ~ cos (A+B) =^2 sin A sin B, 
sin (A+B) + sin (A—B) = 2 cos B sin A, 
sin LA+B) — sin (A—B) = 2 cos A sin B, 
are respectively 

cos a P + cos a p ssz 2 cos A cos By 

cos a ^ —cos a ff =2 sin A sin B cos afi, 

ir 



Sin aT + Sin a r ^ 2 cos B sin A ' <? , 
Sina^ P^—Sina^r^'^^lcos A sinB - P - sin AsinBsin «)?• ^l 



IT 



Let 



a^^ ^Y^ and a^ jT"^ - b^ (fig. 9) 



46 



BSCTIOM A. 



then 
therefore 



^a-'^at^^-S-^r^ 



^i 



•D C 



^-^' 



Also 
but this, does not reduce to 






3 

— = — »■ a 




Hence 



Fig. 9. 






y 



To prove ^(U a pr we e ^ ^ > 



Since 



«5 4 



21 



81 



and 



a p 






1 + ^a +-ar + 



A^a^ 



31 



fr » 






MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 47 

The general term is 

which is formed according to the binomial theorem, only the order of a, ^ 
mast be preserved in each term. 

The binomial here is the sum of two logarithms, not a sum of two qua- 
ternions. It is not true that 

_ A* + S* + 2ABco8afi (A* + S* + 2 A B cot a^y 

In a similar manner it may be shown that 

+ 11 A'a' + B^fT +0^/^ + ^^bS ft^ + 2AcJr^ + 2B0^r^ \ 
3' i. 



for 



» _ » » IT » 

IT 



+ etc. 

where the terms are formed according to the rule of the trinomial theo- 
rem, but the order a, ^5, ^, must be preserved in each term. And the 
multinomial theorem is true, provided the abo?e condition is observed. 

Circular Spirals. 

Meaning of(^^' 

A* A' 
The series e=l + -4 + -|^ + -j[ + inay be viewed as having a loga- 
rithmic angle or period or more generally 2n;r, so that it is expressed 

^ . 2nir 

more fully by e^* or e^* . Similarly the logarithmic angle or period of 
a^y that is of 

■jj- IT .J^Oyt 

is \ or more generally 2n;r + ^' 
By a^ is meant e-^*** where the logarithmic angle is w, so that 



48 8SCTIOM A. 

What Is the geometrical meaning of o^? It Is a sector of the logarith- 
mic spiral which has a for axis, w for the angle between the tongent and 
the radios vector and A sin w for the angle at the apex. 

On account of the new element w the quantity may be named a quinter- 
nion, for when a multiplier is prefixed we have five elements. 

w 
^ - ^ ^ A cot w -{• A 9in w ' m.^ 

To prove that a^ >=" « 

^l + Aco8W-j Yi 1 il f" 

ir 

+ I ^»<nw + gj + j^ +1 •« 

But ^Aww-^-AtUi^'*.^ ^^Aeo%¥> ^At^V'iK^ 

— |l+-4co»tD+ — j] |-||l + -4«<nwa jp h|» 

— l+-4co«w + j^ (co«* 10 — tin* vo) + 

n 

+ |^«nw+ 2]2Wn wc»#tc + |«« » 

^ 1 + AC08V) + -^ CO82V0 + 

-i- A Bin w+Yi «»» 2w + 

therefore e^- _ «^ «« » + ^ •<» « • •'• 
To prove that a^ /J^ ■" « '*•"' '*"*^"'- 

fr 

since a^-e^^"' + ^ """■"' 
and ^B -,««"« + »•*•••«'* 

r • ir 

^^ ^ A eo9 V) -{• B oos to Q AHnv a^ -{• B Hnw fi^ 

w n 

^ ^{A + -B) co»» ^Hniff^A'a/^ -{-B^fi^l 

But e^*'*+'®^* ^ ^ (^coiw + ^H»»« tt7) + (Sow tr+ B»ltt to- p7) 



MATHEMATICS AKD ASTRONOMY. 49 

w w 

^^ ^A eo$ w -ir B cot w ^ A Hnw a^ -j- B 4inw • fi^* 

Because e^*^*^ and c* *^ * are independent of axis, they can be changed 
from the order in which they occur in the sum of indices. 

The meaning of a^ ^ is the sector of the spiral which joins the begin. 

ning of the former with the end of the latter. 
Hence when /9 » a^ 

A B (A-^ B) <mw ^{A-^ B) Hnw* ^ 



«fC»««0 



^{A^B)a^ 



which is the addition theorem for the logarithmic spiral, the two compo-> 
nent sectors being in the same plane* 

ETcponemZ of a compound angle^ 
We have 

where a ^ is expanded as shown above> and (a p)^ is double of the 
compound angle, {a^fi^)* is three times the compound angle and so on* 
It is to be observed that {a^fi^)* is not in general equal to a ^^• 
Let x^ A-^ B^f and let fi be Identical with a> then we have 






fr 

But c** ^e'^^ and it is also ■» a^'^ ? 



and thus e ""^ -» a^ » 



which is a rational expression for the celebrated equation of Euler 

l/— I »«-'' 
By taking logs we obtain 



that Is 






fr 



To differentiate a^* 



9 

A A^ * 

Since a a* e * ^^eoeA+sinA'm^^ 

A. A. A. S. VOL. 2tLt. 4 



50 0BOTIOV A. 

therefore 

therefore 

a^d{Aa^) ^ {--tin A + eo8 A' a^)dA+9inAda ' Z? 
But since 

therefore 

therefore a^d(^a5) a^^ « d{Aa^). 

Hence d{i4«^) « a"^"*" ^ <i-4a"^ + fin -4 da • a^ a""-* 

ir IT 9 it 

tBsdA 'O^ +da (jrin AeoaA'a^ — «in* A ' a^ a^) 
*^ dA ' a^ + da {tin A eos A ' a^ + tin* A • aa^) 

•* IdA' a + da {tin Aeo9A'a+ 9in*A •'aa\ 

To differentiate a^^. 

d(a^fi^) « ((fa^) fi^ + a^d (/?''), 

which t» not - o^iJ* { d{Aa^) + d(B/5^) } unless /9 - a. 



fr 



and d{a^P^) ^e^^^^^^ d {aJ + Bfih^ 

provided It be understood that in the final term£^ the order of a, /9 he ob- 

served. 

To diff'erentlate «(^ + ^^> is more simple, because then we have but 
one index* not a binomial, and 

Hypbrbolic Trkookqmktkt. 
Meaning of the eqttation 

ha^ mm ooih A + einh A • a^* 



XATHBHATICS AKD ASTBONOUT. 61 

The expression a , when no period is expressed, is understood to have 
the period J ; in other words the area ~ is bounded by a circular arc. 

Let ha denote the same when the bounding arc is the equilateral hyper- 
bola (fig. 10). Then the rectangular components OM&udMQ of the hy- 
perbolic versor which has the axis a and the area ^ are conmionly de- 
noted by cosh A and sinh A, so that 

ha =* co»h A + sinh A • a^ 




Fio. 10. 



The hyperbolic versor ha^ is equivalent to the multiplier cosh A to- 



ir 

gether with the circular versor sinh A * a^. 

2b prow th(U ha «• Ac * . 

We have ha =• cosh A + sinh A * a^, 

This is an essentially different expansion from the circular. It may be 

» w 

denoted by he , and it diflters from that for «^* in having a^ a^ ^ i^ 
Similarly fca — cosh A — sinh A • a^, 

To compafe ha toith e 

e^* ma cosh A -f sinh A' a*, 

t« cosh A + a^afnA ^ • a^ ; 

» fr 

that is e^"**^^*^ - cosh ^ -f a^ <<nA ^ • a^j 



52 8Bcno9 ▲• 

V 

therefore OMft ^ >• eof {Aa^)^ 

and a^ 9(nhAm^ tin {Aa'). 

Also ka-A « coi4 ^ _ ^uii ^ . a^, 

WW WW 

— cot (-4a^) ^a^tin {Aa^) • a^. 

To;Ciid(A« vaiue ofha^ hfi^^ the analogue ofa^^^. 

ft 
Wc have ha^ ■« eoah A + fiaA A • a^, 

» 
and *^— eo«* J+ffnA B/9^5 

therefore ha^hfi^ <- eotft ^A eotft 3 + eoM A 9(nh B - fi^ 
+ eoahBtinhA'a^ + 9inhA9lnhB • a^fi^. 

w w 

The problem Is redaced to ilndiog the value of a^ fi^. Now for a plane, 
in which case a «« ^, we haye 

ha'^ ha — eath A eoah B + einh A einh B 

+ ieo9h Aeinh B - a + eosh B einh A • aXj 
from which it appears that the second term of the eosh for space is 
Mnh A sinh B cos afi. The term in 8inh must be of the form 

X einh A einh B eln afi • afi, 
.the ralue of x to be determined by the condition that cohh* — Hnh* » 1. 
Now 

co$h* 'a eoih* A eosh* B + 9(nh* A elnh* B eoiF afi 
+ 2 cosh A eosh B sinh A sinh B cos afi» 
«na sinh* «- eosh* A sinh* B + eosh* B sinh* A 

+ 2 cosh A cosh B sinh A sinh B cos afi 
+ x« sinh* A sinh* B sin* afi. 
and eosh* — sinh* — cosh* A {cosh* B — sinh* J) 

— sinh* Ai eosh* B-^sinh* B {coiF afi -- 9^ sin* afi)\ , 

which is equal to 1, If «^— — 1, or « ■■ |/^. 

Hence cosh a'^fi^ » eosh A cosh B + sinh A sinh Bcosafi (l) 

and Sinh a^^ — i^cosh A sMh B ' fi + cosh B sinh A - a 

+|/^ sinh A sinh B sinafi-afiX .' 

Equation (1) is the fundamental theorem In hyperbolic non-Euclidian 
geometry. Equation (2) gives the complementary theorem, and we pro- 
pose to investigate its geometrical meaning. Guided by the analogy to 
the circular sectors we conclude that equation (1) suffices to determine the 



(2) 



MATHEMATICS AND A8TB0N0MT. 



58 



amount of hyperbolic sector of the product, while equation (2) serres to 
determine the plane of the sector. How can the expression in (2) deter- 
mine a plane? Compound (fig. 11) cosh A sink B * P with cosh B sink A * a 
and from the extifemity P describe a circle with radius sinh A sink B sin a/9 

in the plane of OP and the perpendicular a/9. The positive tangent OT, 
drawn from to the circle has the direction of the perpendicular to the 
plane. 

This may be readily verified in the case of the product of equal sectors. 

liCt a = « + y • a^ 

then according to the rule for the product in space 

a fi^ = 3^ + j/* cos afi 



fr 



+ {a!y( a + fi)+ y^CIi y* sin afi • afij 





Fig. U. 



Fio. 12. 



Suppose that the straight line PB (fig. 12) joining the extremities of 
the arcs is the chord of the product ; it is symmetrical with respect to the 
axis afi. Then 

sinh ^^ = 4 v/2y* + 2y« co« a/9 = -?: |/ 1 + co« a^ ; 

therefore cosh -j- = l/l + y (1 + co« a/9) ; 

therefore by the rule for the plane, which is known to be true, 

cosh a V = ? (1 + co« a/9) + 1 + ^ (1+ co« a/9) , 

= If* (1 + cos afi) + 1, 
= y* + 1 + y» CO* a/9, 
= «" + y' cos a/9. 
But this last is the value given above by the rule found for space. 



54 BsonoM A. 

Fra$th^;^pihaere$i$ in hyperbolic triganofMtry. 

We have eosh d^fi^ « eo$h A cash B + 9ink A sink B cos afi; 
and Sink a^fi^ i- jcoM A Hnh B ' fi + cosh B 9inh A • a 

+|/^ 'inhAMh Bftnafi-'^^ 
By putting In — sinh B Instead of sinh B we get 

C09h a^P^^ =« co9h A co$h B — tinh A tinh B co$afi; 
and JSHnh d^fT^ » — cosh A ginh B - fi + eosh B sinh A - a 

^\/^sinh A sinh B sin afi-afi. 
Therefore coM a^fi^ + eosh a^^ ■= 2 cosh A eosh B; 

eosh a^§^ — eo^ a^^^ — 2 sinh A sinhBeos a/9; 
Binh a^§P + Sinh a^P'^ = 2 eo«ft BtfnAui • o; 
/S/nA a"*/?^— /SVnik a^f^ ^^ 2 eosh A sinh B - fi 
+ 2 |/^«<nA A sinh B sin afi * afi" 

w w 

To prow that ha'^hfi^ - h a^^ + ^^^ 

Since Aa'* — 1 + .do' + — g — I fj— +» 

The expansion is the same as for the product of circular sectors, ex- 
cepting that we have 

ft IT W 

ap^ == cos a^ + \/ — 1 sin afi • afi 
and (as a special case) a* = ^' = 1. 






MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMT. 55 

Hyperbolic Sfisals. 
To invenitigate the meaning ofha^ the analogue of o^. 

w 

We must have hai-^he ^«o»h<o j^AHvXw .7 
= {l+Aco9hW'}--^co8h*uj+^cosh*vi+) 

X ( 1 + ^ einh w'a^+^ sinh* w + jf ^^' w " «^ +) 

= 1 + -4 cosh w + "27 (cosh* w + sinh* vo)+ -^ -! cosh* w+3 cosh w sihh* w> + 



+ -! AsinhvD + -—2coshu)sinhw-\-— <Bcosh*iDsinhv}+sinh*w\ + \ 






IT j^M IT ^a 

1 + A (cosh w + sinh to 'a^) + jYicosh w + sinhw a^)'+ 37 (coshw + 

sinh w • a^)' + 
= 1 + ^ C0sh w + -gj- cosh 2to + gj co«A 8w + 



+ 1 ^stn^ w+ -^ «fn^2to + yp sinh 3io+ 1 • a 

= l+^a +-27a +8?* +• 
It follows as in the case of the circular spirals, that 



n 



haihfi^ = he^''+^'^ 



=B e 






The 6PECTROHELIOGRAFH OF THE EENWOOD ASTRO-FHYSICAL OBSERVA- 
TORY, Chicago, and results obtained in the study of the sun. 
By George E. Hale, Director Kenwood Observatory, University 
of Chicago, Chicago, lU. 

[ABSTRACT.! 

The spectroheliograph is an instrnment devised by the author for 
photographing sun-spots, faculse, the chromosphere and prominences 
in a single picture of the sun. It consists of a large dlfflraction spectro- 
scope (attached to the twelve-inch equatorial of the Kenwood Observa- 
tory) having two movable slits, one at the focus of the collimator and one 
at the focus of the observing telescope. These are so connected by a 



56 SEcnoM A. 

fljstem of lerers to a new form of clepsydra that they can be made to 
more at uniform velocitiea bearing a constant ratio to each other. As the 
flrat slit moves across the sun's Image the second slit moves at snch a rate 
that the K line in the fourth order spectmm of the grating constantly 
passes through it, and fUls upon a photographic plate. As it was dis- 
covered pbotographicaUy at the Kenwood Observatory in 1891 that H and 
K are both reversed in all prominences and facnls, it follows that photo- 
graphs of these objects can readily be obtained with the spectrohelio- 
graph. In taking a photograph, after K has been adjusted to pass through 
the second slit, the sun's image at the focus of the equatorial is covered 
by a diaphragm exactly equalling it in size, and as the slit moves across, 
the chromosphere and prominences around the entire circumference are 
photographed on the plate. When the slit reaches the end of its course 
the diaphragm is removed, and the slit made to move back across the 
sun's image at a greater speed. Both spots and faculae are thus obtained 
on the same plate with the chromosphere and prominences. The facolsB 
are well shown in even the brightest parts of the sun's surface, where 
they have up to the present been invisible. Daily photographs of solar 
phenomena are thus obtained at the Kenwood Observatory and on them 
some remarkable curved forms of f aculas have been discovered. Since 
tlie first application of photography by the author (in Apr., 1891) to the 
study of the ultra-violet spectrum of the solar prominences, twenty-eight 
lines have been discovered in this part of the spectrum. 

[This paper was Illustrated by lantern pictures; and photographs (paper 
prints) of sun-spots, faculse, chromosphere, prominences and spectra 
were exhibited.] 



Models Ain> machines for showing cuktbs of the thikd deobeb. By 
Andrew W. Phillips, Ph.D., Prof, of Math., Tale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

1. The formation of curves of the third degree by the intersection of 
two surfaces. 

2. Exhibition of the surfaces 

« = flcy* + «y and « =ax' + &«• + c« + d 
so constructed, that they may be deformed to represent different values 
of the constant coefficients, and also to intersect and form the curves 

xy* + ey = ax^ +bx* + ex + d, 
8. A machine so constructed, that by its aid any one of the following 
four forms (Newton's forms) may be readily plotted. 

acy' + ey =« ax^ + bx* -^ cx + d 

xy = ax' + &«* +cx + d 

y« = ox' + 6x* + ex + d 

y = ox' + 6x* + ex + d 



MATHEMATICS AND ASTfiONOMT. 57 

This last machine con^sts of a simple means of applying the principles 
involved In (2) to the plotting of curves. 

4. Exhibition of cones of the third degree partially immersed in a tank 
of colored liquid to show the various curves of intersection. 



Least square fallacies. By Prof. Truman Henby S afford, Williams 
College, Williamstown, Mass. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

In applying the method of least squares to physical problems, it is nec- 
essary not to overlook the essential conditions of the method, as expounded 
by Gauss. 

These are : 

1. The series of observations must be free from constant error ; or, in 
other words, all the unknowns must be employed in the equations. 

2. The casual errors must be distributed according to the law of error 
on which the method is based. If such distribution is imperfect, the 
method of least squares will give imperfect results. 

3 . Consequently the ' 'modulus of precision" must be the same for all the 
observations ; or the proper weight must be assigned to each observation. 

4. There must not be mistakes in the series ; discontinuous errors must 
be carefully avoided. % 

As observations and experiments become more and more precise, we 
usually find that these conditions are more and more nearly fulfilled. The 
law of error is best considered as resulting from the combination of 
elementary very minute errors, each of small amount and each as likely 
to be positive as negative ; and no one of these elementary errors must 
largely exceed the others in amount. 

The process of making more and more precise observations consists in 
avoiding, one after another, sources of minute errors which seem to ex- 
ceed others in amount; so that there is a constant tendency to bring their 
values into that relation to each other which the law requires. Good 
administration of an observatory, for instance, requires that the older 
Astronomers, or the director, shall continually watch over the work of the 
younger and less experienced observers, to provide that they shall not 
fall either into mistakes or into elementary errors of small amount, which 
however, are larger than they ought to be. And one of the most obvious 
marks of a bad series of observations is the frequency of mistakes or of 
casual errors which cannot be readily distinguished from mistakes. 

The following are some of the common practices which arise from 
fallacious reasoning on this subject. They are taken mostly from astronom- 
ical or geodetic practice; and are found in collections of observations 
and results which frequently possess very high authority. 

Time observations with the transit instrument have frequently been 
reduced without weighting the observations. When one of the stars is 



68 SECTION A. 

very near the pole, its modnlus of precision is less. When this fact is 
disregarded, the errors will not be distributed as the method requires. 
The weight of one's own observation is sometimes over-estimated. We 
suppose that we know more about these errors than we do ; and that the 
systematic or casual differences which we find between our results and 
those of our competitors are due to them and not to us. 

The weight of old and rough observations is often overstated. We 
have so long been in the habit of looking up with reverence to the illus- 
trious men who made them that we give them more credit than they de- 
serve. 

Weights are assigned without a careful study of the resblts, more by 
a general feeling than by any intellectual process. In one well-known 
case, the astronomer who made such a mistake acknowledged that he had 
given eye-and-ear observations the weight of chronographic. 

In stating definitive results for clock corrections, it is a common prac- 
tice to omit polar stars. When these last have been properly weighted, 
the results of a least square solution of the equations are the most prob<ible. 
If, then, the polar stars are omitted, and the mean of separate results 
from the rest taken, whether weighted or not, this mean will be less proba- 
ble than the other. Usually it happens that the two differ but little ; the 
labor then, of taking such a final average is simply lost. It Is sometimes 
allowable in problems which do not lead to uniform methods to state the 
second results as a check ; but in this problem there is no need of such a 
controL 

Computers frequently do not follow GaussK advice to employ as accur- 
ate values of the unknowns as can be conveniently obtained, and to make 
the least square solution furnish only corrections to these values. By 
this advice, errors of calculation are most readily avoided, and the real 
need of employing least squares in preference to a simpler process can be 
better estimated. Oftentimes it is quite needless ; that is, its employment 
saves only the labor of making and reducing a very few additional obser- 
vations. In fact, one great use of the method is to render itself super- 
fluous by leading to better observations. 

Mechanical computers are too apt to think that the especial mechanism 
which they use has some **magic quality," and can convert bad observa- 
tions into good. 

Probable errors, and especially probable errors of results, are a fertile 
source of blunder in computation. 

The 80-called criteria for rejecting doubtful observations are less em- 
ployed than they were some years ago, and with propriety. Their work 
is now done by greater care to avoid mistakes. A good observer needs no 
such criterion ; a bad one cannot by its use transform his observations 
into good ones. 
A great series of observations has adopted the formula 

2« 



for stating the probable error of its results. 



MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 59 

It is only applicable when n is very large ; when a result depends upon 
a few observations, we mast substitute the formula 



l/lT 
using for Bq not the precarious single value 

2e 



bnt an average derived from a great many similar cases. In the series to 
which I have referred, n is very often no more than 3 ; and the probable 
error of each result is mechanically computed from the three or more 
discrepancies of the observations which furnish that result. 

TMs case Is an extreme one; but we often find similar but less calami- 
tous instances. In all cases, the probable error of observations should be 
derived from at least a hundred discrepancies if possible. 

An additional fallacy arises when the probable error of results is stated. 
Experience shows that in almost all cases some new element must be con- 
sidered. For example, the probable error of a single star transit includes 
not only that arising from the discrepancies of the wires, but the varia- 
tion from star to star of personal equation ; so that it is erroneous to cal- 
culate the weight of a transit from the wire discrepancies only. Again, 
a batch of stars well selected usually gives a smaller probable error for the 
time by their separate results, than a comparison of a dozen cases when 
similar batches are observed side by side by two men on different nights. 
Here we have to reckon with variation of personal equation or perhaps 
unnoticed instrumental changes from night to night. The distinction 
between intermal and external probable error is one which must be very 
carefully observed. 

In a longitude operation, for example, the correct practice would be to 
assign the probable error of the resulting longitude from long experience 
of the same two observers with the same two instruments ; and to enlarge 
it with judgment for their earlier and less accurate operations. But even 
then, and certainly most commonly, do we find that the adjustment of a 
network of longitudes gives us a somewhat larger probable error than we 
should have expected. 



LiNBO-UNBAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS. By Prof. ARTHUR S. HATHA WAT, 

Bose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Ind. 

[AB8TBACT.] 

liBT 0p(T be a linear vector function in each p and tr. In its utmost gen- 
erality, ^ involves nine arbitrary vector constants, ^aa, ^ay9, etc., or 
twenty-seven arbitrary scalar constants of the form 

St^P<f [t, p^ff ^ a^ P^y 
in all possible permutations]. 



60 SECTION ▲• 

The snccesslTe coi^ngates of # as to /> and c fonn derlred Amotions 
Jti^, JT,^, K^^y . . . with the same scalar constants as ^, viz. : 
Sr^pit — SpKi^rc « SffK^^pr = SrK^firp, etc. 
The symbols JTi , IT,, JT, have the same laws of combination as the trans- 
positions {rp) , (jif) , {pff) , while Jti ft i ^%^i correspond to the cyclic sub- 
stitutions (r/ytf), (r^/y). Hence 

Besides these equations and others that may be derived ftx>m them by 
the use of the associative principle, there are relations that hold for spe- 
cial forms of f • 

^t [f 1, • • • ] \jTt% • • • ] [^89 • • • ] be the systems of Ittnctlons 
that give Ki « 1, f, «> i, f, a i respectively. A function firom one of 
these three systems has but two conjugate Ainctlous, which belongs to the 
other two systems. Since ^^tr a ^^p^ therefore functions of these 
forms involve only six vector constants » or eighteen scalar constants. 
The system of fhnctions \jpy . • . ] that are common to two of these 
systems belongs also to the third system, and each gives 

Such a telf-conjugale function involves only ten scalar constants, or the 
three vectors ^aa^ ^^^, ^yji and Sa^fiy, Its canonical form is 

axx' + M + r*«'+« [« (y*' +y'«) +/?(«:'+ «'«) +r («y' + «'y)]. 

X s Sapy x' » SatTy etc. Putting ff^ p and operating with 3 • p we ob- 
tain x* + 2^ + 2* + 6axyz, the canonical form of the homogeneous cubic 
In three variables. 

^t [^iS • • • ]> [^s'' * * * ] C^s'' • • • ] be the systems of Amo- 
tions that give Ki = — I, iTf «= — I, Kz ^ — 1, respectively. A function 
from one of these three systems has but two conjugate ftinctions, which 
belong to the other two systems. From the ordinary theory, we have 

^^'pff a Vp<pffy <p%p^ ■= y^^py where ^/^ is a linear vector fhnctlon of 
p^ Hence Kp^ = ip Vpffy or, in words : JJ fptr change sign when p, <r are 
interchanged, it is a linear vector function of Vpff. (For examples, see 
Tait, Art. 159). The Ainctions [^'^ • • • ] ^^^^ ^re common to two of 
these systems belong also to the third system and are of the form a Vp<f* 
They give K^^ K^^ K^— —1. 

Let [f>i, • • . ] be the system of Amotions that give KiKt « i. Then 
also KtKi si, Ki s= iTf B £3. This primary fhnction, f^, may be re- 
solved into the sum f 1 -|- f |' in only one way. 

Lc^ [s^w9 • • • ]) wherein to is a primitive cube root of anity, be the 
system of Amotions that give K^K^ » 10. Then also, 

KtKi — w«, JTi « w'JT, -= w-BT,. 



MATHEMATICS AKB ASTRONOMY. 



61 



The coqjogate of ^„ belongs to the conjugate system [fi^s, . . • ]• 
Any function f can be resolved into the^wo self-conj agate primary parts 

91 9\^ ^"^^ ^^ ^^^ conjugate imaginary, non-primary, parts ip^ , 9>t0> ^^ 
only one way, viz. : 



wherein 



we add, 



Jf = i (1 + JTiiT, + ^gJT, — ^1 — JT, — JKa), 



These six operations. Just written, are a transformation of 1, iTi, iff, 
K^^ KxK^^t K^Ku and have the following multiplication table : 



M A 



L 


L 

















M 





K 














A 








A 


B 








B 














A 


B 


C 








C 


D 








D 














C 


D 



a h 
c d 



may 



Hence, the linear form aA + hB + cC + dD and the matrix 

be regarded as equivalent symbols (Tait, Chap. VI (C)). 

The problem of transforming these operations into new ones Xj, Xg, X3, 
that have the same relations as iTi, JTg, iTj, is capable of solution in an 
infinite number of ways, thus : 

L^ ^ L — M + {a + a^) A + (h + h^) B + {c + c') C— (a + a') D. 
L^^L — M+ (wa + w«aO A + {wh + w'*h') B + {wc + w*d) C 

— (wa + wa') 2>. 

i;, — Z— Jf + (to*a + waO il + (w«6 + wft') B + (w«c + wc') C 

— (toa + wa') -D. 



62 SSOTtOK A. 

Where a* + be^a'* + b'e' = 0, 

2aa' + 6c' + h'e = 1. 
In particular, If LiLt -• /TiiTt, L^Li «■ KfKt, then 

Li =» L — ^ + bB -^ cCt etc., wherein &c »■ 1 or 

ij - J (1 + 6 + c) ifi + 4 (1 + wfe + w*c) ITi + i (I + w'6 + wc) JTa. 
If we put ^p<y z= SVq^^q^^ then the transpositions (12) (23) (81) on 
the subscripts of the q'9 are values of £i, Xs, L,, giving LijLs »> KiK^j 
etc. Hence ^Vq^qi^q^ may be expressed In terms of the three vectors 
^Vq^aPQii ^yQ^9iP9tf^yQi'^qiPqB^ ^^^^ invarlent coefficients. 



CONCIfiRNtKO A COKOBU1BNCB-OROUP OF ORDER, 860 COKTADOED IS TRB 
GROUP OF LINBAR FRACTIONAL SUBSTTrUTIONS. Bj Prof . E. £LaBTING8 

MoouK, University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

rABSTRACT. 1 

The general group is that of the substitutions 

where a, &, c, d are any quantities satisfying the relation ad — 6c ae 1 ; the 
order is «. An Included group Is obtained by limiting a, 6, c, d, to quanti- 
ties of the form 

where v and jjl are integers ; the order is a». The group in question, of 
order 860, is obtained by considering two substitutions 

of this last group as identical, when 

a^a* or — a = a' (mod. 8) 

6 = 6' ^h = V 



c — c' — C — c* 



d = d* — d = d'. 

understanding 

fi + V i/^i =fi' + ^' ]/=ri (mod. 3) 

when 

fi^-fi' V = v' (mod. 3). 

In the paper the 860 substitutions are exhibited multiplioatlvely in terms 
of the two types of substitutions. 

The group-property for the substitutions in this form is shown to de- 
pend (on the immediate relations 

G* =- 1, Ft i^<i- i^<+<i, ( F, )•- 1, 

where 1 » (w^ -^^ , and) on a relation of the form 

GF^ GF, GF, GF, GF, « i, 
where the quantities «!..«« are uniquely determined by any two of them« 



MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY. 63 

TSE SECULAR MOTION OF A FREE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. By L. A. BaTTKR, 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. [To be printed 
in Amer. Meteor. Jonm.] 



European observations. By J. A. Brashear, Allegheny, Fa. 



On the CONFLICT OF OBSERVATION WITH THEORY, AS TO THE EARTH'S 

ROTATION. By S. C. Chandler, Cambridge, Mass. 



Latitude of the Satrb Observatory. By Prof. C. L. Doouttle, South 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



List of thirty new proper motion stars. By C. L. Doolittle, South 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Thermal absorption in the solar atmosphere. By Edwin B. Frost, 
Hanover, N. H. [To be printed In Astronomische Nachrichten] 



Forms of solar facul^. By George E. Hale, Chicago, 111. 



On the intersection of an equilateral hyperbola and the sides of a 

PLANE TRIANGLE. A QUESTION IN TRILINEARS. By Frof. WiLLIAM 

Hoover, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. 



Electric lights for astronomical instruments. By Prof. Jefferson 
E. Eershner, Lancaster, Fa. [To be printed in Astronomy and Astro- 
Physics.] 



On the discriminators of the discriminant of an algebraic equation. 
By Prof. Mansfield Merriman, Lehigh Univ., South Bethlehem, Fa. 



On the construction of a prime vertical transit instrument for the 
determination of the latitude of harvard college observa- 
TORY. By Prof. W. A. Bogers, Colby Univ., Watervllle, Me. 



Differential formula for orbit corrections. By Prof. T. H. Saf- 
FORD, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 



64 8ECTI0K A. 

PrOPKR motion of XIOBTY-NIKB stabs vrSTBDH 10^ OF THR NORTH POLK, 
WITH REMARKS ON THE PRRSENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF SOLAR 

MOTION. By Prof. T. H. Safford, Williams College, Williamstown, 
Mass. 



Mbtborolooical observations made IN April 1890, 1891, 1892, m the 

TOTALITY PATH OF THE ECLIPSE OF 1898, APRIL 16. Bj Prof. DaYID 

Todd, Amherst College, AmberSt, Mass. [To be printed in Amer. 
Jonrn. 8ci., Oct. and Nov., 1892.] 



Increase in constant for addition, in testing for integral values 
IN THE equation OF quarterpSQUarbs. Bj Jas. D. Warnbr, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



Practical rxtles for testing whether a number is divisible bt 7 or 
ant other small prime ; and if not divisible, to ascertain the 
REMAINDER. By Jas. D. Warner, Brooklyn, N. T. 



On the general problem of least squares. By R. S. Woodward, U. S. 
C. & O. Survey, Washington, D. C. [To be printed in Annals of 
Mathematics.] 

The iced-bar base apparatus of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
By R. S. Woodward, U. 8. C. and G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 



SBOTION B. 



PHYSICS. 



JL. A. A. S. VOL. ZLX 5 (65) 



OFFICERS OF SECTION B. 



Vice President. 
B. F. Thomas, Columbus, Ohio. 

Secretary, 
Bbown Atkbs, New Orleans, La. 

Member of Council. 
William A. Booers, WatenrlUe, Me. 

^ Members of Sectional Committee. 

*B. F. Thomas, Columbus, Ohio. Brown Atres, New Orleans, La. 

F. E. NiPHER, St. Louis, Mo. A. Magfarlanb, Austin, Texas. 

Thomas French, Jr., Cincinnati, Ohio. F. B. Whitman, 

Cleveland, Ohio. C. liEo Mees, Terre Haute, Ind. 



\ \ » 



Member of the Nominating Committee. 
£. B. BoSA, Middletown, Conn. 

Members of Subcommittee on Nominations. 

B. F. Thomas, Columbus, Ohio. Brown Atres, New Orleans, La. 

Austin L. McBae, Bolla, Mo. Charles A. Marplb, Louis- 

yille, Ey. G. S. Maler, Ithaca, N. Y. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

BENJAMIN F. THOMAS, 

VICE PRESIDENT, SECTION B. 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN COLLEGES AND UNIVEBSTTIES. 



The training of young men for the several so-called practical 
vocations of life has come to form a considerable part of the work 
done by our colleges and universities, a work in which the mem- 
bers of this section have no small part. I have therefore thought 
it well to ask your attention to a few points impressed upon me by 
experience and observation, feeling sure that you have had like ex- 
periences, and hoping that out of our discussion of them, mutual 
help may come, and the work in which we are engaged be advanced 
by our joint influence and action. 

It is not my purpose to review the history of technical education, 
to prove the need of it, or to discuss its commercial or educational 
value. It would be interesting to trace the struggle over the in- 
troduction of scientific studies into college courses, and their slow 
elevation to the commanding position they now hold. No less in- 
teresting is the change in sentiment respecting the teaching of the 
applications of science. It is not yet a decade since the contempt 
felt by the devotees of pure science for those who seek to put her 
truths to some use, was expressed before this section. Even with- 
in the past year, among discussions of educational policy, we find 
this statement, — ^^We may claim it as a distinction, that, in the 
seats of academic learning, little or nothing useful is taught :" and 
again, — "Greek is useless ; but its Hselessness is the very strong- 
est reason for its being a compulsory subject in the University 
course, — for the true function of a University is the teaching of use- 
less learning." Such expressions are growing less frequent, and 

(67) 



68 SECTION B. 

the answers to them more direct and emphatic. Indeed it seems 
hardly worth while longer to reply to them. The existence of the 
technical schools of the United States, England, Germany and 
France, their prosperity, the positions of responsibility and trust 
held by their graduates, the anxiety of schools of the old regime to 
open courses of instruction in engineering, — these are proofs of the 
most conclusiye kind that instruction in applied science is respect- 
able, that technical education is needed, and that it is supplying a 
want which the old education was powerless to fill. 

But while old school educators have found it expedient to in- 
clude technical education in their work, they in some cases at least 
do it in a sort of semi-apologetic way, supplying what a misguided 
public wants, because the public insists on having it. They call 
such work "technical training," or "instruction in applied science," 
and say that it is not education at all. They look on the graduate 
from such courses as an inferior being, who may perhaps be worthy 
of some praise because he successfully completed a rigid course of 
study, covering the usual four years' time, and including work in 
which equestrian skill is useless ; but who is nevertheless to be 
pitied because of his want of taste in joining the plebeian throng, 
instead of seeking admission to the aristocratic circles which they 
represent. This feeling is fortunately growing less pronounced. 
The mingling of the two classes of teachers in colleges and uni- 
versities which carry on both kinds of work, and the meeting of 
the two classes of students in the class room, the debating society 
and in oratorical contests, are teaching mutual respect. In public 
discussions, also, the advocates of the old education have by no 
means had the best of the argument. ^The address by President 
Francis A. Walker on "The Place of Schools of Technology in 
American Education," delivered before the University convocation 
at Albany last year, contains an unanswerable statement of the 
claims of the instruction afforded by them to rank as of the highest 
educational value. After speaking of the success of such schools, 
as shown in their effect on the industries of the country, he said, 
"I go far beyond this, and assert for these schools that they have 
come to form a most important part of the educational system of 
the country, and that they are to-day doing a work in the intellect- 
ual development of the country which is not surpassed, if indeed 
it be equaled, by that of the classical colleges. I believe that in 
the schools of applied science and technology as they are carried 



ADDRESS BT BENJ. F. THOMAS. 69 

on to-day in the United States — involving the thorough and moflrt; 
scholarly study of principles directed immediately upon the useful 
arts — .is to be found almost the perfection of education for young 
men. Too long have we submitted to be considered as furnishing 
something which is indeed more immediately and practically useful 
than a so-called liberal education, but which is, after all, less noble 
and fine. 

Too long have the graduates of such schools been spoken of as 
though they had acquired the arts of livelihood at some sacrifice of 
mental development, intellectual culture, and grace of life. For 
me, if I did not believe that the graduates of the institution over 
which I have the honor to preside were better educated men, in all 
that the term educated man implies, than the average graduate of 
the ordinary college, I would not consent to hold my position for 
another day. It is true that something of form and style may be 
sacrificed in the earnest, direct, and laborious endeavors of the 
student of science; but that all the essentials of intellect and 
character are less happily achieved through such a course of study, 
let no one connected with such an institution, for a moment con- 
cede !" 

The position taken in the clear, emphatic and unmistakable sen- 
tences quoted, and established in the following part of his address, 
is made the more striking by the fact that it expresses the convic- 
tion of an able educator, whose work has been done at the classic 
center of the country. 

The position of schools of technology is one of usefulness and 
assured success, in which all who have contributed to it, or who 
have enjoyed the benefits arising from their work (and who has 
not?) may take just pride. They have passed triumphantly through 
the first stage of their existence, the struggle for recognition, and 
have now reached the period where their usefulness depends on 
the wisdom of their management, and not on a precarious support. 
It is not too much to say that if they should content themselves 
with their present methods of work, and their present resources, 
they would continue, for many years, to be, as they have been in the 
past, an invaluable agency for the industrial development of the 
country, for the intellectual betterment of their students, and for 
the general elevation of the several engineering professions. But 
it would be strange indeed if perfection had been found 'already, 
either in courses of study, or in methods of instruction, since 



70 SECTION B. 

these have been in existence only a few years, and have been de- 
veloped under great diflScolties. The rapid advance made already 
is. only a promise of what is to come, for the same able men who 
so happily shaped the earlier and present courses are still at work, 
and younger men, trained in these courses, and with experience in 
the engineering professions, are also bending their energies to the 
same end. 

The primary aim of an engineering course is a practical one ; 
namely, to fit the student in the most thorough and perfect manner 
possible, for success in the practice of his profession. The educa- 
tional aim is wholly secondary, if it be recognized at all. En- 
gineering courses, as now arranged, and the instruction given under 
them, are quite practical in their bearing ; and the marked success 
attained by graduates from them, as contrasted with graduates 
abroad, has been attributed to this feature in oflScial reports there. 
But the arrangement of these courses has been in part controlled 
by the necessity of providing a part at least of the instruction 
given, in classes already created for students in general courses ; 
and also in part by fashion, for unfortunately there are *^fads" in 
education, as in other things. The leading engineering courses at 
present provided are civil, electrical, mechanical, and mining en- 
gineering. They have much that is common, and in many schools, 
the work for the first, or Freshman year, is the same for all of them. 
In some, the second year is common also. But in all the schools, 
there are subjects in each of the three following years which are also 
in each course, and the students are all put through the same rou- 
tine, irrespective of its particular fitness to their professional future. 
This is, in many institutions, an unfortunate necessity at present, 
because of their inability to provide the teaching force necessary 
for the formation of distinct classes in each course. In other 
places, not only are all engineering students put in the same class 
in certain subjects, but also all students in the classical and scien- 
tific courses ; and, worst of all, put through work intended for the 
general course students, with no reference whatever to the needs 
of the engineers. This may be convenient for the professor, it 
may keep down the salary list of the trustees, but is it just to the 
student ? 

Too many teachers, learned in their special lines of work, en- 
thusiastic, and anxious to lead their students as far as possible into 
fields so attractive to them, forget that it is not the purpose of 



ADDRESS BT BEKJ. F. THOMAS. 71 

these courses to produce scientists. The amount of work to be 
done by the student in lines bearing directly upon his chosen work 
is so great that the four years commonly allotted to it is found all 
too short, and it is therefore necessary, in order to the securing of 
the best results, that the work set before him in any subject be 
very carefully selected and limited. The wealth of knowledge em- 
braced in any branch of science is now so great that an adequate 
presentation of what the professor would consider even an element- 
ary coui*se in it, would require many times the time which may be 
properly allotted to it. And it is perhaps well that this is true. 
The danger is that the parts of a subject which are most desirable 
for the student to know will not be recognized by him, or not made 
so thoroughly his own as to escape the erasing process which time 
so ruthlessly applies to his mental tablets. When the time of need 
comes, he finds himself in possession of a pleasant recollection of 
certain hours spent in a certain room, listening to able lectures, in 
the presence of bottles and tubes, pretty pieces of polished brass 
and hard rubber, pretty colors wonderously changing, sweet sounds 
and bad smells. He has a faint impression that sometime in the 
sequence of hours so spent, something was said which might pos- 
sibly be worth something to him now, if he could only recall it ; 
and, if he kept good notes, or used books of reference, he begins 
the weary search for something — somewhere. 

Happily for his successors on the students' bench, the evil has 
been recognized, and the remedy is being applied. But there is 
danger in the other direction also. The process of selection may 
be so applied and instruction so given, as to present the subject as 
a series of isolated facts, disjointed, having no necessary connec- 
tion with or relation to one another ; — a sort of omnibus collection 
of scientific rules of thumb, — the result being\>n1y less nnhappy 
than in the first case. It is possible so to collect, classify and con- 
nect the chosen topics as to widen their meaning, and increase 
their practical value to the student, deepen their impression on his 
memory, making them more certainly available in time of need ; 
and also so to present them as to afford him an outline of the 
science as a science, increasing their educational value. 

The remarks made apply to the scientific and other subjects 
which are generally considered as a necessary preparation for the 
strictly technical work which follows. The latter work is, or should 
be, in the hands of men technically trained, and experienced in 



72 8ECTIOH B. 

the practice of their branches of engineering, and the instraction 
which they give is naturally gnided throughout by the considera* 
tion of its practical bearing. The time set apart for the preliminary 
work, mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc., is so great that it is 
found impossible to begin the characteristic work of the course as 
early, or to treat it as fully as is desirable. The work usually 
done in mathematics is particularly worthy of mention in this re- 
spect. A knowledge of analytical mechanics and strength of ma- 
terials is considered an essential preparation for the last year's 
work in the four engineering courses named. But to do that work, 
the student must know the elements of calculus, and that subject 
needs other preparation, the whole forming a sequence of strictly 
preparatory subjects, reaching up to the beginning of the Senior 
year. Nearly one-fourth of the time of the entu*e course is thus 
given up to preparatory training in one line of work only. Skill 
in certain parts of this mathematical work is certainly of great 
value to the engineer, but is that any reason why he should be 
compelled to plod or stumble through a mass of matter that has 
no bearing whatever on any part of his work? 

Heretical as the idea is considered, many are beginning to claim 
that mathematics as now taught is a stumbling block in the way 
of the engineer. Mathematical texts and courses have received 
their present form in order that they might afford the broadest 
possible foundation for the future intricate work of the mathema- 
tician, the physicist, and the astronomer. But the demand that the 
engineer should follow the same course and the same methods is as 
unreasonable as are the demands of the old classical school. How 
many engineers ever use higher mathematics in their professional 
work to-day? I venture to say that not one in a hundred does. 

In the practice of any one of the professions named, there is 
so little occasion for the use of anything more complex than sim- 
ple arithmetic and algebra, with an occasional sine, cosine or tan- 
gent, and logarithms, that the rest is soon forgotten. What per- 
centage, think you, of graduates can, three years after graduation, 
carry out more than two or three trigonometric transformations, 
or recall half a dozen integration formulae, or use Taylor's theorem, 
without hunting up text books? If the test could be applied, the 
percentage would be found very small. Continual practice is nec- 
essary, as in other things, if one would be ready in the use of higher 
mathematics, and the fact that successful engineers, who showed 



ADDRESS BY BENJ. F. THOMAS* 78 

considerable mathematical ability in college, confess to the loss of 
the greater part of it, of itself shows how little real need of such 
skill there is in the practice of engineering. But we may go far- 
ther. The engineer shoald be so trained as to fit him, not only for 
the successful practice of his profession, as it is when he enters 
upon it, but also so as to fit him to improve upon the work of his 
predecessors in it, to introduce better methods, if such are possi- 
ble, and to advance its science and art as far as his ability will 
allow. To what extent will skill in higher mathematics be an es- 
sential in this regard? The question can best be answered by 
the consideration of past experience. Take the case of electrical 
engineering, since it is a new and broad field, affording abundant 
opportunity for mathematical discussion, and to which the best 
mathematical skill the world has produced has been applied. A 
great store of valuable matter has been added to the science of 
physics as a result, but we search almost in vain for a single thing 
in the practice of the profession which is due to mathematical an- 
alysis of the higher order. In continuous current work. Ohm's law, 
the experimentally determined facts of induction, of electro mag- 
netism, and of the properties and behavior of conductors, econo- 
mic considerations requiring the use of nothing but arithmetic or 
algebra in then* application, cover the entire ground of plant design, 
construction, testing, and operation. The peculiar field for mathe- 
matical skill is considered to be that of alternating current work. 
But here a close examination of facts leads to the same result. 
The alternating dynamo and the converter are what they are to-day 
because of the experimental work done on them in the laboratories 
of the factories and colleges of the United States. Most excellent 
mathematical discussions of such machines have been printed, but 
they complacently persist in doing what the discussions say they 
ought not, and in refusing to do what they ought. In the matter 
of measurement even, the methods given us by analysis are avail- 
able only under conditions rarely attainable, and in some work 
(the determination of converter efficiencies for example) , they can- 
not be depended on at all. 

With these undoubted facts in view there are only two reasons 
for the study of higher mathematics by engineering students; 
first, as a mental discipline, and second, because certain parts of 
such mathematics are helpful to him, in enabling him the more 
easily and clearly to perceive the truth of certain facts and princi- 



74 SECTION B. 

pies in physics and mechanics. That the mental discipline so 
acquired is valuable, no one can well deny. If tliis discipline 
could be acquired in no other way, we should have one good ar- 
gument for retaining all the mathematical work now required of 
the student. But this is not true ; for the methods of discussion 
which must be followed in the scientific and technical parts of the 
courses are the same as those used in mathematical work, and the 
student will suffer no loss in mental discipline through the sug- 
gested diversion of a part of his time from the more abstruse parts 
of the mathematical subjects as now carried on. 

It seems clear that the best reason that can be assigned for matli- 
ematical training in engineering courses is that the use of mathe- 
matical processes is essential to the mastery of the scientific prin- 
ciples underlying engineering practice. There are few proWems 
arising in such practice 'which cannot be solved by simple arithme- 
tic or algebraic processes. If to these we add graphic methods, 
not requiring analytical skill, we have all that is necessary for the 
handling of quite difiScult questions. The rule of three even is a 
very satisfactory tool in the hands of one who knows how to use it, 
and a large part of physics at least can be taught to one having 
nothing but the rule of three on which to depend. There are many 
successful engineers to-day who had nothing better to start with, and 
who find such simple processes as those named, together with the 
current engineering pocket books, sufficient for their ordinary prac- 
tice. If such an engineer has cases to deal with which have be- 
come common, he can rely upon past practice, and use his pocket 
book of rules, tables, and formulae. But it is the unusual case, 
involving new conditions, presenting difficulties not before en- 
countered, that call for the true engineer. The man who success- 
fully meets such cases must be able to see clearly the case before 
him, to recognize its peculiarities and difficulties, to see the bear- 
ing of the scientific principles involved, and thus to work out a 
new and correct solution. It is in the ability to do this that the 
superiority of the well trained engineer over the ' 'practical man," 
or pocket book engineer consists. While, as stated, much scientifiq, 
truth may be taught to one with little mathematical training, the 
knowledge that one so taught obtains, is certainly of a different 
order from that obtained by one with mathematical power. The 
truths of mechanics and physics are broad and far-reaching, and 
it is absolutely impossible to express them fully or to show their 



ADDRESS BT BBNJ. F. THOMAS. 75 

bearing and relations without tlie use of more or less advanced 
inatUematical methods. The thorough comprehension of them is 
therefore possible only to the student who has mastered such 
methods. 

Here, then, lies the claim of mathematics to a place in engineering 
courses of study. But while certain parts of the branches of pure 
mathematics now in vogue are essential to the proper training of 
engineers, it by no means follows that all the work prescribed in 
such subjects is valuable or beneficial to the student. A consid- 
erable part of the more advanced topics in algebra, trigonometry, 
and analytical geometry have no place whatever in the discussion 
of applied science, and do not fall in the category of essentials. 
A carefully selected course in mathematics for engineering stu- 
dents is much needed, and if we could have such a course ar- 
ranged by a number of men well trained in engineering science, 
with the aid of a mathematician or two in sympathy with engi- 
neering work, the adoption of such course would speedily follow, 
and result in marked improvement in the work of technical stu- 
dents. In selecting the material for such a course, the purpose 
should be to provide for the student's training in all methods which 
may possibly be needed by him in his scientific or technical sub- 
jects, putting a liberal interpretation on this view. I believe it is 
possible to arrange such a course, in such a way that the time re- 
quired to cover it, as pure mathematics, from trigonometry through 
calculus, need not exceed one year. The examples and problems 
necessary for illustrating the mathematical processes, and giving 
the student facility in their use, should be drawn from appropri- 
ate topics in mechanics and physics, and if possible from the stu- 
dent's own work in the laboratory. A part of the time saved by this 
modified course should be spent in more extended problem solu- 
tion of various kinds, in drill in methods of computation, and in 
the checking and proving of results, until the student no longer 
uses long division when he wants to divide by two, loses his in- 
nate fondness for seven place tables, and always stops his calcu- 
lations short of the seventeenth decimal place. Such a modifica- 
tion will remove one of the greatest difi9culties encountered by the 
average student, will make the work more attractive and more use- 
ful, because it is applied in ways whose bearing and importance 
he can see, instead of to a collection of puzzles, which, when solved, 
keep him forever guessing why they were set before him. 

I have spoken thus fully of the mathematics of engineering 



76 8ECTIOK B 

oourseSf not because that is the only snbject which needs revision, 
nor because it needs revision more than anything else, but be- 
cause it is the subject in which greatest opposition to change will 
be found. It is probable that I shall be charged with proposing 
to lower the standard of engineering work, by those who consider 
the standard of such courses as gauged by the amount of higher 
abstract mathematics contained in them. That was the charge 
made by old schoolmen when it was proposed to modify and 
modernize the Arts course in our colleges. We have seen exten- 
sive changes made, and more radical ones have been seriously con- 
sidered, but the Arts course survives, and graduates from it are 
found no less learned and able than those who preceded them. 
I feel sure that a revision of engineering courses, in mathematics 
and in other subjects as well, on the lines indicated, will be found 
to result, not in a lowered standard, either technically or with re- 
spect to educational value, but in a marked improvement in all 
respects. 

That a change from the orthodox routine of mathematical study 
is both possible and beneficial has been demonstrated by Professor 
Perry at the Finsbury Technical College of London. * He has had 
the good fortune to work in a peculiar field, an institution wholly 
unlike anything else in England, and therefore free from educa- 
tional fashions and traditions. But for this, he would probably 
have found what he has done, impossible in England. The results 
secured by him have attracted considerable attention abroad and 
should encourage others to make a similar attempt here. 

Revision of the same sort is needed in other subjects. The 
courses in general physics and chemistry, as now given, are better 
suited to the needs of the engineer than those given ten years ago, 
but there are still many topics presented which might be omitted 
with advantage. Why should all students be taken through a long 
discussion of the theory of surface tension ? What need has the 
mining engineer for the theorems of electrostatic potential, or the 
civil engineer for a comprehension of the phenomena of high vacua? 
Why should the mechanical engineer be troubled with the chemistry 
of storage batteries and why should the electrical engineer know 
the chemistry involved in words beginning with di — and ending two 
lines away with inef Other subjects might be mentioned, but what 
has been said is sufficient to point out existing defects, and to in- 
dicate the policy which should direct the needed revision. 

Literary subjects have generally been looked upon as valuable 



ADDRESS BY BEKJ. F. THOMAS. 77 

because of the polish they are supposed to impart, and their pres- 
ence in engineering courses has often been allowed rather than de* 
sired by technical instructors. This is a mistake. The success 
of an engineer does not depend alone on his professional attain- 
ments. He may build a bridge, the building of which requires of 
him the exercise of the highest engineering talent. The bridge may 
be a perfect success, and he may be well paid for his work, but if 
he stop at that point, his work is not as successful as it should be. 
If he is also able to write a paper embodying what is new in the 
work, read it before his engineering society, take a creditable part 
in its discussion, the whole being done in neat and attractive 
language, his usefulness to his profession, to the world, and to 
himself is thereby increased, and opportunities for other and more 
difficult work are more likely to come to him than if he had not the 
ability to write and talk, as well as to build. The student should 
have literary work placed before him, and the practical value of 
that work should be pointed out and insisted on as in other sub- 
jects. He should study the principles of rhetoric and composition, 
and apply them in practice on assigned topics, in which scientific 
and technical subjects should predominate. He should read much, 
in well-chosen scientific, technical and literary lines, to increase 
his vocabulary, make him familiar with examples of good literary 
style, and help him in the formation of habits of correct and easy 
expression. He should take an active part in debating societies. 
And he should also have practice in the writing and discussion of 
technical papers, in the student engineering society. The study 
of German or French may well occupy a part of his time, though 
I should consider it more important that he should be thoroughly 
at home in the use of English. I am inclined to think that ethics 
might be made a practical subject in the engineering courses. 
What an opportunity there is for the application of practical ethics 
to wire joints and plumbers' bills. Would that the student might 
leave his college so thoroughly imbued with correct principles that 
he could never after tolerate defective or dishonest work of any 
sort whatever. 

The larger proportion of the schools which give engineering in« 
struction in this country are the state universities, which owe 
their existence to the efforts of that great statesman, Justin S, 
Morrill. Receiving their support, as they do, from the national and 
state treasuries, they at least owe it to the nation that the students 



78 SECTION B. 

they send out should be fitted for good citizenship. They are 
trained to serve their country in time of war, but it is even more 
important that their training should enable them to exert their in- 
fluence for tlie promotion of the general well being in time of peace. 
Grave questions confront us as a nation, and every student, in 
every course, in every college in the land, should be given in- 
stniction wliich will enable him t6 form sound opinions, and to use 
his influence efi'ectively. A thorough knowledge of our own in- 
stitutions and histor}', and of the general principles of political and 
social science, are essential to good citizenship, and the nation 
must look to the schools and colleges, as its most powerful allies 
in combating the errors of ignorance and vice. 

The suggestions thus far made refer to that part of the work of 
technical schools which is in the control of their faculties. The 
courses of study are framed by them, and the work of the class 
rooms is shaped by the professors individually. But the future of 
these schools depends also upon the trustees who govern them, and 
upon the public which furnishes them with means to use. The 
ideal technical school would have its courses of study arranged 
each with reference to the needs and future interests of the students 
following it, and as independentof other courses as if they were not 
in existence. The subdivision of classes would be made so great 
as to insure like independence of work, and also to insure the 
teacher's personal knowledge of the daily work of each student . 
The teachers chosen, particularly those in charge of the character- 
istic work of each course would be men well trained and with large 
experience in the practice of their respective branches, and whose 
vacations at least are spent in such practice. In this way alone 
can the fruits of ripe experience, and the best methods of recent 
practice be made available to the student. 

In laboratories, space and apparatus should be provided, which 
will enable each student to do his work without being embarrassed 
or hindered by the work of fellow students. In the advanced 
laboratory work, it is especially important that the machinery 
provided be the best of its class, and of commercial 'Size. It is as 
ridiculous to attempt to train an electrical engineer with dynamos 
no larger than one's hat, as it would be to train a jockey on a Shet- 
land pony. The young graduate has at best much to learn when 
be leaves college, and he ought in college to be made as familiar 
as possible with the handling of machinery and apparatus such as 



ADDRESS BY BENJ. F. THOMAS. 79 

he will have to handle on leaving. The time spent in college is 
the time for learning the rudiments, for blunders and mistakes, 
and for learning how to get out of difficulties. The student who 
has and uses such opportunities, acquires a confidence in himself 
which can be obtained in no other way, and saves himself also the 
mortification and loss of prestige which invariably follow blunders 
made later. 

Such faculties, such laboratories, and such equipments are ex*- 
pensive, but I believe that the material advancemeht of the country 
which would follow expenditures so made would prove a handsome 
return on the investment. 

It would be well if we were each able to follow the policy adopted 
by Stevens Institute under the wise leadership of President Morton, 
and confine our attention to, and expend our means in some one 
branch of engineering, one state institution taking say civil engi- 
neering, the neighboring state taking mechanical engineering and 
so on, for it is better to do some one thing in the most perfect 
manner possible, than to attempt many things and secure only 
moderate excellence in any. But state pride makes this impossible, 
if there were no obligation expressed or implied in the terms of the 
Morrill act, to provide in each institution founded on it, instruction 
needed "in the several pursuits and professions of life." We must 
be content to see only slow progress made in directions requiring 
more money, for boards of trustees and the public also are accus- 
tomed to consider the views of professors as more or less "cranky,*' 
and professors as enthusiasts who need restraining rather than en- 
couragement. But with reason on our side, and with the splendid 
examples set before us in Germany, we may expect to rouse public 
interest and win public support in time, and to become the world's 
leaders in technical education, as we of right ought to be. 



PAPEKS EEAD. 



Persistence op vision. By Prof. Ervin S. Ferry, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N, Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The object of this series of experiments was primaiUy to test the va- 
lidity of the hypothesis advanced by Plateau and Nichols that the duration 
of retinal impression depends upon the color of the light entering the 
eye, and secondarily to determine the principal factors producing persist- 
ence of vision and the laws connecting them. 

The duration of retinal impression was measured for various wave 
lengths throughout the entire visible normal spectrum and the values thus 
obtained platted in curves showing relation between wave length and du- 
ration of retinal impression. 

Fig. 1 is for the case of the normal eye, in which the separate curves 
are for spectra of different luminous intensity varying from one to twenty- 
four. Fig. 2 shows the distribution of luminosity, as seen by the normal 
eye, of the incandescent lamp that was used as a source of light. Fig. 3 
gives the values of retinal persistence for the spectrum as seen by a red- 
blind person. Fig. 4 is the corresponding case for various green-blind 
observers. 

From the data derived from these experiments is deduced the following 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

I. The duration of retinal impression is very different for different re- 
gions of the spectrum, being at a minimum value at the region of maxi- 
mum luminosity and gradually increasing to maximum values at the ends 
of the spectrum. 

II. If the luminosity of any region in the spectrum be so changed that 
the values vary in geometrical ratio, the corresponding values of duration 
of impression will approximately vary inversely in arithmetical ratio for 
regions of ordinary brightness. 

III. Color has, at most, very slight influence upon retinal persistence. 
Luminosity, including the brightness of the light and the retinal sensi- 
tiveness, is the all-important factor. 

IV. For ordinary values the following empirical law is approximately 
true : Betinal persistence varies inversely as the logarithm of the luminosity. 
Or, 

n . log, L 
A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLI 6 (81) 



82 SECTION B. 

V. The valnes of retinal persistence in dicliroic eyes are very different 
than in normal eyes. For instance, light impressions of red last mnch 
longer on the retina of red -blind persons than on the normal, yellow some- 
what longer than normal and the other colors about the same as normal. 
With green-blind persons, green impressions persist mnch longer than 
normal, red a little less than normal and the other colors the same as nor- 
mal. 

VI. The very marked departure from the normal valnes of retinal i>er- 
slstence in dichroic eyes for the region of their lacking color sensation, 
affords a precise and convenient method of determining color blindness. 

VII. Within the range of these experiments, it seems probable to a 
high degree, that age increases the values of retinal persistence to a 
nearly equal amount In all regions of the spectrum. 

[This paper is printed in full in the American Journal of Science for 
Sept., 1892.] 



E. M. F. BETWEEN NORMAL AND STRAINED METALS IN VOLTAIC CELLS. By 

Prof. W. S. Franklin, Ames, Iowa. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Thomson's law of dependence of £. M. F. of galvanic cell upon energy 
of reaction leads one to expect a strained metal to act as zinc towards 
normal metal of same kind — whether strain is compression or elongation. 
Stretched copper is as '*zinc" towards normal Cu. 
Compressed copper is as **Cu" towards normal copper. 
Stretched silver is as "copper" towards normal silver. 
Hence Thomson's law is not applicable to energy of elastic deformation 
when a strained metal is used as one electrode of a battery. 

Thomson's law should be modified as follows : The E. M. F. of a voltaic 
cell depends upon the energy of rkvbrsible actions which take place in a 
cell, e, g.j the dissolution of a strained metal is irreversible and the energy 
associated with the irreversible part of the reaction seems to be without 
influence upon the E. M. F. 
[This paper will be printed in American Journal of Science.] 



Note on the photography of the manometric flame, and the analy- 
sis OF vowel sounds. By Prof. Eknest Mkrritt, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[abstract.] 
The work to be described was undertaken with the object in view of 
* checking the results of Helmholtz and Konig on the analysis of the princi- 
pal vowels, and of continuing the analysis to other vocal sounds. The 
manometric flame has been used for this purpose, and in order to obtain 
permanent records a modifled f onn of burner has been constructed which 
gives a flame sufl&ciently brilliant to allow it to be photographed. The 






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PHYSICS. 83 

burner is practically the same as an oxhydrogen blast lamp, gas being 
used in the central tube and oxygen on the outside. The flame obtained 
is quite sensitive when connected with a manometric capsule, and is of 
high actinic power. Photographs are obtained by throwing the image of 
the flame upon a rapidly moving plate. 

The results so far obtained consist of preliminary analyses of all of 
the vowel sounds, and a rather complete study of the vowel A as in father. 
About flfty negatives have been taken of the flames produced by this vowel 
as sung by diflferent voices and at different pitches. With male voices of 
the ordinary pitch I obtain a characteristic overtone of practically the 
same pitch as that given by Konig ; but in the case of voices that are nat- 
urally high the overtone seems to be also of a somewhat higher frequency. 



The distribution of energy in the spectrum of the glow-lamp. By 
Prof. Edward L. Nichols, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The apparatus used in this investigation consisted of a galvanometer of 
high sensitiveness, a linear thermopile of ten Sb-Bi junctions and a spec- 
trometer. Upon the table of the last named, was placed a bisulphide of 
carbon prism with thin glass faces. For the eyepiece of the observing 
telescope, the thermopile could be substituted, the adjustment being such 
that its face would correspond with the position of the cross hair. The 
prism was calibrated in the visible spectrum, by means of the Fraunhof er 
lines. A Cauchy formula was obtained by means of which wave lengths 
in the infra red to 3.0/Jt could be determined accurately. (Rubens has re- 
cently shown that bisulphide of carbon follows the Cauchy formula with, 
great exactitude throughout the spectrum.) 

Three lamps were tested. (1) An Edison lamp, untreated fllament of 
black but shining surface. (2) A lamp with an especially prepared flla- 
ment the surface of which was of lamp black. (3) A fllament precisely 
similar to (2) viz., of nearly circular cross-section, but built up by treat- 
ment iu hydrocarbons so as to present a silver gray surface. 

The results obtained cover a range from .6[m to 3.0;* with energy ex- 
pended in the lamps, between 1-6 watts and 85 watts. It is found that 
the energy curves for black and gray carbon are distinct, the Edison curve 
being of the former class. The position of the maximum and its change 
with the degree of incandescence is also brought out graphically by means 
of the curves. 



The absorption spectra of certain substances in the infra-red. By 
Ernest F. Nichols, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[abstract.] 
The apparatus used in this investigation was an ordinary spectrometer 
in which the filament of an incandescent lamp was used instead of a slit. 



84 SECTION B. 

The substances were Interposed between the lamp filament and the colli- 
mating lens of the spectrometer. Dispersion was produced by a carbon 
bisolphide prism calibrated for Fraanhofer lines in the visible spectram 
and the Cauchy constants compated for the infra-red calibration. The 
energy was measured by a linear thermopile in circuit with a galvanometer. 
The thermopile was interchangeable with the spider line in the eyepiece 
of the spectrometer. 

The substances investigated were : water, potassium alum, ammonium 
iron sulphate, a weak solution of oxyhaemoglobin, absolute alcohol, chlo- 
rophyll in alcohol, plate glass, hard rubber, cobalt glass. 

The results are shown by curves platted in two different ways : one way 
showing the relation of percentage of transmission to wave length, and 
the other platted to show the relation between wave length and percent- 
age of transmission using the ordinates of the energy curve of the source 
everywhere as unity so that the ratio of the area of the curve thus platted 
for each substance to the area of the energy curve of the lamp should give 
the percentage of total transmission. 



Further exfrriments on the specific inductive capacity op electro- 
lytes. By Prof. Edward B. Rosa, Middletown, Conn. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

In a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science at Indianapolis, I showed why electrolytes may be considered 
to have a genuine specific inductive capacity, noth withstanding the fact 
that they are conductors of electricity. The subject has been studied 
anew and further experimental evidence adduced for this conclusion. 

It is well known that a dielectric in a variable electrical field tends to 
move into regions where the electric force is greater or less according as 
the specific inductive capacity of the body is greater or less than that of 
the medium. For example, glass and sulphur in air move toward the 
regions where the force is greater. In water and alcohol it moves much 
more strongly in the opposite direction. Carbon moves toward region of 
stronger electric force, and exerts greater force in so doing in media of 
larger values of K. In alcohol the force exerted is twenty-five or thirty 
times greater than in air, and in water fully seventy times greater force 
than in air. This is a measure of the specific inductive capacity of water, 
and agrees very well with results found before by a diff'erent method. The 
same method gives the specific inductive capacity of ether, petroleum oils 
and other liquids having a smaller value of K. 

In the paper the mathematical theory of the problem is given, the field 
consisting of lines of force and equipotential surfaces which are circles, 
intersecting orthogonally, being due to two oppositely charged parallel 
wires. The dielectric or conductor in question is suspended by a torsion 
balance in the neighborhood of these electrodes, and the force exerted 
upon it is measured. 



PHYSICS. 85 

The conclusions by this independent method verify those announced two 
years ago. 

[This paper will be printed in London Philosophical Magazine. 1 



On the dispersion of radiations of great wave length in rock salt, 
siLViTE AND FLUORSPAfe. By Heinrich Bubens and Prof. Benj. W. 
Snow, Bloomington, Ind. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The thin and perfectly uniform layer of air, enclosed between a plate 
of fluorspar and a plate of glass, served as a reflector for the radiations 
from the zirconia lamp of Linnemann. The two resulting beams of light, 
one reflected from the front and one from the rear surface of this air fllm, 
were capable of producing mutual interference, and caused, when con- 
centrated upon the slit of a spectroscope, the otherwise continuous spec- 
trum to be crossed by a series of vertical interference bands. The wave 
length X of each dark band, multiplied by a certain whole number, is al- 
ways equal to the product of twice the thickness d of the layer of air and 
the cosine of the angle of incidence a of the rays as they fall upon the di- 
athermous fluorspar plate. Within the limits of the visible spectrum the 
wave lengths of these dark bands can be determined by means of a cali- 
bration with the Fraunhofer lines, and from this data the order m of the 
interference band and the constant A; = 2 d cos a may be calculated. The 
knowledge of these two constants is sufficient to flx the wave lengths of 
the interference bands in the infra-red, the positions of which were deter- 
mined with the aid of the linear bolometer. In this way for a series of 
angular deviations the corresponding wave lengths were measured, that 
is, a number of points were located in the X — ^ plane and the smooth 
curve joining them gave the required curve of dispersion for the sub- 
stances under investigation. 

Prisms were cut from the three substances, rock salt, the correspond- 
ing crystallized potassium chloride, and fluorspar, and the character of 
the spectrum produced by each mineral was studied in the manner just 
described. In each case it was found possible to reach a wave length a 
little greater than S^tx, beyond which point the energy became too feeble 
to be measured. Especially is it of interest to compare our curve of dis- 
persion for a rock salt prism with the calibration of this material made 
by Professor Langley. As is well known his observations from about 
2 /ji to ^ = 5.3 fi fell almost exactly upon a straight line, and as a calibration 
beyond this point was impossible, his values for greater wave lengths 
were assumed to be given by exterpolation, according to this same law. 
Our own measurements gave a curve of very nearly the same character 
between X^= 2fi and X = 6pt. Here, however, the inclination of the curve 
to the horizontal axis of wave lengths begins gradually to lessen, and at 
X = SfjL the efl'ect of this curvature is so considerable that a straight line 



86 



SECTION B. 



exterpolation from i » 5;ci on would Introduce an error amounting at least to 
1 fi. It Is, therefore, beyond a doubt that Langley's ware lengths between 
X 3s 5/1 and i «■ Sm are considerably greater than he assumed them to be. 

The dispersion in crystallized KCl, sUvite, in the yisible spectrnm is 
hardly less than that in rock salt, but decreases rapidly in the infra-red, 
and 2Xk^%fi has a value only about one- third that in rock salt, so that 
this material, notwithstanding its many good qUaUties, is but poorly adapt- 
ed to the measurement of very long wave lengths. 

The direct reverse is true of fluorspar. The dispersion in this material 
in the visible spectrum is exceedingly small, and continues to decrease as 
far as i s= 2u ; but at this point the curvature of the curve changes, the dis- 
persion increases as the wave lengths become longer, and at A = 8/i reaches 
a value but little inferior to that in the red. 

As compared with rock salt and silvite, the dispersion in fluorspar in 
the visible spectrum is very small, but in the infra-red is many times 
greater than in these latter materials, so that this substance is well adapted 
to produce prismatic heat spectra, a property whose valoe is increased by 
the convenience with which It can be worked as well as its durability in 
the air. 

[This paper will be printed in Wiedemann's Annalen.] 



On the distribution of energy in the spectrum of the arc. By Prof. 
Ben J. W. Snow, Bloomington, Ind. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Bt means of a lens, enlarged images of the electric arc and of the car- 
bon points of the electric lamp were projected upon a screen placed im- 
mediately before the slit of a spectrometer. A small rectangular opening 
in this screen allowed the slit to be illuminated only by the light coming 
from the central portion of the spherical arc, the light from the carbons 
and from those portions of the arc nearest the carbons being intercepted 
by the screen. The cross hair in the eye piece of the instrument was re- 
placed by the sensitive filament of a linear bolometer, which affbrded a 
means of investigating the distribution of energy in the spectrum of the 
arc itself without the superposed spectrum of the incandescent carbons. 
A flint glass prism of high dispersion was used to analyze the light, and was 
calibrated according to tlie method described in the preceding paper. The 
energy curve, plotted with galvanometer deflectious as ordinates and 
wave lengths as abscissae, gave the distribution of heat in the various 
portions of the spectrum of the arc. This curve has two maxima lying 
in the region of the H lines, and flve weaker maxima beyond the red, the 
visible spectrum being noticeably deflcient in thermal radiation. 

One of the interesting points shown by this curve is the fact that the 
maximum of the energy in the arc, as indicated by the bolometer, lies be- 



PHYSICS. 87 

yond the H lines so far in the ultra violet as to exert only a feeble effect 
upon the eye, while the optically brighter band in the violet represents a 
smaller expenditure of energy. 

[This paper wUl be printed in Wiedemann's Annalen.] 



On the infra-red spectra of the alkalies. By Prof. Benj. W. Snow, 
Bloomington, Ind. 

r ABSTRACT.] 

To investigate the spectra of the metals, the apparatus described in the 
previous paper was used with the single modification that the carbons 
gmm in diameter were bored out, and the cavities 3™™ in the positive elec- 
trode and li"»™ in the negative were filled with the chloride of the metal 
to be studied. The heated carbon points caused the salt in question to 
boil and to send a constant and uniform stream of metallic vapor di- 
rectly into the arc, so that the latter lost its usual violet color and assumed 
the characteristic color of the salt under investigation. The bolometer 
filament was then moved through the spectrum, and the distribution of 
energy measured as before. These results, when plotted, gave curves 
wholly different in character from that of the electric light, for the char- 
acteristic band spectrum of the arc had disappeared entirely and was re- 
placed by the truly line spectrum of the metals. In this way the visible and 
infra-red spQCtra of the five alkalies were explored and their intensities 
measured. The results obtained were then compared with the values cal- 
culated with the aid of the formula of Eayser and Bunge, and in many 
instances close coincidences were observed ; in other cases, however, wide 
discrepancies occur, so that these measurements can hardly be looked upon 
as a verification of Eayser and Runge's formulee. 

[This paper wUl be printed in Wiedemann's Annalen.] 



An experimental comparison of formuljs for total radiation bb- 
TWBKN 16° C. AND 110° C. By W. LeConte Stevens, Bensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, Troy, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The principal object of this investigation was to compare two formulae, 
one by Professor Stefan, of Vienna, the other by Prof. H. F. Weber, of 
Ziirich. Two other formulae were also taken into account, one by Dulong 
and Petit, the other by Rosetti. 

An account is given of the method of work adopted, and the formula 
obtained, by Dulong and Petit. The same is done for Rosetti, Stefan 
and Weber. 

A description is given of the apparatus employed in the present work 
and the precautions applied to secure accuracy. From the large number 



8S SEcnoH B. 

of tables of measnrement, selections are given, and these tables are dis- 
cnssed. Carves are given, showing the relative accnracy of Stefan's and 
Weber's formnlfle between 15° and 110® C. as tested by experiment, and 
Anally carves are given, computed from each of the foor formnlae, from 
0« to 800° C. 

Incidentally at the close a comparison of the emissive powers of iron 
and copper is afforded from the experiments already cited. 

[This paper wHl be printed In the American Joomal of Science.} 



On THE COX6TANCT OF VOLUMB OT QtOX IN 8T90N0 MAGNETIC FIELDS. By 

Prof. Frank P. Whitman, Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 

[ABSTRACT.J 

Rkpetition of an experiment of Joale. who determined that the volmne 
of iron when magnetized remained invariable, though the length increased. 

It has since been shown by Bidwell and others that on increasing the 
strength of the magnetic field, iron reaches a maximum in length, then de- 
creases below its length when nnmagnetized, seeming to tend toward a 
minimnm. It seemed worth while to examine afresh the question of the 
change of volume under strong magnetization. The apparatus was simi- 
lar to that used by Joule. The magnetic field was carried up to about 
750 c. g. s. units, at which quantity iron, according to Bidwell's results, 
has nearly reached a constant minimum length. 

The delicacy of the apparatus was such that a change of volume of 
1 ; 30,000,000 could be detected. 

The experiments show that Joule's results hold good for stronger fields 
also, and that there is no notable change of volume in iron up to the mag- 
netization noted above. 



SoBfE difficulties IN THE Lesaoe-Thomson grayitation-theort. By 
Prof. J. £. Oliver, Ithaca, N. Y. 

LAB8TRAOT.] 

This paper is merely supplementary to Maxwell's statement and criti- 
cism of the theory, Enc. Brit., art. Atom, 

Lesage's corpuscles make up what, for brevity, we will call "the gas," 
though we may find that thermally it behaves less like known gases than 
has been claimed. Denoting hydrogen at standard pressure and temper- 
ature by H, let us write py m, v, 2, d, for the density of the gas and for 
the mass, velocity, length of mean path, and so-called **diameter" of a 
mean corpuscle, — ^the corresponding quantities for H being taken as units. 
This, for our rough work; for the velocities, etc., would not be uniform. 
Let k be the average loss, per unit, of momentum in the initial direction 



FHTSIOS. 89 

of fliglit, for corpuscles striking the earth vertically. Take A;=.001 
which is large enough to displace Jupiter about 10" at quadratures ; and 

1 =, 4X10*', which brings the free path within Neptune's distance. (This 
k is too large, and I far too small, unless we concede a greater failure of 
Newton's law for solar masses and interstellar distances.) Take the sun's 
disk as covering gi^jotf of the celestial hemisphere, his g as 28 times the 
terrestrial g^ and his attraction for the earth as equivalent to 28000 at- 
mospheres' pressure on the earth's central plane section : then, since the 
sun's and earth's volumes are each } of a circumscribed cylinder, and since 
corpuscles coming from the sun have for our purpose twice the average 
effectiveness as due to direction, while for this comparison the k of air 
pressing against its containing vessel may be called 2, 

.-. (.001)« X 28 X (})« X oij^ViT X A' f* -f 2 = 28000, 

.-. ^ »• = 2 X 10»* = 2 X 10» X A; -•, 
i. e., the gas-pressure throughout space would be 2 X 10** atmospheres. 

Should the force between atom and corpuscle increase, with diminishing 
distance, even as rapidly as intermolecular forces appear to do, then the 
swiftest corpuscles would shoot through the earth with least loss of di- 
rected momentum ; thus diminishing or reversing the Lesage effect, and 
not only requiring pv* to be still larger but probably making gravitation 
a complex function of the masses and sometimes repulsive. This difficulty 
appears very serious, unless we adopt the vortex-atom theory ; but, waiv- 
ing it, let /9 SB 1 for instance : then though the gas within the sphere of 
Neptune's orbit has about sixteen million times the sun's mass, and the 
gas within our own star-cluster has over 10** times the visible cluster's 
probable mass, yet the velocity v is 100 times that of light, and the flight- 
energy lost in 2^jns ^^ * second by the gas within the earth while traversing 
a diameter would suffice to heat up the earth's weight of hydrogen almost 

2 k p V* X 273° -r- earth's density, or over 10' degrees. 

Maxwell considers this rapid loss to be almost fatal. It demands an 
immense heat-capacity in every corpuscle to carry off the heat of encounter ; 
whereas the corpuscle's minuteness, and its great quasi-density mcT^t 
would rather suggest simple structure and small capacity. In fact, since 

Ipcp = m, .'. md^^ — rp * 1^^ wherein mi?' should not very greatly dif- 
fer from the ratio which the average heavenly body's absolute tempera- 
ture bears to that of 0® C. ; .*. probably wwf"' > 10* V« 

Again, by the kinetic theory, mv* for the gas should be less than for 
some astronomical bodies if greater than for others: — Whence for some 
bodies k would be negative and gravity repellent; and in general, gravity 
would depend upon temperature as well as upon mass and distance. 

Finally, we cannot Identify the gas with luminif erous ether : for its free 
paths immensely exceed the wave-lengths, and^ its corpuscles fly with 
many times the wave- velocities. 

Thus in various ways the hypothesis appears not^to accord with what 
"we know of Nature. 



90 SECTION B. 

A MECHANICAL MODEL OF ELECTROMAOXETIC RELATIONS. Bj Prof. A. £. 

DOLBEAR, Tofts College, College Hill, Biass. 



On the MECHANICS OF THE THREE STATES OF AGGREGATION. By Dr. GUS- 

TAVUS HiNRiCHS, St. Lools, Mo. 



The ocular spectrum. By Geo. W. Hollet, Ithaca, N. Y. 



On the SENSITIVENESS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES. By Frof . G. W. HOUOH, 

EvanstOD, 111. 



Influence of the moon on the rainfall. By Prof. Mansfield Merbi- 
MAN, South Bethlehem, Pa. 



Description of a contrivance for the study of color perception at 
definite distances. By Charles £. Oliver, M.D., Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



A photographic method of IfAPPING THE MAGNETIC FIELD. By Prof . C. 

B. Thwing, N. W. University, Evanston, 111. 



On the mechanical and physical means of aerial transit without a 
PROPELLER. By Prof. David P. Todd, Amherst, Mass. [To be pub- 
lished in the L. E. & D. Phllosoph. Mag.] ' 



Note on the magnetic disturbances caused by electric railways. By 
Prof. Frank P. Whitman, Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio. 



SECTION C. 



CHEMISTRY. 



OFFICERS OF SECTION C. 



ViM Pre$ident, 
Alfred Springer, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Secretary. 
Jas. Lewis Howe, Looisyille, Ky. 

Member of Council, 
Wm. L. Dudley, Nashville, Tenn. 

Members of Sectional Committee. 

Alfred Springer, Cincinnati, Ohio. Jas. Lewis Howe, Louisville, Ey. 
B. C. Kedzde, Agricultural College, Mich. T. H. Norton, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Edward Hart, Easton, Fa. S. A. Lattimorb, 
Rochester, N. Y. Morris Loeb, New York, N. Y. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
E. A. DE ScHWEiNiTZ, Washington, D. C. 

Members of Sub-committee on Nominations. 

Alfred Springer, Cincinnati, Ohio. Jas. Lewis Howe, Louisville, Ey. 

Wm. a. Notes, Terre Haute, Ind. E. A. de Schweinitz, 

Washington, D. C. W. H. McMurtrib, New York, N. Y. 






ADDRESS 

BY 

ALFRED SPRINGER, 

VICE-PEESIDENT, SECTION C. 



THE MICRO-ORGANISMS OF THE SOIL. 



The high office with which you have honored me entails the de- 
livery of an address, which I keenly feel I cannot give in keeping 
with the standard set by my distinguished predecessors. 

Fermentation, though observed since prehistoric times, is perhaps 
less understood than any process with which chemistry has to deal. 
The exciters of fermentation are rendered exceedingly difficult of in- 
vestigation, because they, like all living things, are subject to physi- 
ological, or more especially, pathological functions of life ; they are 
BO sensitive that any abnormal influence either changes their whole 
mode of existence, or destroys it altogether ; a medium suitable to 
the life of one special kind is changed by it into products which cease 
to sustain it, but can nourish a lower class of organisms, whereby 
concomitant fermentations arise, whose united effects are fre- 
quently such as to modify completely those produced by each sep- 
arately* ; and for this reason have the specific actions of some 
ferments either totally escaped observation or been misconstrued. 
Every succeeding year brings additional proof of the important 
role played by these minute organisms ; and to such an extent, es- 
pecially has this been the case in connection with the rendition 
of available nitrogen, that there are good reasons to believe that 
a clearer comprehension of the actions of the soil ferments will dis- 
sipate all the anxiety chemists now entertain as to a gradual dim- 
inution of this so essential nutrient. 

To Hellriegel, Wilfarth, Wollny, Engelmann, Winograwdski, 

(93) 



94 SECTION 0. 

Warrington and Heraus, can be attributed the most noteworthy 
experiments in this special line. In order to appreciate the im- 
portance of their discoveries, I will, with your kind indulgence, 
first give a brief historical r6sum6 of the study of fermentation. 

Owing to the extreme age of tlie use of alcoholic beverages, fer- 
ments entering into their production are best known ; and this, 
added to the fact of their being larger and thus permitting of bet- 
ter examination, has been tlie determining cause of basing inves- 
tigations and deductions upon their behavior. 

That the art of cultivating the vine and making wine is attributed 
by the Egyptians to Osiris, by the Greeks to Bacchus, by the 
Israelites to Noah, and the brewing of beer to Gambrinus, shows 
how old these discoveries must have been. The effects of fermen- 
tation are sufficiently striking to have called the attention of primi- 
tive man to them. The ancient tribes of Asia and Africa understood 
how to ferment not only grape juice, but also to obtain alcoholic 
beverages from substances like starch, not directly fermentable. 
They used soured dough or beer-yeast as leaven for their bread and 
knew how to prepare vinegar. The alchemists were wont to clothe 
their thoughts in such words as to make it difficult for us to decide 
what precise ideas they attached to the expressions of ''Fermenta* 
tion and Ferments" which are so frequently found in their writings 
of the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. They even speak of the 
philosopher's stone as fermenting unlimited quantities of lead and 
mercury into gold. 

In the fifteenth century Basil Valentine in his 'Triumphal Car 
of Antimony" claims that yeast employed in the preparation of beer 
communicates to the liquor an internal inflammation, thereby caus- 
ing a purification and separation of the clear parts from those which 
are troubled ; but considers alcohol as already existing in the de- 
coction of germinated barley. In 1648, Van Helmont declared fer- 
mentation the cause of all chemical action and spontaneous genera- 
tion, going so far as to give directions for the production of mice, 
frogs, eels, etc. He clearly observed the production of a special 
gas (gas vinorum) during alcoholic fermentation and stated that 
something from the ferment passes into the fermentable substance, 
developing therein like a seed in the soil, thereby producing fer- 
mentation. 

Willis, an English physician, in 1659, claimed that all functions of 
life depended upon fermentation and that diseases were but abnor- 



ADDBE8S BY ALFRED SFRINGEB. 95 

mal fermentations. Both he and Stahl regarded a ferment as a body 
endowed with a motion peculiar to itself, which it imparts to the 
fermentable matter. Stahl, in 1697, advanced the following the- 
ory : * 'Under the influence of the internal motion excited by the 
ferment, the heterogeneous particles are separated from each other, 
re-combining so as to form more stable compounds, including the 
same principles but in different proportions. Putrefaction is but 
a particular case of fermentation." This theory remained unchal- 
lenged eighty years. 

Lavoisier, by applying the new methods of organic analysis he 
had invented, quantitatively ascertained the relations between the 
fermented matter and the products. 

Guy Lussac considered oxygen the sole cause of fermentation, 
putrefaction and decay, by transmitting its motion to the ferment 
and this again imparted its motion to the loosely combined fer- 
mentable mass. 

The present theories of fermentation originated with Schwann 
and Pasteur. It took a century and a half before the experiments 
which led up to Schwann's theory found a scientific explanation 
by the work of this chemist. Leuwenhoeck had, in 1680, already 
noticed that beer yeast was composed of small spheroid globules. 
Cagniard de Labour declared ^^east a plant and the exciter of fer- 
mentation. 

Schwann's experiments were made to determine the possibility 
of spontaneous generation. He found that fermentable fluids, 
when first heated in closed vessels in the presence of oxygen, to 
the temperature of boiling water, would not ferment. This dis- 
proved Guy Lussac's theory that oxygen caused fermentation. He 
next showed that purified air or oxygen passed into a sterilized 
fermentable fluid did not induce fermentation ; but that this set in 
with the introduction of ordinary air. He concluded from these 
experiments that the air was not the exciter, but simply the me- 
dium containing it, and that in the floating particles of the atmos- 
phere were organisms capable of developing in the fluid ; should 
these be killed by heat, fermentation would not take place. In 
his examination of these organisms, although his methods were not 
absolute, his conclusions that alcoholic ferments are of a vegetable 
nature were correct. 

Instead of general acceptance, Schwann's theory received but 
little recognition. 



96 SECTION C. 

Schultze's method of first passing the air entering a sterilized fer- 
mentable fluid through oil of vitriol, and that of Schroeder and 
Dusch of filtering it through cotton can be regarded as modifica- 
tions of Schwann's experiments. All these experiments conclusively 
show that the particles in the atmosphere are the exciters of fer- 
mentation but do not render them visible. 

Pasteur spurred on by the same motive as Schwann — namely, to 
determine the question of spontaneous generation — made a simple 
modification of Schroeder and Dusch's experiment, by substituting 
gun-cotton and achieved most remarkable results. The gun-cot- 
ton, containing the particles filtered from the air, was dissolved 
in ether under the microscope and now for the first time the organ- 
isms could be thoroughly examined. 

Tyndall's well-known experiment, with the air-tight box coated 
with glycerine, demonstrated that gravity alone can purify the at- 
mosphere so as to debar fermentation from setting in. 

Pasteur's theory is that, ^Hhe chemical act of fermentation is 
essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act, beginning and 
ending with it ; there is never an alcoholic fermentation without 
there being at the same time, organization, development, multi- 
plication of globules, or the continued consecutive life of globules 
already formed." 

The following few examples will serve to show that the slight- 
est changes in nutrients may render them worthless as such to 
certain ferments and available to others. Organic substances, show- 
ing optical rotation, chiefiy exist already formed in the animal or 
vegetable organisms, or they can be easily obtained from such sub- 
stances formed during vital processes. 

When these substances are made synthetically, they are chemi- 
cally and physically similar to the natural isomers, but usually do 
not rotate the plane of polarized light. This leads to the belief 
that these synthetical products consist of active and inactive mole- 
cules in such proportions as to neutralize each other. 

Pasteur^ verified this hypothesis by splitting inactive racemic 
acid intodextro tartaric acid. Neutral ammonium racemate, in a 
solution to which the proper inorganic salts had been added, was 
fermented by means of Penicillium glaucum and beer yeast. The 
dextro tartaric acid was consumed and the laevo left. 

Lewkowitch^ took inactive mandelate of ammonia, employing 
either Penicillium glaucum or Bacterium tei'mo; in each case at 



ADDRESS BY ALFRSD SPBIKOEB, 97 

the end of several weeks all the fluids showed more or less dextro 
rotation. Natural mandelic acid from amygdalin is laevo-rotary ; 
therefore here, as in Pasteur's experiment with racemic acid, it 
showed that the organisms consumed the naturally produced iso- 
mer. 

Sac. ellipsoideus and split fungi consume|]the dextro and leave 
the laevo. The dextro has the same positive as the laevo nega- 
tive rotation. The melting points and solubility of the right and 
left are the same, yet we see that these substances chemically and 
physically the same, save in their opposite rotatory powers, can 
serve in one case as nutrients to certain organisms and in the other 
are worthless as such. 

THE MICBO-ORaANlSMS OF THE SOIL. Socckse.^ 

These organisms, according to their actions, can be divided into 
three groups : those oxidizing constituents of the i^il ; those re- 
ducing or destroying the same ; and, lastly, those by whose activity 
the soil is enriched. As regards the first group, the oxidation can 
take place in two ways — they can either oxidize by assimilating 
the organic substances of the soil and reducing them to carbonic 
acid and water, in order to obtain the necessary heat and energy ; 
or they can oxidize by giving off oxygen. The first may be termed 
intra-cellular, and the second extra-cellular acting organisms. 
Amongst the'intra-cellular we have, primarily, the usual ferments 
of decay, which assimilate and respire at the expense of the carbon 
compounds. In some cases the organisms have accommodated them- 
selves to seemingly most remarkable materials for respiration, the 
combustion of which affords the necessary heat. Thus the iron 
bacteria of Winograwdski* require ferrous carbonate for their 
life and development, oxidizing the same to oxid. This can be 
physiologically interpreted as a respiration process, the protoxid 
of the respiration material becoming the oxid of respiration pro- 
duct. 

The sulfur bacteria are equally remarkable. Their cells are 
distinguishable by containing from time to time granules of amor- 
phous sulfur. These organisms were formerly regarded as causing 
the formation of hydrogen sulfid in sulfur springs. 

Winograwdski^ claims the reverse to be the case. They do not 
produce hydrogen sulfid but consume it, burning it partially first 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 7 



98 SECTION C. 

to sulfar (which deposits in the cell) and water, then completely 
to sulfuric acid, which passes out and forms sulfates from the car- 
bonates of the surrounding water. When no more carbonates are 
present, the combustion of sulfur to sulfuric acid ceases. Pbjsio- 
logicallj this is also a process of respiration directed towards gene- 
rating heat and energy ; hydrogen sulfid is the respiration material 
and sulfuric acid the respiration product. 

Olivier^ does not agree with Winograwdski, and De Rey Pailhade"^ 
claims the existence of a substance philothion in many plants and 
animal tissues, capable of converting sulfur in the cold to hydrogeo 
sulfid. 

Certain nitrification ferments can be regarded as intra-cellular. 
They may take up ammonia and give it off as nitrates, this process 
ceasing as in the case of the sulfur bacteria, when no more car- 
bonates are present. 

We now come to the discussion of two ferments, the concomi- 
tant actions of which have heretofore caused much confusion. 
Scbloesing and Muntz were the first to observe nitrifying ferments, 
but to Warrington and Winograwdski belong the credit of isolat- 
ing the nitrous from the nitric ferment, and also the striking dis- 
covery of a colorless organism, capable of existing and performiDg 
its functions, in a medium totally devoid of organic material — and 
synthetically producing organic bodies, independent of sunlight. 
The importance of this discovery cannot be over-estimated. 

Warrington^ obtained organisms from meadow soil, cultivated 
in a solution of ammonium chlorid and calcium carbonate, which 
oxidized ammonia to nitrous acid but had no effect on nitrates. 
Assimilating the carbon of the carbon-dioxid, they require no or- 
ganic substance for sustenance. They obtain from the oxidation 
heat of ammonia the necessary energy to dissociate the carbon- 
dioxid. 

Winograwdski^ obtained the same ferment employing one gm. 
ammonium sulfate, one gm. potassium phosphate dissolved in one 
litre Zurich water to which he added basic magnesium carbonate. 
After inoculating the sterilized fluid with the nitrifying agent, every 
trace of ammonia disappeared the fifteenth da3^ (He describes 
this ferment as being an elongated ellipsoid, the smaller diameter 
0.9-1 mkr., the larger 1.1-1.8 mkr.) The organisms congregate 
about a piece of carbonate, cover it with their gelatinous mass, 
and as the carbonate disappears the cells take the shape thereof. 



ADDRESS BT ALFRED SPRINGER. 99 

Although the two investigators do not quite agree as to the 
morphological attributes of the ferment, Warrington arrived at the 
same conclusions as Winograwdski. 

Winograwdski^^ has at least succeeded in isolating the ferment 
which converts the nitrites into nitrates. He emploj^ed gelatinous 
hydrate of silica, impregnated it with a fluid containing cultivated 
nitrous ferment. This medium was next inoculated with strongly 
nitrified soil from Quito ; shortly afterwards two different organisms 
formed respective colonies ; one of these was the one sought for. It 
was composed of irregularly shaped rods, dissimilar to the nitrous 
ferment of the same soils. He has since found this ferment in 
many other soils ; it is capable of converting solutions of nitrites 
into nitrates. 

Strange to say the isolated ferment from Quito does not oxidize 
ammonia ; it produced" neither nitrites nor nitrates when sowed iU 
ammoniacal fluids easily nitrifled by the nitrous ferment. 

In normal soils the nitrate ferment only produces nitrates even 
in the presence of a large quantity of ammonia, which does not re- 
tard the oxidation of the nitrites immediately after their forma- 
tion. 

Miintz^i claims the existence of an ammoniacal ferment in the 
soil, which converts organic nitrogen into ammonia, preparatory ta 
nitriflcation. 

EXTRA-CELLULAR OXIDATION. 

In order to oxidize outside of the organisms, oxygen must be 
evolved by an assimilation process. Assimilation as an oxidizing 
cause, for conditions prevailing in the soil, has heretofore received 
no significance, since the evolution of oxygen, according to the 
generally accepted theories, depended upon light and chlorophyll, 
consequently the produced oxidation could only occur on the ex- 
treme outer surface. An exception to this heretofore unrestricted 
rule has been found by Engelmann, as well as one by Heraus. 
According to Engelmann, ^^ Bacterium photometricum sharply 
discriminates between lights of different intensity and wave lengths. 
The influence of light upon the bacteria is directly proportionate 
to the intensity. When the intensity is suddenly decreased, the 
bacteria shoot backwards with opposite rotation (the author call- 
ing this a terror motion) ; consequently a well defined illuminated 
spot, in an otherwise dark drop, serves as a trap for these bacteria. 



100 SECTION C. 

They cannot leave, since the terror motion cHuses them to move 
back into the illuminated field as soon as they come to the dark 
outline. 

The mobile forms principally congregate in the ultra red rays, 
t. e.y physiologically in darkness, and in these, as in the visible parts 
of tlie spectrum, in places closely corresponding to the absorption 
bands of bacteriopurpurin. This constant ratio between absorp- 
tion and photokinetic action clearly indicates that the prime effect 
of light is equivalent to the carbon-dioxid dissociating processes 
of plants containing chloropliyll. 

The bacteriopurpurin is a true chromophyll, inasmuch as it con- 
verts the actually absorbed energy of light into potential chemical 
energy. When lights of different color were employed, the evolu- 
tion of oxygen increased with the absorption of light by the pur- 
ple bacteria. This shows that the power of developing oxygen is 
not the specific property of a certain coloring matter, as these or- 
ganisms contain no chlorophyll. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that other organisms, either col- 
ored or uncolored, be found to possess the property of assimilating 
carbon in the absence of light and evolving oxygen. Such a dis- 
covery has now been made — Hueppe^ substantiating a communi- 
cation from Heraus that certain colorless bacteria produce from 
humus and carbonates, in the absence of light, a body closely re- 
sembling cellulose. Oxygen is liberated but remains unobserved, 
as it is immediately used to oxidize the anunonia to nitric acid. 

The next question is to what extent do the oxidizing organisms 
partake in the oxidation phenomena actually taking place in the 
soil? According to E. Wollny,^^ the oxidation of carbon-dioxid 
is almost completely to be attributed to the activity of small oi^an- 
isms, of which Adametz^^ estimated that there are about 500,000 
to 1 gr. soil. As in all such experiments, this conclusion is based 
upon the fact that no evolution of carbon-dioxid takes place or is 
forced to a minimum in a sterilized soil, under otherwise favorable 
conditions. 

LIBERiiTION OF COMBINED NITROGEN. 

This may take place during putrefaction under the greatest pos- 
sible exclusion of oxygen or during decay in the presence of oxygen. 
It does not necessarily occur in all cases or may not be observed 
owing to a reverse concomitant process, i. e., the fixation of nitro- 






ADDRESS BT ALFRED SPRINGER. 101 

gen. Nitrogen losses can be expected during decay on account of 
the action of the produced nitrous acid upon the amidlike dissocia- 
tion of humous bodies as well as in the formation of easily dis- 
sociable ammonium nitrites. A peculiar case of the disappearance 
of available nitrogen exists in the reduction of nitrates as noticed 
by Springer,^® Gayon and Dupetit,^^ and Deherainand Marquenne.^® 

OBOANISMS BT WHOSE ACTIVITY THE SOIL IS ENRICHED IN NITROGEN. 

A distinction must be drawn between the higher and lower plants. 
It is a well-known fact that most plants cannot assimilate free ni- 
trogen; whereas there are sound reasons for the belief that the 
legumes are exceptions to this rule. The explanation has been 
sought in the tubercles. These tubercles contain a tissue, consist- 
ing of thin walled cells, filled with an albuminous substance, con- 
sequently they are richer in nitrogen than the roots. They have been 
regarded by some as pathogenic growths; by others as reserve 
reservoirs for albumin. We may now conscientiously assume that 
these tubercles arise through exterior infection and that they are 
not normal growths. 

Hellriegel^* and WHfarth, in their great work, state : — *'The le- 
gumes deport themselves quite differently from the non-leguminous 
plants respecting the assimilation of nitrogen, whereas the latter 
for their nitrogen needs are totally dependent upon the nitrogen 
compounds present in the soil, and their development proportional 
to such disposable supply — the legumes have, besides the soil ni- 
trogen, a second source from which they can abundantly cover any 
deficiency existing in the first. This second source is free atmos- 
pheric nitrogen. The legumes attain this power by the cooperation 
of active living micro-organisms. The mere presence of any low 
organisms in the soil does not suffice to make the free nitrogen 
serviceable, but it is necessary that certain kinds of organisms en- 
ter into a symbiotic relationship with the legumes. 

Lupines acquire nitrogen like the other legumes. They starve 
in a soil free from nitrogen when the presence of low organisms 
is excluded ; but when this is not the case, their growth is normal. 
The experiments were carried on in sand containing a suitable nu- 
tritive solution. Some of the pots were sterilized ; to some infus- 
ions from soil were added. In all those, and in only those, to which 
fresh infusions of lupine soil was added the lupines developed nor- 
mally, bearing the well-known tubercles on their roots and con- 



102 SECTION 0. 

tained, when harvested, conspicuously larger amounts of nitrogen, 
than the soil and infusion could have given them. Wherever the 
infusion had not been added, or where it had been sterilized at 100° 
or even 70°, the development remained abnormal, the production 
scant ; tubercles remained absent and the harvested plants contained 
less nitrogen than had been offered them." 

According to Ward,** Breal'* and Pradmowski,^^ tubercles will 
grow on plants free from them when infected with an infusion from 
tubercles of other plants. 

Beyrenick^ has named the infecting organisms, of which there 
may be many varieties, Bacterium radicola. With the growth of 
the tubercles the behavior of the plant towards nitrogen is changed 
and the independence just mentioned begins ; this has been proved 
by an almost superabundance of experiments. Still, the explana- 
tion of the manner m which the nitrogen is acquired is not definitely 
settled. The first inference would be that the root-inhabiting bac- 
teria possess the power of assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, and 
the higher plants, as hosts harboring these bacteria in their roots, 
can make use of the nitrogen compounds so produced. Thus there 
would exist a case of symbiosis between split fungi and the higher 
plants. We cannot be too slow in accepting this seemingly simple 
explanation — :Still, the difiSculty of a correct interpretation does not 
alter the fact, that the legumes acquire free nitrogen from the at- 
mosphere, and that the refuse of their roots thus enriches the soil. 
They may be called nitrogen collectors in contradistinction to the 
graminaceous nitrogen consumers. 

Berthelot^^ has long contended that the free soil can fixate nitro- 
gen ; he considers a sandy and clayey nature of the soil essential, 
it must admit of free access of air, must not be too moist, be rich 
in potash and poor in nitrogen. Gautier^^ and Drouin claim that 
the presence of humous substances causes increase of nitrogen. 

Soils free from organic substances do not fixate nitrogen, or the 
gain is slight. The presence of ferric oxid, so long considered 
capable of fixing nitrogen, has no effect. Berthelot, as well as most 
investigators in this line, attributes the fixation to the activity of 
nitrogen-fixing chlorophyll free bacteria. In most cases the amount 
is much less than that obtained in soils with legumes. No inor- 
ganic soil conbtituents are known to possess the power of fixing 
nitrogen and it is questionable whether humous substances can di' 
rectly do this. 



ADDRESS BT ALFRED SPRINGER. 103 

In 1881, Atwater claimed that pease during their growth obtained 
large quantities of nitrogen from the air. Atwater^ and Woods 
made another series of eighty-nine experiments ; the result wiU be 
found in their admirable paper in the American Journal. I will 
quote the following : — *'There was in no case any large gain without 
root tubercles ; but with them, there was uniformly more or less 
gain of nitrogen from the air. As a rule, the greater the abundance 
of root tubercles, the larger and more vigorous were the plants and 
the greater was the amount of atmospheric nitrogen acquired. The 
connection between the root tubercles and the acquisition of nitro- 
gen, which was first pointed out by Hellriegel, is abundantly con- 
firmed. In a number of these experiments, there was a loss of 
nitrogen instead of a gain. The loss occurred where there were 
no root tubercles ; it was especially large with oat and corn plants, 
and largest where they had the most nitrogen at their disposal in 
the form of nitrates. This loss may probably be due to the decom- 
position of the seeds and nitrates through the agency of micro-or- 
ganisms. In brief, the acquisition of large quantities of atmospheric 
nitrogen by leguminous plants, which was first demonstrated by 
experiments here and has been since confirmed by others, is still 
further confirmed by the experiments herewith reported. These 
experiments in like manner confirm the observation of the connec- 
tion between root tubercles and the acquisition of nitrogen. There 
is scarcely room for doubt that the free nitrogen of the air is thus 
acquired by plants." 

Chemists, as a rule, hesitate to accept isolated cell life as modi- 
fying and conditioning the action of those more differentiated ; yet 
it seems that all circumstances point to the fact that most reactions 
taking place between nitrogen and plants are influenced by micro- 
organisms. 

Let us hope that chemistry will, in the near future, score its 
greatest agricultural triumph, by unveiling the mysteries which 
still shroud the specific actions of these organisms thus making it 
possible to supply the demands of a constantly increasing popula- 
tion. 

' Pasteur, Cr. xlvi-616, li-298. 

* Lewkowitcb, B. xvi-1605, 1669. 

» Sacchse, Chem. Cent. Bl. 1889, n-169, 225. 

* Winograwdski, Bot. Ztg. xlvi-261. 

» Winograwdski, Bot. Ztg. XLV-489, 613, 646, 669, 686. 

* Olivier, Cr. cvi-1744. 



104 8XCTIOM O. 

' De Bey F&llhade, Or. cvi-1688, cvn-48. 

* Warrington, Chem. News, Lxin-396. 

* Winograwdftkl, A. J. P. Sept., 1890. 

" WInograwdski, A. J. P. v-677, Cr. cxin-89. 

" MOnti, Cr. cx-1206. 

^* Engelmann, Bot. Ztg. ZLVi-661, 677, 098, 709. 

" Hueppe, Ntf. Vers. uc. 

" WoUny, LV St. xxxvi-197. 

** Adametz, Inaog. DIm., Leipsic, 1886. 

^ Springer, Amer. Chem. Jour., iv-452-3. 

^' Gayoo and Dnpetlt, Cr. xov-644. 

" Deherain and Marqaenne, Bot. vn-138. 

^» Hellriegel and Wllfartb, Z. Rab. xzv>l-284. 

«> Ward, Bled. Cent. Bl. xvi-787. 

■' Breal, Cr. cvn-897. 

■• Pradmowskl, N. Rd. rv-201. 

* Beyrenick, Bot. Ztg. xlvi-725, 741, 757, 781, 7W. 
•* Berthelot, Cr. Cfvn-207, 862, cn-688, 1049, 1214. 
*« Gautier and Drouin, cyi-754, 944, 1098, 1174. 

** Atwater, Amer. Chem. Jour, zn-^6, xm-42. 



i 



PAPERS READ. 



Thb influence op ammonia on amorphous substances to induce 
CRTSTALLizATiON. By Dr. E. Goldsmith, 668 N. lOth St., Philadel- 
phia, Penn. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

I. The first fact which I noted was its effect on chlorid of silver 
which, as is well known, is amorphous when obtained in the ordinary 
way. If a ten per cent solution of ammonia be added so as to cover the 
chlorid of silver say half an inch or so, and, after one agitation, be al- 
lowed to stand for several days the Ag CI will wholly crystallize. The 
forms produced are Isometric. My experience shows that the ammonia 
does not enter into combination with the chlorid of silver. 

II. A manufacturer of artificial ice having noticed that his ice plant 
failed to give results as satisfactory as in former periods, overhauled the 
machine and discovered an incrustation in the boiler and tubes. The 
material was black, opaque and about three-sixteenths of an inch in thick- 
ness ; a portion of this was coarsely crystallized and the remainder was, 
apparently, amorphous; although under a power of about 110 diameters it, 
too, proved to be crystallized as was the coarser portion. It was de- 
cidedly mafi:netic. 

A chemical investigation proved this incrustation to be magnetite. No 
iron oxid had been put into the machine ; it may form, or rather was 
formed, by driving air into the system through carelessness. While it 
is pretty certain that water of ammonia will not act on metallic iron, yet, 
if air be introduced at the same time an oxidation of the metal is effected. 

Just why a portion of the iron should be converted into the ferrous, and 
another portion into the ferric state is an open question. It is for me 
only to state the fact that the presence of ammonia caused the amorphous 
magnetic iron oxid to crystallize; We have before us, therefore, a 
complete example of synthetic metamorphism. 

In the literature which has come under my notice, I have yet to find any 
statement that water alone can change the amorphous black oxid of iron 
into a crystallized form. The proved fact shows that ammonia possesses 
this power to an eminent degree whenever heat is applied and also, I 
think, at ordinary temperature but with a greater allowance of time. 

If this view be correct and admit of verification, then ammonia should 
be called a mineralizer because of its power to effect metamorphism. 

(106) 



106 8BCTI0N C. 

While the list of experiments made by a number of authors who hare 
contributed to the synthesis of magnetite is, of coarse, limited, yet ia 
none of them has the mineral in question been obtained under such con- 
ditions and the observation above noted is, therefore, of some interest in 
chemical geology. 

III. The demonstration of the^ two facts induced me to test the cor- 
rectness of my theory regarding ammonia as a metamorphic reagent. 
The hydrated magnesium oxid is an amorphous substance and. If crys- 
tallized, ought to furnish brucite. 

One gram of chemically pure hydrated magnesium oxid was intro- 
duced with ammonia in a pressure bottle and heated on a steam bath for 
a period of six hundred hours resulting In an almost complete metamor- 
phosis into^'*Nemalite** — ^the fibrous variety of brucite. The amorphous 
hydrous magnesium oxid appears, under the microscope, as small globu- 
lites. 

After heating the mixture to a temperature a little over 180^ F. for 
thirty hours, a sample was drawn and a slide prepared in boiled Canada 
balsam. The globules had arranged themselves into rows somewhat re- 
sembling a string of pearls. 

These are called margarites. After heating for sixty hours the sample 
showed staff-like forms, or longulites. None of these forms had any 
effect on polarized light. A change occurred after eighty hours heating; 
polarized light was effected at many points although not in a distinctly 
recognizable character as regards form ; they were evidently crystalloids 
which are irregular in outline. One hundred hours heating, however, 
finally effected the formation of microlites. They are mostly fibrous and 
are occasionally grouped into six-rayed stars, i. e., three microlites crossed 
at a centre. Some groups were radiated, showing a black cross. Ex- 
tinction parallel to the longer axis. A comparison with a preparation of 
native nemalite, from Hoboken, New Jersey, gave Indications of its idea- 
tity in form and optical properties. Several additional slides were pre- 
pared but without producing any great change except the gradual growth 
of the microlites by addition, and the formation, of additional groups. 

lY. The last two hundred hours heating of the magnesia hydrate and 
ammonia in the pressure bottle caused an incrustation to form inside the 
bottle to such a degree as to render it impermeable to light. The in- 
crusted material was separated from the loose, detached portion, washed, 
dried, heated in spirits of turpentine, and finally embedded in Canada 
balsam to ascertain its structure. It resembled as closely as could be the 
ordinary mesh-like structure of serpentine. A qualitative analysis show- 
ing silica, magnesia and water, additional proof of this fact. The strong 
effect of the ammonia on the glass caused its disintegration thus furnish- 
ing the silica to form serpentine. 

The fact that carbonic acid gas dissolved in water, although in very small 
quantity, acts as a mineralizer in limestone regions has been thoroughly 
proved. The question now arises : Can we assign to ammonia a similar 
function? In my opinion we can, because, in the first place, there seems 



CHEMISTBT. 107 

to be no water falling on the earth's surface which is entirely free from 
it and while the quantity in one gallon is not large, yet, in the course of 
years the sum total is enormous and, secondly, as has been shown by my 
experiments, ammonia by its catalytic effect on amorphous substances will 
cause metamorphic changes. 



Trimethyl-xanthin and its dbrivativbs. By Moses Gomberg, M. S., 
Ann Arbor, Mich. (Communicated by A. B. Prescott.) 

[abstract.] 

The constitutional formula of caffein as given by E. Fisher rests upon 
a good deal of substantial experimental evidence. Yet it seemed desira- 
ble to furnish additional proofs (1) by "the preparation of a tetramethyl- 
xanthin, analogous to the tetramethyl-uric acid, and (2) by the study of 
the decomposition products of the hypothetical compound. 

Although the results obtained are far from being complete, still it seems 
best to report them such as they are. The subject is still under investiga- 
tion, and it is better to report the results in independent sections ; their 
joint connection, it is hoped, will be brought out by a future report. The 
work thus far carried on was : 

(1) lodocaffein. 

(2) Action of Na upon a mixture of an alkyl-halogen and a halogen- 

caffein. 

(3) Action of Zinc-ethyl upon halogen-caffein. 

(4) Action of KCN upon chloro-caffein. 

I. There are known two halogen-caffeins : CgHgCl N^Og, and CgHg- 
BrN402. An attempt has been made to prepare an iodo-caffein. The in- 
direct method, by treating each of the first two halogen compounds with 
Nal, EI, and Cal, under varied conditions of temperature and quantities 
proved unsuccessful. The direct action of iodin upon dry caffein in anhy- 
drous chloroform resulted in the production of a compound CgHi 0N4O2 Iff. 
Of the seventy-five per cent, of iodin only sixty per cent, could be esti- 
mated by titration with NagS^Oa, *'• «•> o^ly four atoms of iodin are ad- 
dition atoms, the fifth being that of substitution, or as HI (?). 

II. The action of Na upon a mixtare of CH3I and a halogen-caffein 
in a medium of ether, benzene, toluene, etc., did not give good results 
owing to the very slight solubility of the halogen-caffeins in those sol- 
vents. 

III. The action of zinc-ethyl was tried in dilute and concentrated form, 
in flasks with inverted condenser and in sealed tubes, at temperatures of 
80°-l60°C., but only In one case did reaction take place. The compound 
produced was difficult to purify ; this necessitated a repetition of the ex- 
periment on a larger scale, and the body thus obtained is still under in- 
vestigation. 

IV . By the action of KCN upon chloro-caffein it was intended to obtain 



108 BBcnoN 0. 

cyano-caffein. But contrary to expectation a somewhat different com- 
pound was produced : 

Calcalated f or C8H9(CN)N40t Found. 

C— 49.81% 46.27% 

H— 4.12 6.13 

N— 81.96 29.70 

Repeated trials under different conditions gave only confirmatory re- 
sults. Obtained from hot glacial acetic acid the compound gave, as the 

mean of three analyses : 

C— 46.70% 

H— 5.12 

N— 29.63 

According to £. Fisher, prolonged action of a dilute alcoholic solution 

of KCN upon bromo-caffein results in the production of a small quantity 

of amido-caffein. It is reasonable to suppose that chloro-caffein would 

behaye similarly to the bromo-compound. But the writer supposes that 

Fisher's compound was not amldo-caffein for chloro-caffein certainly does 

not give that, as is seen by comparing the results above with the follow 

ing: 

Calculated forCaH9(NH,)N40, 

C— 45.90% 

H— 5.80 

N— 83.50 

The only explanation is that the compound is a half- saponified cyano- 

caffein, resulting probably thus : 

C.HgCl N40,+KCN=C8H9(CN)N40,+KCl 

C8H9(CN)N40g+H,0=CgHg(C0NHi)N404 
Further saponification would give : 

C8H9(CO.NH2)N402+H,0=C8H9(CO.OH)N40a+NH3 
Calculated for C8H9(CO.NH2)N40, Found. 

C— 46.56% 45.70% 

H— 4.66 5.12 

N— 29.54 29.63 

The production of an acid-amid without the help of either acid or al- 
kali is somewhat rare, but not altogether unusual. The supposition of 
this being the case here is justified (1) by the elementary analysis of the 
compound, (2) by the probability of the reaction, and (3) by the behavior 
of the compound. The latter when treated with alcoholic KOH or strong 
HCl in sealed tubes at 130®C., or with HaSO* at lOO^C, gives caffein plus 
COg, pointing^ to the formation of carboxy-caffein which, however, imme- 
diately breaks up. 

An effective condenser for volatile uquids and for water-an- 
ALT8I8. By Prof. W. A. Notes, Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, 
Ind. 

[ABSTRAGT.l 

A SMALL glass tube is selected about twice as long as the internal.tube 
of a Llebig's condenser and having an external diameter a little less than 



{ 



CHEMISTRY. 109 

one-half as great as the internal diameter of the tube of the condenser. 
The tube is bent sharply on itself in the middle and the two ends are bent 
over so as to form an angle of about 45^. The small tube is then inserted 
into the lower end of the Lieblg's condenser with the bent ends directed 
upward. The tube and condenser are then connected with the water 
supply in such a way that the water passes first through the small tube 
and then through the outer tube of the condenser. 

[This paper wiU be printed in the Journal of Analytical and Applied 
Chemistry.] 



Dl-BTHTL-CARBINAMIN AND ITS CONDUCT TOWARDS NITROUS ACID. By 

Prof. W. A. NoYBS, Rose Polytechnic Inst., Terre Haute, Ind. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Thb new base, (CtH5)2CH.NH2, was obtained by the reduction of the 
oxim of di-ethyl-ketone with sodium and absolute alcohol. It boUs at 

20" 

89^-91°. Its specific gravity is 2? -^ = 0.7487. It is miscible with water in 

all proportions. The dilarid crystallizes in easily soluble needles which 
melt at 217°. The chloro-platinate is very easily soluble and crystallizes 
in needles. The nitrite forms deliquescent needles which are stable at or- 
dinary temperatures. The aqueous solution of the nitrite can be evapo- 
rated over sulfuric acid without decomposition. In this respect, di-ethyl- 
carbinamin is intermediate in its properties between the '*alicyclic" bases 
of Bamberger and the ordinary alkyl amins, and resembles di-benzyl- 
carbinamin.^ 

[This paper will be printed in the American Chemical Journal.] 



On the DECOMPOSITION OP ACETONE WITH CONCENTRATED SULFURIC 

ACID. By W. R. Orndorfp, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

r ABSTRACT. J 

Pure acetone, (180 grammes) was treated with concentrated sulfuric 
acid (800 grammes) in the cold, and the mixture allowed to stand for twen- 
ty-four hours. It was then heated to 120° when the reaction began. The 
products were collected and found to consist of: (1) gases, '(2) crude me- 
sitylene, (8) aqueous layer, (4) tar and (5) spent acid. 

The gases were found to be sulfur dioxid, carbon dioxid and a gas 
which burned with a luminous smoky fiame and which had some of the 
properties of aUylene. Analyses of this gas, however, showed it to be 
propane, CsHg. 

>Amer. Chem. Jour. 14, 22S. . 



110 SKcnoNO. 

The erode mesltylene after purlflcation was distilled over sodium, and 
over fifty per cent, was obtained in the form of pure mesitylene. The 
average yield of the cmde mesitylene was thirty-three grammes to 180 
grammes of the acetone used. 

The higher fractions gave a liquid boiling at 185^-187^, a hydrocarbon 
boiling at 195^-197^, and a third product, also a hydro-carbon, boiling at 
2800-282°. 

The liquid boiling at 185^-1 87^ was a colorless fluid with a peculiar aro- 
matic odor, and on analysis and determination of the vapor density it gave 
figures corresponding to the formula C14H22O. 

The product boiling at 196°-197° was proved to be identical with isodu- 
rene C10H14 from the analyses and a study of the substitution products. 

The hydro-carbon boiling at 280^-282° was a thick viscous liquid having 
but little odor and was shown on analysis to have the general formula 
(C,H^)^. Attempts were made to determine the vapor density of this body 
but without success owing to the fact that it decomposed when heated a 
few degrees above its boiling point. 

The aqueous portion of the distillate was found to contain acetone, 
mesityl oxid, sulfur dioxid and acetic acid. 

The tar was separated from the spent acid, neutralized with caustic soda 
solution and distilled from an iron retort. On redistillation in a vacuum 
over sodium fractions were obtained which corresponded to the highest of 
those resulting from f ractioning the crude mesitylene and they were there- 
fore added to these fractions. 

The spent acid was examined to determine if any sulfonic acids were 
present but none were found. 

The total amount of acetone decomposed was 6.84 kilogrammes. This 
required 12.6 kilogrammes of sulfuric acid and gave 1.05 kilogrammes of 
crude mesitylene. From the crude mesitylene were obtained over half a 
kilogramme of pure mesitylene, thirty grammes of isodurene, eight 
grammes of the hydro-carbon (C,H^)^ and about five grammes of the com- 
pound C 1 4 H 2 8 O . The amount of propane obtained at each distillation was 
about 100. c.c. 

The principal product of the reaction, it vtIII be seen, is mesitylene and 
this method can be recommended as the best known at present for the 
preparation of this hydro-carbon. 

Owing to the small quantities of the compounds (CaH^)^ and CwHgtO 
formed it was impossible to determine any further facts regarding them. 

These results are at variance with the statement of Victor Meyer* *'that 
mesitylene is only obtained from commercial acetone and not from pure 
acetone by condensation with concentrated sulfuric acid," and also with 
the statement of Jacobsen' "That if pure acetone be used in the reaction 
no higher boiling products than mesitylene are obtained." 

[This paper will be printed in full in the Amer. Chem. Jour.] 



^Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie (Meyer & JacobBen) p. 411. 
^Ber. der Deutscb. Chem. Gesell. 7, 1432. 



CHEMI8TRT. Ill 



The iodomercubatbs op organic bases. By Prof. Albert B. Pres- 
COTT, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

This Is a report of work done, in tlie chemical laboratory of the Uni- 
yersity of Michigan, by Mr. L. F. Kebler, namely : the careful production 
of the iodomercurates of pyridin, quinolin, and quinin, under stated con- 
ditions, and their full elementary analysis, reaching molecular formulsB. 
In the history of the compounds it appears that the use of potassium mer- 
curic iodid as a reagent for alkaloids was indicated by BouUay in 1827, 
Bourdorf in 1829, Winkler in 1830, von Planta-Richenauin 1846, and Mayer 
in 1862, the last-named two employing the reagent in volumetric estima- 
tion. In 1868, Groves undertook to establish formulae for these bodies. 
Dragendorff in 1874, Lyons in 1886, and Snow in 1888, have determined 
the quantitative value of "Mayer's Reagent." In 1880, the undersigned 
reported partial elementary analysis of several vegetable alkaloid iodomer- 
curates, with a discussion of the various proofs of their composition. 
The present investigation was taken up in the desire to obtain light upon 
the structure of these bodies, as well as to define their bearing upon an- 
alytical methods. Their composition appears to be attended with a de- 
gree of variability, wherefore it was deemed prudent to subject them to 
full elementary analysis, after preparation in purity. Also to bring the 
iodomercurates of pyridin and quinolin into comparison with those of 
vegetable alkaloids, in respect to structure. The combustion of the mer- 
cury compounds presents difficulties which were only overcome by Mr. 
Kebler after a good deal of experimentation for a satisfactory method. 
The results give good support to each of the following formulae : 
lodomercurate of Pyridin, CaH^jHgCIj), 

" Quinolin, CaH^NjHglg 

Quinin, (C,uH,4N,0,)2(Hgl2)3(HI)3H,0. 

Studies of the structure of this class of compounds should take into 
account the structure of the iodin compounds, as well as the iodomer- 
curates, of such alkaloids as have a constitution most nearly determinate. 
These data are yet insufficient for profitable generalization. 



ft if 



The enztmesor soluble ferments of the hog-cholera germ. By E. 
A. DB ScHWEiKnz, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

[AB8TBA0T.J 

The paper gives method of detection and isolation of two soluble fer- 
ments, formed in the cultures of the hog- cholera germ and refers to their 
physiological effect. Brief reference is also made to. the active principle 
of the glanders cultures, and their effect. 

[This paper will be printed in the^Medical News, Phila.] 



112 SECTION C. 

NOTB ON THB XFFBCT OF FKBTILIZICRS UPON THE JUICE OF THE SUGAR- 
CANE. By Clinton P. Townsend, Donaldsonyille, La. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

PREUMINART to ail InTestigatioii of the relative yalne of fertilization 
and drainage as means for Increasing the yield of sugar from the sogar- 
cane. 

Similar series of experimental plots were planted In two qnalities of 
soil whose main difference has been shown, by chemical analysis, to lie in 
the relative efficiency of their drainage. Each series comprised the fol- 
lowing nnmbers : — 

1. "Normar Fertilizer. 

2. ''Normal**, but with excess of Nitrogen. 
8. ''Normal" except for absence of Nitrogen. 

4. '^Normal** except for absence of Phosphoric acid. 

5. "Normal" except for absence of Lime. 

6. "Normal** except for absence of Potash. 

7. Unfertilized. 

The results in tonnage and in Juice contents were plotted, showing with 
approximate accuracy : — 

1. There was no direct dependence of tonnage upon fertilization, or 
such dependence is greatly obscured, as shown by the entirely different 
form of the curve in the two soils. 

2. Total solids of juice vary inversely as the tonnage. 

8. Sucrose varies directly as the total solids and inversely as the ton- 
nage. 

4. Glucose varies inversely as the total solids and sucrose, and directly 
as the tonnage. 

5. Solids not sugar show no correspondence with any of the above 
components of the Juice, but the curves in the two soils are similar in 
form, indicating these solids to have been largely determined by the fer- 
tilization. 

Nos. 2 and 8 probably have little chemical significance,' the total soUds 
varying inversely as the tonnage, because evaporation varies In this man- 
ner ; and sucrose varying approximately as the total solids because it of 
itself constitutes 70-80 per cent, of these solids^ Nos. 4 and 6 are chem- 
ical problems. 

The paper was Illustrated by diagrams. 



SoBfE points in connection with the composition of honet. By 
Prof. H. W. Wiley, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTSAOT.] 

Three methods of estimating the water In honey are given, viz. : by 
direct drying in flat dish ; by drying in vacuo ; and by dilution and specific 
gravity. 



OHEMISTBT. 113 

In general, the results are lowest by the first method, and highest by 
the third. It is believed that the most accurate results are those given 
by the second method. They are nearly a mean between those of the first 
and second methods. The results are based on the drying of. forty-two 
samples. Reducing sugar is determined by treatment with alkaline cop- 
per tartrate and subsequent electrolytic precipitation of the copper re- 
duced. 

Sucrose is determined by polarization before and after Inversion. 

Invert sugar is determined by polarization at 0° and %S^. At the latter 
temperature invert sugar is neutral to polarized light. The diflference be- 
tween the polarisation at 0^ and 88^ gives the total optical disturbance 
due to invert sugar whence the percentage of invert sugar is calculated 
by the formula, I d = X 6, in which a = difference in polarization between 
0° and 88° and b =* the percentage of invert sugar necessary to cause 
a variation of one degree on the cane sugar scale between the tempera- 
tures named. For Instance, a honey polarizes at 0° — 18.5 divisions of 
the cane sugar scale and at 88° + 12.5 divisions. The difference is 31 
divisions. 

Then 31X6 = per cent of Invert sugar. The constant for h has been 
accurately determined and is 2.273. Therefore 31 X 2.273 =» per cent of 
Invert sugar In the sample =a 70.5. So far experience shows a possible 
variation In the rate of change In polaiimetrlc power of invert sugar in 
honey as the temperature approaches 0°. This is shown in a few plotted 
lines giving the actual 0° as compared with the theoretical determined 
by extending the line between 30° and 88°. A large number of determin- 
ations shows the line from 30° to 88° to be straight. Any plus polarization 
at 88° is to be diminished by the percentage of sucrose present, and then 
Is credited to any solid matter present in excess of the invert sugar-su- 
crose and ash. 



A METHOD OF POLA.RIMKTRIC OB8KRVATION AT LOW TEMPER A TURKS . By 

Prof, H. W. WiLKY, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

[AB8TRA0T.] 

The usual method of securing a low uniform temperature for polarl- 
metric measurements consists In enclosing the solution to be examined in 
a jacketed tube through which a current of water at the desired tempera- 
ture is passed. This method is satisfactory when It Is not desired to 
depress the temperature more than two or three degrees below that of 
the room in which the readings are made. When, however, the desired 
temperature is 0°, the above method is wholly inapplicable. Not only Is 
It Impossible to maintain the same temperature at both ends of the jacketed 
tube, but another more serious difficulty is also encountered. The cover 
glasses, cooled to so low a temperature, become at once covered with 
moisture making the reading difficult and inaccurate. Carrying Instru- 
ment and observer into a cold storage room Is both expensive and trouble- 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLl 8 



114 SBcnoK c. 

some. In addition to this the temperature of snch a room Is nnifonnlj 
above 0° and especially so when the heat of the body of the observer is in- 
troduced. 

The whole dlfflcolty Is easily and effectively removed by using the ap- 
paratus shown. A large Jacket made conveniently of brass Is used for 
holding the observation tube, the cover glasses of which are held in place 
by the screw caps of the Jacket. This Jacket is covered with some non- 
conducting substance. The screw caps of the Jacket are provided with 
hard rubber extension caps carrying a perforated brass tube of the same 
size, and concentric'wlth the observation tube. The space between the 
brass tube and the rubber extension cap is filled with fused chlorid of 
calcium. The end of the hard rubber cap is closed air tight with a glass 
cover, and the interior of the cap Is thus kept perfectly dry, avoiding 
any deposition of moisture on the cover glasses of the observation tube. 



The aldumikoids of maizk. By Dr. Oeorok Archbold, New York, 

N. y. 



A SELECT BIBLIOORAFRT OF CHEMISTRY. By Dr. H. CaRRINQTON BOLTON, 

University Club, New York, N. Y. [To be printed in the Smithsonian 
Misc. CoU.] 



Coffer sulfate as a material for standardizing solutions. By Prof. 
Edward Hart, Easton, Fa. [To be printed in Journ. Analyt. 
Appl. Chem.] 



On the mechanical determination of the sterbooraphic constitution 
OF organic compounds. By Dr. Gustavus Hiniuchs, St. Louis, Mo. 



Presentation of samples from the salt mines of New York. By Prof. 
S. A. Lattimore, University of liochester, Rochester, N. Y. 



Effect of sedimentation upon self- purification of running streams. 
By Prof. Wm. P. Mason, Rensselaer Polyt. Inst., Troy, N. Y. 



Post-mortem imbibition of arsenic. By Prof. W. P. Mason, Rens- 
selaer Polyt, Inst., Troy, N. Y. 



I 



CHEMISTRY. 115 



The value of a water analysis. By Prof. W. P. Mason, Kensselaer 
Polyt. Inst., Troy, N. Y. 



Itacolxjmitb from North Carolina. By ^Laura Osborne Talbott. 
Washington, D. C. 



Notes on a bibliography of mineral waters. By Dr. Alfred Tuce- 
ERMAN, New York, N. Y. 



116 SBcnoN 0. 



Tknth Annual Report of the Comkittbe on Indexing Chem- 
ical LlTERATUBB. 

The Committee notes with satisfaction a growing appreciation 
of tlie Reports on Chemical Bibliograpliy that have been presented 
to the Chemical Section of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. The Ninth Annual Report was widely cir- 
calatedy appearing not only in the Proceedings of the A. A. A. S., 
but also in the Chemical News, the J. Anal. Appl. Chem., the J. 
Am. Chem. Soc. and the Scientific American. 

The Committee congratulates the Section on the fact that these 
annual reports have in large measure accomplished one of the 
principal objects sought, viz., that of directing attention to the im- 
portance of compiling bibliographies, catalogues and indexes to the 
voluminous literature of Chemistry. While little systematic work 
has been undertaken, duplication of labor has been prevented and in- 
dependent efforts have accomplished much; how much appears 
in the list of bibliographies forming the Appendix to this Report. 
Chemists are more and more perceiving the advantages of attaching 
carefully prepared bibliographies to their monographs; recently 
this plan has been pursued in the important Bulletins of the Chem- 
ical Division of the United States Department of Agriculture. 
Thus a collection of special bibliographies Is gradually forming, des- 
tined to be of inestimable value to the chemist. The Committee 
expresses the hope that this collection will grow in the future much 
faster than in the past, and suggests that members of the Section 
of Chemistry seriously consider in what way they can individually 
contribute to the cause. 

During the current year the following indexes have been pub- 
lished. 

1 . A Bibliography of the Electrolytic Assay of Copper. By Stuart Croas- 
dale. In J. Anal. Appl. Chem. v, pp. 133 and 184 (Mar. and Apr., 1891). 

2. An Index to the Literature on the Estimation of Nitrogen by Ejel- 
dahl's Method and its modifications. By Lyman F. Kebler. In J. Anal. Appl. 
Chem. V, 260 (May, 1891). 

8. An Index to the Literature on the Estimation of Nitrogen by all other 
Methods. By Lyman F. Kebler. In J. Anal. Appl. Chem. v, 264 (May, 
1891). 



CHEMISTRY. 117 

4. Index to the Literature of the Tannins. By Professor Henry Trim- 
ble, Ph.M., of Philadelphia. This forms an appendix to: "The Tannins, 
a Monograph on their History, Preparation, Properties, Methods of Es- 
timation and Uses of the Vegetable Astringents," by the author named. 
Philadelphia, 1892. Vol. 1, 168 pp., 12nio. The Index occupies pp. 101-165 
and the titles are arranged chronologically with an alphabetical lindex of 
authors. The whole is admirably printed and obyiously exhaustive. 

5. Index to the Literature of Angelic and Tiglic Acids from 1842-91. 
By Henry P. Talbot, Ph.D. Technological Quarterly , Vol. v, Nos. 1 and 2 
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston). Contains an historical 
summary, and author- and subject-indexes. 

6. Bibliography of Analytical and Applied Chemistry for the year 1891. 
By H. Carringtoh Bolton. J. Anal. Appl. Chem., Vol. vi, p. 61, 1892. 

We chronicle also the following contributions to chemical bib- 
liography : 

7. Professor Thomas B. Stillman, in his papers on ** Animal, Marine and 
Vegetable Oils used in Lubrication," has paid especial attention to the 
bibliography of the subject, grouping under each division of his essay 
many references to periodical literature and other. (J. Anal. Appl. Chem. 
V, April, June and December, 1891.) 

8. A list of Chemical Synonymes is found on pages 661-676 of the Ap- 
pendix to "The Scientific American Cyclopedia of Receipts, Notes and 
Queries." ' Edited by Albert A. Hopkins. New York, 1892. 8vo. lU. 

9. Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler's **Handbook of Industrial Organic Chem- 
istry" (Philadelphia, 1891, pp. xiv-619, roy. 8vo. 111.) contains bibliogra- 
phies at the close of each chapter embracing the following topics : 

1. Petroleum and Mineral Oil Industry. 

2. Industry of the Fats and Fatty Oils. 

3. Industry of the Essential Oils and Besins. 

4. The Cane and Sugar Industry. 

5. The Industries of Starch and its Alteration Products. 

6. Fermentation Industries (Malting, Brewing "Wines, Spirits, Vinegar, 
Flour and Bread). 

7. Milk Industries. 

8. Vegetable Textile Fibres and their Industries. 

9. Textile Fibres of Animal Origin. 

10. Leather, Glue and Gelatin. 

11. Destructive Distillation Industries. 

12. Artificial Coloring Matters. 

13. Natural Dye Colors. 

14. Bleaching, Dyeing and Textile Printing. 

The Bibliographies are chronologically-arranged one-line titles. 

Professor S. F. Peckham reports substantial progress on his Bib- 
liography of Bitumen ; Professor Arthur M. Comey on his Dic- 
tionary of Solubilities, and Dr. Alfred Tuckerman on his Bibliog- 



118 BSOTION 0. 

raphy of Mineral Waters. Dr. Arnold Eiloart of New York has 
completed the MS. of an Index to the Literature of Stereochem- 
istry ; this will appear as an appendix to his review of the sabject 
in the Am. Chem. J. The whole will also be issued independently. 
Prof. Charles £. Munroe announcea Part II of his Index to the 
Literature of Explosives^ to be published shortly. Dr. H. C. Bol- 
ton's Select Bibliography of Chemistry baa been accepted by the 
Smithsonian Institution for its Miscellaneous Collections and is in 
the hands of printers. 

H. Carrinoton Bolton^ Chairman, 

F. W. Clarke, 

Albert B. Leeds, 

Alexis A. Julien, 

JoHH W. Lanolbt, 

Albert B. Pbesoott, 

Alfred Tuckerman. 



Appendix to Tenth Annual Report op Committeb on Indexino 

Chemical Litbraturb. 

List op Indexes to Chemical Litbraturb. 

Abhreviatiant of Titles of Chemical Journals. By H. Canington Bolton 
[and others]. J. Anal. Chem. Vol. n, pt. 1. Jan., 1888. 

Amalgams; Index to the Literature of. By Wm. L. Dudley, in his Vice- 
Presidential Address to the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science at Toronto. Proceeding A. A. A. S. 
for 1889» pp. 161-171, 1890. 8yo. 

Ammonia firom Atmospheric Nitrogen, An Index of Researches npon the 
Production of. By Ezra J. Ware. Published in Proceed- 
ings Michigan State Pharmaceutical Association, 1888. H. J. 
Brown, Secretary, Ann Arbor, Micti. 

Analytical Chemistry^ Bibliography of, for the year 1886. By H. Car 
rington Bolton. J. Anal. Chem. Vol. i, pt. 8. July, 1887. 
[The same] for 1887. Idem. Vol. n, pt. 1. Jan., 1888. 
[The same] for 1888. Idem. Vol. m, pt. 4. Oct., 1889. 
[The same] for 1889. Idem. Vol. iv, pt. 1. Jan., 1890. 
[The same] for 1890. Idem. Vol. v, No. 3. ^arch, 1891. 

Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Bibliography of, for the year 1891. By 
H. Carrington Bolton. J. Anal. Appl. Chem. VoL vi, p. 61, 
1892. 

Angelic and Tiglic Acids, Index to the Literature of. By Henry P. Talbot, 
Technological Quarterly, Boston. Vol. y, Nos. 1 and 2, 1892. 



CHEMISTRY. 119 

Beeswax and Waxes used in adulterating Beeswax, Bibliography of. By 
Harvey W. Wiley [Editor]. Foods and Food Adulterants. 
Part VI. Bulletin No. 13, Division of Chemistry, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, 1892. 8vo, pp. 886-871. 

Butines and their Halogen Addition Products, Index to the Literature of 
the (1868-1888). By Arthur A. Noyes. Technological Quar- 
terly, Boston, December, 1888. Published at the Massachu- 
setts Institute Technology. 

Butter, Bibliography of. By Blwyn Waller. In Second Annual Report of 
the N. Y. State Dairy Commissioner, 1886. 

Chemistry f A Bibliography of, for the year 1883, by H. Carrington Bolton. 
In An Account of the Progress of Chemistry in the Year 
1883." Smithsonian ! Report for 1888. Washington, 1884. 
8vo. 

[The same] for 1884, 1885, 1886, in Smithsonian Reports for 
said years. 

Chemistry y A Bibliography of, for the year 1887. By H. Carrington Bolton. 
Washington, 1888. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 
No. 666, 13 pp., 8vo. 

Columbium, Index to the Literature of. 1801-1887. By Frank W. Trap- 
hagen. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 663. 
Washington, 1888. pp. [iv], 27, 8vo. 

Coppery Electrolytic Assay, Bibliography of. By Stuart Croasdale. J. 
Anal. Appl. Chem. v, 133 and 184. (18^1). 

Electrolysis, Index to the Literature of; 1784-1880. By W. Walter Webb. 
Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. ii. No. 10, 
1882. pp. 44, 8vo. 

N. B. This has been translated into French by Donato 
Tommasi, Paris, 1889. 

Explosives, Index to the Literature of. Part i. By Charles E. Munroe, 
Baltimore, 1886. pp. 42, 8vo. 
Part n, in press (1892). 

Food Adulteration and its Detection, Bibliography of. By Jesse P. Bat- 
tershall. In **Food Adulteration and its Detection." New 
York, 1887. 8vo. 

Qeometrical Isomerism, A Bibliography of. Accompanying an Address 
on this subject to the Chemical Section of the American As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science at Indianapolis, 
August, 1890. By Robert B. Warder. Proceedings A. A. A.S. 
Vol. xxxix, Salem, 1890, 8vo. 

Heat, Dictionary of the Action of Heat upon certain metallic Salts, in- 
cluding an Index to the principal literature upon the Subject. 
Compiled and arranged by J. W. Baird; contributed by A. B. 
Prescott, New York, 1884. pp. 70, 8vo. 

History of Chemistry, Outlines of a Bibliography of the. By H. Carring- 
ton Bolton. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. Vol. x, pp. 352-361. New 
York, 1878. 



120 SBcnoN c. 

Monetf, Bibliography of. By Harrey W. Wiley [Editor]. Food and Food 
Adulterants^ Fait vi. BnUettn No. 18. Division of Chem- 
istry. U. 8. Department of Agricnltare^ Wasfatngton, 1892. 
8vo, pp. 871-874. 

Iridium^ Bibliography of the Metal, by Nelson W. Perry, in Prof. W. I.. 
Dudley's paper on Iridium, published in Mineral Resources of 
the United States, calendar years 1888 and 1884. Washing- 
ton, 1885. 8yo. 

Lighty Chemical Influence of, A Bibliography of. Alfred Tuekerman. 
Smithsonian Misoellaneons Collections^ Na 786, Washington, 
1891. pp. 22, 8yo. 

Manganete, Index to the Literature of; 1606-1874. By H. Carrington 
Bolton, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural Histoiy, New York. 
Vol. XI, November, 1876. pp. 44, 8vo. 

Milky Bibliography of. By Edward W. Martin. In Second Annual Re- 
port of the N. Y. State Dairy Commissioner. 1886. 

Nitrogen, Estimation of. By KJeldahrs Method, Index to the Literature. 
By Lyman F. Kebler. J. Anal. Appl. Chem. v, 260 (1891). 

Nitrogen, Fixation of Atmospheric. For bibliographical data see Histor- 
ical Summary on this subject by A. A. Breneman in J. Adl 
Chem. Soc. xi (1889). 

Ozone, Index to the Literature of ; 1875-1879. By Albert B. Leeds. An- 
nals of the New York Academy of Sciences. YoL i. No. 12, 
1880. pp. 82, 8vo. 

Ozone, Index to the Literature of, 1879-1883 ; acoompanied by an Histor- 
ical, Critical R6sum6 of the Progress of Discovery since 1879. 
By Albert R. Leeds. Annals N. Y. Academy of Sciences, 
Vol. m, p. 187. 1884. pp. 16, 8vo. 

FeriodicaU, A Catalogue of Chemical. By H. Carrington Bolton. Annals 
N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. m, pp. 159-216. New York, 1885. 
8vo. Also : Chemical News Print, London, 1886. 12mo. 
Supplement to [the same]. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. iv, 
Feb., 1887. 4 pp, 8vo. 

FeriodicalB, Short Titles of, current In 1887. By H. Carrington Bolton. 
J. Anal. Chem. Tol. i, Part 1, 1887. 4 pp. 8vo. 

Peroxid of Bydrogen, Index to the Literature of ; 1818-1878. By Albert 
B. Leeds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 
Vol. I, No. 18, 1880. pp. II, 8yo. 

Feroxid of Hydrogen, Index to the Literature of; 1879-1888. By Albert 
R. Leeds. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 
m, p. 158, 1884. pp. 8, 8vo. 

Petroleum, A Bibliography of. By Prof. S. F. Peckham. Report on the 
Production, Technology and Uses of Petroleum and its 
Products. Report of the Census of the United States. Vol. 
X, 1884. 4to, pp. 281-301. 

Ptomains, A Bibliography of ; accompanies Victor C. Vaaghan's Pto- 
maines and Leucomaines, Philadelphia, 1888. pp. 296-314. 
8vo. 



CHEMISTBT* 121 

Speed of Chemical Seaetions, Literature of. By Robert B. Warder. Pro- 
ceedings of the American Assoc. Adv. Science. Vol. xxxii, 
1883. pp. 8. 8vo. 

/Specific Gravity of Solids and Liquids, A Table of. The Po^stants of Na- 
ture, Part 1 (new edition, revised and enl rired). By Frank 
Wigglesworth Clarke. Washington, 1668. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, No. 659. pp. xi-409. 8 vo. 

Spectroscope, Index to the Literature of. By Alfred Tuckerman. Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 658. Washington, 
1888. pp. x-423, 8vo. 

Starch-sugar, Bibliography of. By Edw. J. Hallock. Appendix E to Re- 
port on Glucose prepared by the National Academy of Sci- 
ences, in response to a request made by the Commissioner 
of Internal Revenue. U. S. Internal Revenue, Washington, 
D. C, 1884. pp. 44, 8vo. 

Tannins, Index to the Literature of. By Henry Trimble. The Tannins. 
Philadelphia, 1892. Vol. i, Appendix. 

Tea, Coffee and Cocoa Preparations, Bibliography of the Literature on. 
By Guilford L. Spencer. Food and Food Adulterants. Part 
vn, Appendix A. Bulletin No. 13, Division of Chemistry, U. 
S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, 1892. 8vo, 
pp. 991-1009. 

Thermodynamics, Index to the Literature of. By Alfred Tuckerman. 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 741. Washing- 
ton, 1890. pp. vi-329. 8vo. 

Titanium, Index to the Literature of; 1783-1876. By Edw. J. Hallock. 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. i, Nos. 
2 and 8, 1877. pp. 22, 8vo. 

Uranium, Index to the Literature of. By H. Carrington Bolton. Annals 
of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, Vol. ix, Feb- 
ruary, 1870. 16 pp. 8vo. 

Uranium, an Index to the Literature of ; 1789-1885. By H. Can*ington 
Bolton. Smithsonian Report for 1885. Washington, 1885. 
pp. 86, 8vo. 

Vanadium, Index to the Literature of. By G. Jewett Rockwell. Annals 
of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 5, 1877. 
pp. 82, 8vo. 

Index to Authors. 

Baird, J. W., see Heat. 

Battebshall, J. P., see Food Adulteration. 

Bolton, H. C, see Abbreviations of Titles of Journals; also. Analytical 
Chemistry, Bibliography of, 1886-90; Analytical and Applied 
Chemistry, 1891; Chemistry, Bibliography of, 1888-87, 6 
parts ; History of Chemistry ; Manganese ; Periodicals ; Uran- 
ium (two editions). 

Breneman, a. a., see Nitrogen, Fixation of. 



122 SECTION 0. 

Clarkk, F. W., tee Specific Grarity of Solids and Liquids. 

Cboasdalb, 8m 9ee Copper, Electrolytic Assay of. 

DuDLBT, W. L., iM Amalgams. 

Haixock, E. J., iM Starch Sugar; alfo, Titanium. 

Kkblkb, L. F., iM Nitrogen, Estimation by Kjeldahr's Method. 

Lekds, a. R., tee Ozone; aUo, Peroxide of Hydrogen. 

Martin, E. W., im Milk. 

MuNBOB, C. E., M0 Explosives. 

NoTBS, A. A. , fed Bntines. 

Peckham, S. F., tee Petroleum. 

Pbrrt, N. W., m0 Iridium. 

Rockwell, G. J., m0 Vanadium. 

Spbncer, G. L., fed Tea, Coffee and Cocoa. 

Talbot, H. P., see Angelic and Tiglic Acids. 

Tbafhagbn, F. W., eee Columbium. 

Trimblb, H., eee Tannins. 

TucKEBMAN, A., tes Light, Chemical Influence of; aleo, Spectroscope, 

Literature of; Thermodynamics. 
Vaughan, V. C, eee Ptomains. 
Waller, Elwyn, eee Butter. 
Warder, B. B., «m Geometrical Isomerism; aleo. Speed of Chemical 

Reactions. 
Ware, E. J.^eee Ammonia from Atmospheric Nitrogen. 
Webb, W. W., eee Electrolysis. 
Wiley, H. W., fed Beeswax; aleo. Honey. 



SECTION D. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE 



▲in> 



ENGINEERING. 



OFFICERS OF SECTION D. 



The JPruident, 
John B. Johnson, St. Louis, Mo. 

Secretary. • 

Oldx H. Lakdrbth, Nashville, Tenn. D. S. Jacobus, Hoboken, N. J., 
acted as Secretary on the last day of the meeting. 

Member of CouneU. 
8. W. Robinson, Colmnbas, Oliio. 

« 

Members of Sectional Committee. 

John B. Johnson, St. Louis, Mo. Olin H. Landrbth, Nashville, Tenn. 
Thomas Gray, Terre Haute, Ind. William Kbnt, New York, N. Y. 
W. A. BoGERS, WatervlUe, Me. J. H. Kinealt, Raleigh, N. C. 

W. C. Warnbr, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
Mansfield Merriman, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Members of Sub-committee on Nominations. 

JohnB. Johnson, St. Louis, Mo. Olin H. Landreth, Nashville, Tenn. 
DeVolson Wood, Hoboken, N. J. R. S. Woodward, Washington, 

D. C. H. T. Eddy, Terre Haute, Ind. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

JOHN B. JOHNSON, 

VICE PRESIDENT, SECTION D. 



THE APPLIED SCIENTIST. 



It is my purpose in this address to note the relations of pure 
and applied science and to endeavor to picture what I conceive to 
be the field of opportunity, if not of duty, which is now ripening 
into harvest in the domain of scientific applications of the mate- 
rials and forces of nature to the comfort, happiness, and progress 
of society. 

What should now be called the ancient culture consisted only 
in the study of mind and the products of mind. Knowing noth- 
ing of the realities of Nature and her laws, never having performed 
a single scientific experiment which could carry conviction of the 
truth of something not evolved from the mind itself, thrown 
thoroughly back upon their own ruminations and chewing over and 
over again forever the tough and juiceless cuds of philosophic con- 
troversy, the great minds of all ages had been able to prove to 
their entire satisfaction the absolute reality of the ideal and the ab- 
solute non-existence of the real. No wonder then that they should 
utterly ignore such purely sublunary and imaginary things as light 
and heat, the force of steam, the thunder-bolts of Jove, the winds 
and the waves, the earthquake and the storm. No wonder that they 
should consider it vulgar to inquire particularly into the composi- 
tion of matter, or to study the laws of equilibrium, of gravity, and 
of force. They speculated on these things it is true, but mostly as 
mental concepts and not as actual entities to be studied as external 
realities. And still this ancient and outgrown school has a liberal 

(126) 



126 sscnoN D. 

following, those who Btady only language, philosophy, history, and 
mathemathics, who, like bats bathed in sunshine, are utterly ob- 
livious to the beauties and thrilling charm of Nature's ways and 
means, and though dazed at the wonderful miracles of modem 
science are still insisting that it is all a mere phantom of the mind. 
But it is little the scientist cares. He holds the key which unlocks 
the universe, and he is too busy opening the long-locked doors and 
classifying the newly discovered treasures to trouble himself with 
the owls and bats of a darker age. The scientist now sets the pat- 
tern for all truth seekers. The method of experimental verification 
has been adopted by the historian and the philosopher, the minister 
and theologian. Science has won the battle and we have now bat 
to reap the harvest. And this is as pleasurable as it is profitable. 
The charm of discovering and promulgating a new universal tmth 
or law, whose applications may not be predicted but dimly imag- 
ined, and so adding another sheaf to the world's common stock of 
knowledge, is quite exquisite and unique. The universality of the 
fact gives it its charm. To have to descend from the universal to 
the particular, from the study and contemplation of a general law 
to particular and utilitarian applications of it, is like calling Dante 
from the composition of his Divine Comedy to sit in judgment at 
a police court trial. 

And here lies the marked distinction between the pure and the 
applied scientist. To the pure scientist all truths, so they be uni- 
versal or general, are of equal interest and value. He cares not if 
they have no utilitarian application, the stock of truth has been 
augmented, some other related truths have been explained or sup- 
plemented, and pure science acknowledges the obligation, and the 
discoverer has his reward. 

But to the applied scientist that only is good, or is prized, which 
can be shown to be capable of serving useful ends. It is his busi- 
ness to select from the pure scientists' store of universal truth such 
as he can use for particular purposes. The pure scientist is to the 
applied scientist what Columbus was to the Puritan Fathers. Co- 
lumbus was bent on discovering a world, or at least a new way to 
a practically unknown world, while the Puritan Fathers came to 
set up for themselves and their children homes where they would 
be freed from disagreeable persecution — a. purely specific and util- 
itarian end. And yet the results of this specific utilization of Co- 
lumbus' discoveries have been so great and fraught with so much 



ADDRESS BT JOHN B. JOHNSON. 127 

good and happiness to the world that we are apt to forget the pri- 
mary discoverer in our gratitude to the men and women who made 
so specific use of his great and universal achievement. 

So with the applied scientist. From the standpoint of the pure 
scientist he is a mere plodder — a sort of pot-hunter — seeking the 
so-called practical ends, solving many knotty and dilfficult problems 
it is true, but what has he done when he has solved them ? He has 
but gathered a few apples where his pioneer friend has first planted 
the orchard. But while we gladly pay this high tribute to our friends 
who make up the major part of this Association, we cannot ignore 
the necessity of supplementing their work by finding practical uses 
for so much accumulated wisdom. Wisdom, like Virtue, is its own 
sufiScient reward to its possessor, but like Virtue also it must have 
altruistic objects and bring growth and happiness in its train to the 
unwise and to the less fortunate, or it fails still of being a univer- 
sal good. Although our pure scientists are glad to see their dis- 
coveries put to some good use they have a kind of feeling of com- 
miseration for the poor fellows who must take their second-hand 
information, a thread here, a shred there, and with the skill and in- 
dustry of the mechanic, weave it into a particular garment which 
can serve a useful end. But until this is done, or capable of being 
done, what claim have our pure scientists upon the generous sym- 
pathies of society ? If knowledge is to be gained only to be re- 
taught to a few others, it is like the study of a dead language — 
studied mainly that one may be able to teach it to another teacher 
of teachers ad infinitum. I have no sympathy with the toast once 
proposed to pure mathematics, ''May it never be of any use to any 
body." 

Let us allow then, that science must show utilitarian possibilities 
before it can rightfully demand public support. Not that the study 
of Mars is unprofitable because we cannot cplonize it and raise com 
or cotton upon it, or find a market there for our mowers and thresh- 
ers, for I can conceive of no more utilitarian science to-day than 
that which helps to hasten the dawn of the new day of a rational 
cosmos, past, present and future. But what I mean is that the 
justification lies in its utility in some direction or other. If this 
be true, then is not he who discovers the use, the equal of him who 
discovers the law? 

It is a patent fact that the training and natural talent which fits 
one for the calling of a pure scientist necessarily unfits one, or per- 



128 sscnON D. 

haps fails to fit one, for the business of the applied scientist. Cer- 
tain it is, the business is best done by these two classes of workers, 
each keeping to his own field. Without stopping to analyze the 
requirements of pure science, let us hasten on to the study of the 
opportunities and duties of him who ^'makes the scientific applica- 
tion of the materials and forces of nature to the service of man 
his peculiar business and profession." 

Our applied scientist then must have free and intelligent access 
to the great storehouse of established truth. He must be a scien- 
tist at second hand. He must not only follow the progress of 
science in one field, but in every field in which he undertakes to 
practise. He must therefore be a constant student. This intimate 
knowledge pertains not only to laws of the powers and forces of 
nature but of the materials as well. In fact the amount of scien- 
tific knowledge required of him to answer to the description we 
are now making is something quite beyond the ordinary notions of 
adequacy. It is not gained in a four, or five, or six years' course 
in college. The young man who thinks he has finished his theoret- 
ical studies when he has left college cannot be included in this cat- 
egory. This breadth of information even the pure scientist does 
not have for he is of necessity a specialist. 

Our applied scientist must know also how to do things. This is the 
knowledge the mechanic has. In learning his trade he has learned 
the fruits of the world's experience in doing things. He has learned 
to do a specific class of things in the best possible way. So before 
our applied scientist can decide what is to be done or what is best 
to be done, he must have a large knowledge of mechanical methods. 
This knowledge the pure scientist does not possess. 

Again he must know what needs to be done. To know this he 
must be a man of affairs. He must be acquainted with the ways 
of commerce and trade. He must foresee the needs of the imme-> 
diate future. He must know the difficulties and hindrances of pres- 
ent methods before he can provide remedies. He must also be an 
economist. He must know the cost of things and the wastefulness 
of present methods before he can determine whether or not it is 
worth his while to invent new ones. In fact he must know as 
much as possible about how the world now does its work if he is to 
facilitate matters. This kind of knowledge also the pure scientist 
does not possess. 

Here are three fields of knowledge, therefore, with which the ap« 



ADDRESS BT JOHN B. JOHNSON. 129 

plied scientist must be familiar. He must have a knowledge of a 
wide range of scientific truth, must understand mechanical methods, 
and he must know the ways of the business and of the industrial 
world. 

But what else must our applied scientist have and be ? He must 
have largely developed in him that sitie qua non in the profitable 
solution of all new problems, — Invention. This seems to be one of 
nature's gifts. It can be cultivated, however. If from early youth 
one forms a habit of thinking up new ways of doing things, seek- 
ing perhaps for those extremities which necessitate invention, 
preferring to work with poor tools or none at all in order to see 
what. can be done in some new and untried way, tinkering up toys 
or making new ones ; in these and in a thousand other ways a boy 
may foster and develop the inventive faculty. It is this faculty 
which suggests the various possible ways of accomplishing a given 
thing. From his knowledge of affairs our applied scientist sees 
what needs to be done. His invention suggests a hundred ways 
to do it. It unconsciously runs to and fro throughout his mental 
storehouse of acquired facts, both of science and method, and 
brings to his attention all the possible ways of accomplishing the 
result. The reason sits in judgment upon this troop of suggestions 
the fertile invention has marshalled, and selects the one which will 
best accomplish the end in view, when all things are considered. 

Thus we see our applied scientist is at once a student of science, 
a mechanic, a man of affairs, and an inventor combined in one. 
Nothing short of this fills the bill. Being a scientist only, he knows 
not what to do or how to do it. Being a mechanic only, he knows 
particular ways of doing a given series of things, and he is sui'e to 
give you of his little store, whether it serves the purpose or not. 
Being an executive man he sees what ought to be remedied, but he 
knows not what to put in its place or how to accomplish any de- 
sired end. He probably gets a '^practical man" to come and do 
something, but the chances are very much against this something 
being the best thing, or the one thing which should have been done. 
Being an inventor, without the knowledge of either the scientist or 
the business man, is indeed a misfortune. Our patent laws are a 
curse to this class of martyrs. A very large proportion of the pa- 
tents applied for are inoperative from the transgression of funda- 
mental laws, and of the operative ones, perhaps nine-tenths ar3 
worthless from there being no demand for the product. Such men 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI 9 



130 0ECTIOK D. 

waste their lives and their fortunes, and that of their crednloas 
friends in their life-long labor of inventing worthless appliances for 
doing useless things. They are a burden to their families and to 
society, for somebody must support them in thdr profitless and ex- 
pensive gropings in the dark. 

To fit a man for this high calling our technical schools are es- 
tablished. They put a young man in the way of becoming what 
we have here described. He there learns the elements of a series 
of sciences and their applications which it is absolutely necessary 
for him to know. If he precedes or accompanies this training with 
a considerable amount of shop practice, such as is now given in 
our Manual Training Schools, or if he spends his vacations at such 
work, he learns something of the mechanic's art. Supplementing 
this with a knowledge of the business world, and of men, cultivat- 
ing a pleasing address, but schooling himself to the strictest hon- 
esty of motive and act, both with himself and towards others, he 
becomes favorably known. If now in addition to these he remains 
a constant student, and possesses a sufficient amount of invention, 
he should ultimately become the Applied Scientist par excellence. 
Such a man could safely be consulted in the solution of new prob- 
lems. And this is the special field of the applied scientist. The 
^duplication or copying of old methods or appliances is the work of 
the mechanic. The solution of a new problem by the ignorant in- 
ventor will bring a long and expensive line of failures and if suc- 
cess is reached it is a sort of happy accident. But our applied 
scientist should be able to find the successful solution, if there be 
one, and know before he embodies his ideas in wood or metal or 
stone, that his project will be a success. The mechanic or the in- 
ventor must first build and then operate before knowing. The man 
who makes the scientific application of matter and force to par- 
ticular needs his exclusive business and profession should know 
even before trying it whether or not his method or device will per- 
form its work. But he is not only called upon to make a mechan- 
ical success, it must be an economical success. If it does not pay 
it is still a failure. He must foresee all ordinary mechanical and 
industrial contingencies before he becomes a safe adviser. With 
such men to lead, our industrial progress would be marvellous. For 
such men the world has infinite needs, and they could command in- 
exhaustible capital. But, alas ! we have few such men. Few men 
who can at once see a new thing to be done, devise the best possi- 



ADDRESS BT JOHN B. JOHNSON. 131 

ble solution of the problem, present it to the world by convincing 
arguments, and carry the project to a successful and profitable is- 
sue. These are large men indeed. We have hordes of smaller 
men who can execute projects when once devised, but few who can 
safely be trusted to devise original solutions to new and untried 
problems. Success is usually attained after a long line of failures. 
In fact it is commonly taken for granted that this must be so. But 
I believe the day is approaching when even initial failure will be re- 
garded as a professional disgrace, and when we shall have men whose 
business it will be to solve new problems in the application of science 
with as much certainty of success as though they were problems 
in mathematics. 

When we see what miracles have been accomplished in a single 
century of scientific applications, nearly all by a system of blind 
experimenting and repeated failures or only partial successes ; how 
we have imitated the great motor of the solar system and revivi- 
fied the world through the agency of heat ; how we have obliterated 
time and space on this little earth and made our antipodes our 
neighbors ; how we have brought near the far-oflP desert and made 
it to blossom and bear fruit and so have doubled the size of the 
habitable world; how ''the continuous woods where rolled the Or- 
egon and heard no sound save- its own dashings" now teems with 
happy life and resounds to the hum of wheels and the joyous cries 
of happy children; how the thought, inspiration, discovery, or 
learning of one is multiplied a million fold by the press and at once 
becomes the common property of the world ; how the hours of la- 
bor are shortened so that all mankind may enjoy sufiScient leisure 
to become learned and cultured if they will ; how the comforts of 
life which formerly could be enjoyed only by kings and princes 
are now available to every industrious citizen ; how the causes and 
sources of disease have been discovered and largely eradicated so 
that sickness is to-day almost a crime ; when we ponder on these 
marvellous achievements of one short century of crude empiricism 
in applying the discoveries of science, what may we not hope for 
from the endless future with an intelligent direction given to the 
labors of those who seek to garner th^ fruit of all science and not 
only to know the law but to control its operation, to harness the 
very laws of nature to the car of human progress? 

Such is my idea of the present opportunities and responsibilities 
of the Applied Scientist. If not of as noble or honorable a call- 



132 SSCTION D. 

ing as that of pure science it is not unworthy of the life work of 
the best minds and of the highest honors the world can bestow. 
Such men are genuine benefactors. You cannot develop a man 
spiritually until he first has some of the comforts of life and some 
leisure in which to cultivate the spiritual graces. It has been well 
said that the greatest missionaries ever sent out from the civilized 
to the barbarous have been the civil engineers. The ultimate 
consequences of these ameliorating conditions cannot be foretold. 
They certainly are not wholly physical, or material. They are the 
first stages of any great social development and spiritual evolu- 
tion. 

To this high service therefore are we called. To see that all 
scientific knowledge is turned into useful channels and that no de- 
partment of human industry suffers for a want of knowledge already 
stored away in some pure science granary, to foresee what needs 
to be done and to discern the best way to do it, is the work of the 
Applied Scientist, and the further development of such men is the 
work not only of our Technical Schools, but also of the Applied 
Science section of this Association. 



PAPEES EBAD. 



Method of measubing the loss of power bt drop of PRESStrRE 

BETWBRN CYLINDERS IN MULTIPLE CYLINDER ENGINES. Bj Prof . J. E. 

Denton, Stevens Institate, Hoboken, N. J. 

[AB8TRA0T.] 

Theorem : Let the clearance spaces of an engine be filled with steam at 
admission pressure by cuHhioning. Then the greatest work to be obtained 
by expanding any volume of steam admitted ap to cnt oflE^ is equal to the 
work due the expansion of this steam with zero clearance^ if it be assumed 




ItCK h 

that the expansion and compression lines follow the same curve of expan- 
sion. Thus in fig. i, let A B C B be the ttauid card. I( C is th^ f KVitittkb 
adMitteiel «a^ «iroktt. Lny off e/ ^^ B O atid dtttW ^« ttplifi«i6tt liii« /^ 
by the same law M (br IB A fttid C D. Then Inghef^ABC D. 

APPLTOAf R»r OF THIORAM TO MttLtlPtft CVttl^ltil lUftdlNElB. L^fc tij^. ^ 

be the w^tttal combined talhds of a {compound engine, L ijA and Q It beiftg 
cushion lines compressing to admission pressure. Let I and J i)e ^ii^tft 

(isa) 



184 



8BCTI0K D. 



of release. Draw K I and P J parallel to O X. Since L M Is a com- 
pression line, K I is the volame sent into the low cylinder daring exhaost 
of the high cylinder. Draw K U parallel to O Y. Draw the expansion 
line I T treating U as the aero of yolanie, according to any law of ex- 
pansion common to engines, as say the Marrlote, which is the highest line 
generally produced by practice. Then, If there was perfect action, or do 
loss of pressure between the cylinders, the yolume K I by the aboye prop- 



c 







FlO. 2. 



ositlon, should produce the work SKIT before exhaust occurs at J. 
Hence the difference between the areas SKIT and the actual area J W B Z 

+ K I L measures the loss, and the ratio sKlt °**y ^^ taken 

as a measure of the degree of perfect action. If there is a third cylinder, 
the yolume J W is treated as is K I aboye and so on for any number of 
cylinders. 



MEOHAKIOAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 135 

If L M or Q R are part cushion and part lead lines, or If there is no 
cushion at all, the method still applies, but there is a waste chargeable 
to uneconomical valve setting, which makes the proposition untrue, inas- 
much as tiie volume K I cannot then produce the areaS KITeven if there 
was no loss of pressure between cylinders due to cylinder condensation* 



Steam economy of thr engines of the screw ferrt boat Bremen. 
By Profs. J. £. Denton and D. S. Jacobus, Stevens Institute, 
Hoboken, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The tests were made by running the feriy boat at a uniform speed over 
a measured course. The principal data and results obtained are : — 

Test Test 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Cut off in H. P. Cyl. in per cent, of stroke ... 33 43 

Ratio of expansion, - 9.6 7.4 

Boiler pressure in lbs. per sq. inch above atm., - - 98.5 68.7 

Revolutions per minute, ....... 115.4 112.3 

Total horse power, 777.7 670.5 

_ , r For all purposes except heating, - - 20.7 24.7 

. < Main engines and circulating pump, - 18.6 20.5 

per horse power 1 ,, , . o f »-» 
^ ^ [ Main engines, 18.1 19.9 

Per cent, of total steam used by the circulating and vacuum 

pump, 2.8 2.6 

Tlie engine is a double compound having two low pressure cylinders 36" 
in diameter and two high pressure cylinders 20'' in diameter. The stroke 
for all pistons is 28 '' The results obtained by this engine compare favor- 
ably with those obtained by the triple engine of the screw ferry boat 
Bergen, as published in the transactions of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, Vol. xi. The steam for all purposes for the 
triple engine was 21.7 lbs. per hour per horse power, and for the engine 
alone 18.3 lbs. Total number of expansions 9. 

The reason that the compound shows as good an economy as the triple 
is that at this low rate of expansion the gain in economy due to clearance 
and less condensation by the use of three cylinders Is counterbalanced by 
the additional loss of pressure between the cylinders due to passing the 
steam through the intermediate cylinder. The question Is sometimes 
brought up : Will the economy as shown on a trial trip of a ferry boat be 
attainable when it is put in service and will have its engines shut down 
during the time that it is in the slips? This question has been thoroughly 
investigated in the present and previous tests of ferry boats. The general 
results obtained are that when the horse power during starting and stopping 
Is carefully allowed for, there is no difference in the economy. 



136 



SECTION D. 



The resolts of tests made to establish this fact are as follows :— 



Boiler pressure in poands per square 
inch above atmosphere 

Taouum In Inchea of mercnry 

BevohitionA per minute. Average for 
time engine is running 

Average horse power developed by 
mam engine 

Batio of expansion 

Steam per hour per horse power of 
main engine for nil purposes 

Ditto for engine and circulating pump. 

Ditto for main engine 



Orange 

Sinffle-cylinder 

diameter 4S" 

Stroke 10 ft. 









Bergen 
Triple-Ex- 
pansion 

184"X«7"X«' 
Stroke 21. 






G9 

H * 



Bremen 

Donlile-Com- 

poimd 

20" XW" 
Stroke 28" 






to 

X > 

a t6 



618 
2 1 

27.6 
27.2 



27 

26.4 

810 
2.1 

24.7 
24.4 



105 


140* 


98 




27 


26 


141 


119 


115 


066 


62S 


778 


9 


9 


9 


21.7 


22.9 


20.7 
18.0 
18.1 


18.8 







110 



24 

102 

603 
9 

23.1 
19.9 
19 4 



* Steam throttled to 100 pounds admission pressure. 

The flgnres ^Iven for the Bremen in Ferry service are deduced from 
data taken by Messrs. Miller, Hill and Ludlow, under the direction of the 
writers, and constituting their graduating thesis. 

[This paper will be printed in '* The Stevens Indicator."] 



Measurement of total hrats of combustiox. By Prof. D. S. Jacobus, 
Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

[abstract.] 
In experiments now In progress on gas and oil lamps, It was necessary 
to measure the heat developed by each, to do which a special device was 
employed as herein described. The lamps were placed in an air tight box, 
leading to the bottom and from the top of which were galvanized iron 
pipes. The top exit pipe was furnished with a damper and a special de- 
flector device to mix the air thoroughly before its temperature was meas- 
ured. Por still further accuracy in measuring the exit temperatures fine 
thermometers were used at the same cross section of the pipe with their 
bulbs located at the center, edges and at intefmediate positions. Arrange- 
ments were made so that radiant heat, either direct or reflected could 
not affect the readings of the thermometers. The lamps were run at 
the required candle power and the readings of the temperatures and of 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 137 

an anemometer placed in the inlet pipe carefully noted. After running 
steadily for about tiiree hours the lamp is taken out and a steam radiator 
coll put in its place. By regulating the amount of steam that flows into 
the radiator the temperatures and reading of the anemometer are made the 
same as for the lamp. The amount of heat given up by the radiator coll 
is then the same as was given up by the lamp, and may be determined from 
the weight of steam condensed. To make certain of the quality of the 
steam entering the radiator it is slightly superheated and its pressure ac- 
curately measured. The temperature of the entering steam and of the 
condensed water leaving the coil is measured by means of thermometers 
placed in mercury wells. The coil is arranged so that the condensed steam 
drains readily from it. If any portion of the coil or pipes leading to and 
from it tends to hold back the condensed steam it will flow from the coil 
in an irregular way and exact readings cannot be obtained. The con- 
densed steam flows downward to a small standpipe containing a gauge 
glass in which it is held at a certain height by throttling a discharge 
valve. It is finally discharged under the surface of cold water so that 
there is no loss from evaporation. The advantage of this method is that 
the effect of radiation from the box may be eliminated and that an accurate 
standardization of the anemometer Is unnecessary. 

[This paper will be presented at the New York Meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, Nov., 1892.] 



Use of anemometers for measuring the velocity of air in flumes. 
By Prof. D. S. Jacobus, Stevens Institute, Uoboken, N. J, 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Becent experiments involved the use of anemometers for accurately 
measuring the average velocity of air in flumes. The paper gives the gen- 
eral method finally adopted to standardize the anemometers and states how 
errors may be Involved if other methods are used. The method finally 
adopted was to impart a known amount of heat to the air passing through 
the flume, measure the temperatures of the air before and after having the 
heat imparted to it, and from this data determine the weight and volume 
of air. Having the volume, the velocity and rate of the anemometers are 
determined. 

The general results shown are that for the low velocities which existed 
in the tests the average velocity will be the same as that determined by 
taking an average of a number of the readings of the anemometer if it be 
placed in all positions in the flume and that If the anemometer be standard- 
ized in air at the same temperature as that passing through the flume the 
average for all positions may be relied on. If the anemometer is used in 
air at a greatly different temperature from that in which it Is standardized, 
the readings will not be reliable and it is for standardizing in hot air that 
the method herein described is especially useful. 



188 



8KCTI0N D. 



An Averafre Telocity cannot be nieasared by moving the anemometer 
abont the flame in sach a way that the observer Judges the average will be 
obtained. Experiments made by differently trained observers stiow that 
the results obtained In this way are about 20% too high. 



RbLATTVE KCONOICT OF A SINGLE CTLIKDER AIB COBfPKESSOB WITH COOLING 
BY A SPRAY OF WATER AND THE PRESENT ECONOMY OF THE COMPOUND 

COMPUESSOR8 AT QuAi DB LA Garb, Paris. By Frbd. Taylob Gause, 
Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.l 

At the last meeting, the writer presented a paper on the maximam econ- 
omy attainable by the injection of water as a very fine spray into an air 
compressor cylinder. The results given in this paper were deduced from 




<?A»j^Uw 



experiments made by Mr. Post and myself for a graduating thesis at the 
Stevens Institute of Technology. The greatest saving realized, in the ex- 
periments presented in that paper, was 33% of that theoretically possible. 
In the cards presented at this time, which are taken from the 2000 H. P. 
compound compressor at Quai de la Gare, Paris, the amount saved is 85% 
of that theoretically possible. Of this amount only 8% is due to cooling 
during compression so that the increase of economy in the compound 
compressor is mainly due to cooling the air between the two stages of 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 139 

compression. The amount of saving due to cooling during compression 
is the same as realized in a second set of our experiments, where cooling 
yrsLB effected as at Quai de la Gare, by the water being sprinkled into the 
cylinder, as a coarse spray J 

In the accompanying diagram, the curve with exponent 1.25 is the best 
result which I realized when compressing in a single cylinder and cooling 
with a very fine spray. The curve with exponent 1.15 is that which must 
be realized in a single cylinder to equal the present economy of the com- 
pound compressor at Quai de la Gare. 

This compressor has two low and one high pressure vertical air-cylin- 
ders, each of which is 'tandem to a steam cylinder of the triple-expansion 
engine which operates them. The valves of the compressors are ** con- 
trolled." Their areas are : L. P. inlet 0.0!»5 of cylinder ; L. P. outlet 0.077 ; 
and outlet of H. P. 0.063 of area of cylinder. The compressors are de- 
signed to run at sixty revolutions per minute, though making but forty at 
the time these cards were taken. 

Thd combined card presents the mean of the six cards taken simultane- 
ously. The maximum and minimum points of the several cards are shown. 
In one of the low pressure cards some of the points fall outside the adia- 
batic, which may be due to a slight leak in the delivery valve. Part of the 
high pressure compression curve falls within the isothermal on account of 
the air in the intermediate receiver being cooler than the atmosphere, and 
the volume being diminished by the amount of clearance in the low cyl- 
inder. 



Bknding tests of timber, ETC. By Prof. J. Burkitt Webb, Stevens 
Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

In making transverse tests of beams of wood, cast iron or any material 
that is not of uniform strength throughout, the work should be done in 
such a way as to secure the most accurate results with the least expendi- 
ture of labor and material. 

The problem may present itself in the shape a or 6. 

o. The quality of a large lot of beams is to be determined by the break- 
age of a number of specimens taken at random from the lot. 

b. A small number of beams of a standard material are to be broken 
and the average strength of the lot determined. 

In the first case economy requires us to determine the quality by break- 
ing as few beams as possible, while in the second case the different tests 
should not be unnecessarily discordant and therefore of less value. 

The problem may be treated mathematically as follows : 

Let a beam which is of different strength in different places be repre- 
sented by a beam of uniform material and of uniform depth, but of a width 

>At the present time spraying apparatns is being made for the Quai de la Gare com- 
pressors. When this is In operation a still greater economy should be realized. 



140 Mcnon i>. 

▼wrylng to that It sliall hwxt the Mme broaMng VMOwnt Mt a& poialsas 
the oriisittAl beam. We shall oaU this the ^lomeMioal beam ; tf we reg»r4 
the real beam as havliig a oertaln normal strength exiec|yt whepe there are 
weak places, the geometrical beam wUl be a parallel beam with oertifta 
parts made tidnner to represent the weak parts of the real beam. 

Calling the widtii of the paraUel part naltsr, let r be the width of a weak 
part, and therefore the ratio of the breaking moment afl timt i^aoe to the 
breaking moment for the paraUel part. 

To complete the notation, let I be half the length of a beam «« half the 
distance between the two supports opon which It rests. Also 1st <l be the 
distance ftom the centre of the beam to either <tf'twovfaal wsiglits IT 
resting npon It and producing the breaking momettft 

ir{l— d) 

When one wcAghit ■- 8 If Is hnng In the centre d «■ 0. 

To simplify the problem for presentation here we wifl suppose 1^ tot 
of beams to haye the same normal strength and the same valve of r 
thronghont, intermpted by bat one short weak place In ea^ beam, which 
may exist at any part of Its length. 

We propose now to show that the ordinary wmy of testing beams by 
loading them with a weight 2 IT at the centre is iineooiiomi«a andxmsel<- 
entlflc, and that economy depends on the valne of d. 

The moment acting on a beam Is uniform and «« W <t— d) at a& points 
between the two wights ; It decreases to at tb» ends, howefvtr, being 
s= WxaX any distance x less than I — d from the ends. 

It is evident that, If we could be sure of the weak place being exactly 
In the middle of the beam, there would be no objection to using one weight 
at the centre and we should arrive at the result desired, vig, : the least 
breaking moment for the lot of beams, by breaking that one beam. It is 
also evident that with two weights we need only be sure that the weak 
place lies between them, and that we are the more likely to haye this con- 
dition In a beam taken at random as we make 4 greater. 

By examining more carefully the case 

d«0. 
we find that, unless the weak place happens to come wlthlfi the Ufidtiinff 
distance 

of the centre. It Will not cause the beam to fall, and that the^rotaMMQy of 
its coming within that distance is 

Therefore, the probable ntimber of beams which must be broken to ar- 

liye at their minimum strength is 

I 

l—r 

But an examination of the case of two weights, or * 

shows that the UmiUng distance, the pntbabHity said the probable number 
are respectiyely 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 141 

(1 — r) G — <f) + <? = (1 — r) ? + rd; 

"^ I I 

I 



I — rl -^ rd 

TMs last expression shows that when d = the probable number depends 
entirely upon r, and that as r increases, t. c, as the good quality of the 
beams is increased, the probable number increases to infinity for perfect 
beams. This is as it should be; for we should test an infinite number of 
perfect beams (r = 1) before finding a weak place. Suppose that r = |, 
say, then the probable number is 4, so that out of every four beams tested 
three are uselessly broken. 

Suppose now that d = hi then for r = 1 and r = i we have for the 

probable numbers only 

2andf 

But d need not be so large ; supposing then that d = JZ, the probable num- 
bers will be 

4 and ^ 

or, for d = iZ, 

8 and Jf 

We see from this that for values of r ranging from three-quarters to 
one the number of beams saved by making d = ^Ms from 12 out of every 
28 to 28 out of 28, while for d = iUt ranges from 12 out of U to 44 out 
of 44 — or, in general, a saving of twenty-five per cent and upwards in 
favor of testing with two weights instead of one, the saving showing in 
the decreased number of beams, which must be broken to obtain a result 
of a certain degree of accuracy. 

In cases where it may be desirable to employ the method by two weights 
without increasing the shearing effect of the weights a beam must be used 
one-third, or one-seventh, longer according to whether d = ii or i?, which 
makes low values of d preferable ; but this lengthening is not necessary 
unless the limit of shear is reached and may probably there be avoided by 
an improved method of attaching the weights and supports. 

The suitable value would then seem to be 

d = iUo d = i^ 

A variable value of r has been considered with any number of weak 
places in a beam, and also the effect of the degree of precision required 
in results, but the outline above given is su^cient for presentation in this 
abstract. 



Description of a transmission dynamometer (model exhibited). 
By Prof. G. W. Hough, Evanston, III. 

[abstract.] 

Thb transmission dynamometer described, was constructed to be used 
on a fifty volt dynamo, at the Northwestern University. 

It consists of a pulley, in which is coiled a spiral spring, for measuring 
the torque of the shaft. The use of a spring is not new, but in instra- 



142 « SECTION D. 

ments, hitherto constructed on this plan, the fHction of the apparatus has 
been so considerable as to impair greatly its value as an instrument of 
precision. In order to make the instrument sensitive to slight changes in 
the torque, the pullej and sleeve are separated by two rows of steel balls, 
by this device securing minimum of (Victlon. The amount of torque Is 
measured by the motion of a collar, moved by a worm cut on the pro- 
longation of the axis of the pulley shaft. 
It is an instrument of precision. 



Nkoativb specific heat. By Prof. Da Voi.son Wood, Hoboken, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Extending the definition of specific heat so as to Include all kinds of 
specific heat as now used by physicists and engineers — specific *heat was 
defined as the heat that must be absorbed in order to raise the temper- 
ature of unity of weight of matter one degree under an assumed law of 
change of pressure and volume. Three kinds of specific heats are used— 
that at constant volume, at constant pressure and, in the case of vapors, 
of constant weight. A formula was then deduced for the specific heat 
of a pound of fiuid a part of which was liquid and the remaining part 
vapor of that liquid. By means of this it was shown that when water is 
present with steam, there Is a temperature at which the specific beat of 
the mass is zero, and above that temperature the specific heat is positive 
and at lower temperatures it is negative. Also when the fiuid is all sat- 
urated steam, the specific heat is always negative, as was shown in 1850, 
by both Cluuhius and Rankine. 

It was then shown under what conditions the specific heat of a perfect 
gas may be zero, negative or Infinity. Beginning with specific heat at con- 
stant pressure, and conceiving the path to be rotated about the initial 
state, the heat absorbed along any path raising the temperature one degree 
would be the specific heat for that path, there being constantly a pound of 
fluid, and the heat so absorbed would diminish until the path coincided with 
an adiabatic, when it would be zero. Continuing the revolution into the 
second angle, it was shown 1;)iatforany right lined path in the second angle 
heat must be emitted while the temperature is increased giving a negative 
specific heat. It increases from zero to infinity, the latter being the value 
when the path is Isothermal. In the third angle it will be positive and 
decrease from infinity to zero, in the fourth angle it will be negative and 
increase from zero to minus infinity, and positive in the first angle. 

When ice is changed to water by the absorption of heat, a finite amount 
of heat is absorbed at constant temperature, and since the increase of tem- 
perature will be zero, the specific heat at this change of state will be infi- 
nite. The same is true at the state of changing water to steam. 

[This paper will be published in full in the Transactions of the Society 
of Mechanical Engineers.] 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 



143 



Recent results of municipal ownership op gas works in the United 
States. By Prof. Edward W. Bemis, University of Chicago, Clil- 
cago, 111. 

It Is quite common in this country to reject the suggestion of city 
ownership and management of gas works as socialistic, undemocratic and 
sure to entail such jobbery and political corruptions as to be utterly Uto- 
pian. Few disinterested persons who talk this way are aware that in one 
of the most democratic states of this union, Virginia, nearly every large 
city does thus own its gas works without any suspicion of uprooting there- 
by the industrial framework of society, and not only without increase, 
but if the citizens of those places are to be believed, with a positive dim- 
inution of political corruption. Nor is the movement confined to Virginia. 
Its greater progress, however, there, at least In recent years, may be rea- 
sonably ascribed to the greater knowledge the people of that state now 
have of its eifeots. Tlie cities owning their works with the date of their 
adoption of it are as follows: Philadelphia, 1841; Richmond, 1852; Alex- 
andria, Va., 1853; Henderson, Ky. , 1867 ; Wheeling, West Va., 1870; Belle- 
fontaine, O., 1873; Danville, Va., 1876; Charlottesville, Va., 1876; Ham- 
ilton, O., 1890; Fredericksburg, Va., 1891. It can be, I think, conclusively 
proven that while public works may not on the whole manufacture gas 
cheaper than private companies, yet in the former the citizens and in the 
latter the stockholders get the benefits of cheap production. 

From official sources the following tables are prepared. 







TABLE NO. X. 










• 


17 CENSUS 
90. 


• 
OQ 




OKE PEB 
EL. 




Ho 
Km 


• 

O 


PLAGE. 










H 


^ 

)» 
•^ 




i^ 


f.^ 


OO 


•^S 


Oss 


» 




mi 

£ 

O 




8 


8 


00 

O 


VALUE 
AL8 PE] 


H 



Philadelphia, 


1,046,964 


Jan. 1-Dec 81, '92, 


4. 


6i to6c. 


40 c. 


14.6 


14.7 


BichiDond, 


81,888 


it t( li (1 K 


4.60 


6 


28.1 


11. 


16 


Alexandria, 


14,880 


Junel,'91-May81,'92 


8.82 


6i 


82.8 


11.2 


12.4 


Henderson, 


s.ea'v 


II « II 11 <i ii' 


2.61 


8.6 


29.1 


14.6 


12 


Wheeling, 


85,018 Apr. 1, '91-Mar. 81, '92 


1.64 


84 


16.2 


16.4 


10.8 


/Bellefontaine, 


4,238 Jan. 1,-Dec. 81, '91 


8.84 


Hi to 10 


86.1 


16.1 


6.4 


I>anville, 


10,306 


(C l< II II II 


4.89 


10 


45 


11.8 


19. 


CharlotteBville, 


6,662 


Jiilyl/91-Jiine80,'92 


8.76 


10 




11. 


6. 


Hamilton, 


17,665 


Mar.l,'91-Feb.29,'92 


2.69 


6 


81 


28. 


8.1 


Fredericksburg 


4,528 Sept.l,'91-Jnne80,'0'2 


4.26 


8 


44.2 


11.4 


18 



Leakage baa been rednced during 1892 firom Ave to twelve per cent . in Danville 
Fredericksburg and Richmond. 



144 



SECTION D. 



TABLE NO. II. 











oxa 


• 




§ 
P 






§1 = 


IS 


5S 


H 

00 









= 52 


FLACB. 


«5 


;g5 




SI 





o£J 
b53 













6. 


•< 



1 


PSPO 




*0Q« 


u 


Q 


<< 




u 


a. -J 



Philadelplila, 


760. 


9.6c. 


86.6c. 


80 6e. 


$1.60 


3,867,904.228 


$2.94 


20jt 


Richmond, 


79.5 


4.8 


84.8 


83.1 


1.60 


184,320,000 


3.30 


18 


Alexandria, 


82.8 


11.5 


94.8 


89.3 


1.44 


19,111.167 


4.18 


9.8 


Henderson, 


68.1 




68.1 


83.3 


186 


18.004.V0 


4.62 


13. 


Wheeling, 


89.5 


5.8+ 


36.4 


80 4 


.76 


188,698140 


2.91 


11.6 


Bellefontalne, 


67.7 


7. 


68.7 


80.8 


1.00 


9 641,100 


4.40 


6.2 


Danville, 


98.6 


17.8 


107.7 


32.7 


1.60 


11,908.300 


4.67 


7. 


Charlottesville, 


46.6 




46.6 


38.8 


1.60 


7,(86,074 


4.90 


21.6 


Hamilton, 
Fredericksburg 


68.4 
127.1 


IncPdM 
in Cap. 

a «4 


88.4 
127.1 


34.8 
47. 


1.00 
1.60 


36,388,700 
8,666,730 


4.90 
8. 


7.7 
1.2 



The exteDsIoDS are nsaally about the same as above. In Charlottesville 
and Henderson they average about six cents, though nothing in 1891, and av- 
erage abont ten cents in Wheeling. Whereas In Table II extensions are 
included under cost of gas making, and where, as In all the ten cities, the 
extensions and repairs average enougli every two or three years to keep 
the works as valuable as ever if not more so, there Is no call to allow for 
depreciation. 

None of the cities except the last pay any taxes. Six pay no Interest, 
being out of debt. Pliiladelphia, though with little debt, and Danville, 
have far more than repaid to the city in cash the cost of the works. Ham- 
ilton and Fredericksburg, having only just purchased their works, are still 
in debt for them. The price of gas has been reduced in 1892, in Richmond 
and Danville, to $1.25. 

In competitive business where there is no great risk or rare talent requi- 
site, the capital in the long run cannot exceed the cost of duplication, for 
otherwise rivals will rush into the business and by forcing prices down to 
such as yield only normal profits will force down the value of the plant. 

While the cost of duplicating gas works in cities of over 80,000 is shown 
by the experience of public companies to be between $2 50 and $3.50 per 
thousand feet the capitalization in the twenty-two largest cities of the 
country averages $7.72, and in eighteen of them $8.78, which indicates the 
monopoly profits of the gas business. 

The experience of Richmond, Va., well illustrates the advantages of city 
ownership; with gas coal at $4.60 a ton, coke at only six cents a bushel; 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND ENOINEERINa. 145 

with the price of gns at $1.50 and the consumption public and private in 
1891, 181.320,000 feet, the city made above ail expenses, including repairs, 
unusaal improvements and extensions, the cash sum of $44,646.46. Be- 
sides this the city obtained free 51,122,600 feet for public use which at 
$1.50 per thousand feet was worth $76,688.90. The total profit was thus 
$121,380.36 or 20.22 per cent, profit on $600,000 necessary, according to 
ttie supe Intendent, to duplicate the works. Even if taxes be deducted, 
and public companies pay none, the profit would remain fully seventeen 
per cent. The gas is now sold to consumers at $1.25 per thousand feet. 
Most of the cities owning their gas works have entirely paid for them 
out of their net earnings and have been so much pleased with the results 
that several have lately constructed city electric light plants, viz., Wheel- 
ing, Danville, Alexandria, Charlottesville. Nearly one hundred cities in 
the United States now own their electric light plants. Almost monthly 
another city is added to the number. The profit in gas seems greater at 
present, however, than in electric lighting. 

. Some, in the face of all this, argue against city ownership of gas works 
as leading to public ownership not only of street and steam railways, tel- 
egraphs and telephones, but of baker shops and factorie:<i. As well hold 
that no one should eat lest he eat too much I Expediency, the result of 
experience, must determine how far to go and they seem to Justify public 
ownership and management of gas works, water worlLS and electric lights. 
The same would doubtless be tine of the telegraph and telephone. 



EXTRNSOMKTBR FOR MBASURING DISTORTION OF SPECIMENS UNDRR TEST. In*^ 

STRUMBNT EXHIBITED. By Prof. J. B. JoHNSON, Washington Univ., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

[Description of the instrument with cut is published In Engineering 
News for August, 1892.] 



Peculiar visible strain in steel when tested in tension compression 

AND cross-breaking. EXHIBITION OF SPKCIMKNS AND PHOTOGRAPHS* 

By Prof. J. B. Johnson, Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. 



Exhibition and description of combined yard and meter standard 
BAR. By Prof. William A. Rogers, Waterville, Me. 



Investigation of a 21 feet precision-screw. By Prof. William A. Roo* 
ERS, Waterville, Me. 

a. a. a. 8. VOL. XLI. 10 



146 SECTION D. 

A NEW WINDOW VENTILATING APPLIANCE. By A. M. ROSEBBUGH, M.D., 

Toronto, Canada. 



On the use ov long steel-tapeb in measuring base lines. By R. 3. 
Woodward, U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey, WashingtOD, D. C. 
[To be printed In Report U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.] 



On Thursday afternoon the members of the Section anlted with a meet- 
ing of the Association ov Mechanicai. Enqinekring Tbachebs, held in 
the section room. 



SECTION B. 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



OFFICERS OF SECTION E. 



Vice PretUUrU. 
H. S. WiLUAMB, Ithaca, N. T. 

Secretary, 
R. D. Salisburt, Madison, Wis. 

Member of Council. 
C. H. Hitchcock, Hanover, ^ H. 

Members of Sectional Committee, 

H. S. Williams, Ithaca, N. Y. R. D. Sausburt, Madison, Wis. J. J. 
Stevenson, New York. W J McGbe, Washington. Samuel 
Calvin, Iowa City, Iowa. H. T. Fuller, Worcester, Mass. 
G. K. Gilbert, Washington. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
T. C. Chambbrun, Chicago, 111. 

Members of Sub-committee on Nominations. 

H. S. Williams, Ithaca, N. V. R. D. Salisbury, Madison, Wis. 
J. C. Branner, Palo* Alto, Cal. I. C. White, Morgan town, 
W. Ya. Warren Upham, Somerville, Mass. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

HENRY S. WILLIAMS, 

VICE PRESIDENT, SECTION E. 



THE SCOPE OF PALEONTOLOGY AND ITS VALUE TO 

GEOLOGISTS. 



The scientific study of fossils is scarcely a century old. It was 
in 1 796 that Cuvier for the first time ventured to say that certain 
fossil bones found in the Paris basin represented an extinct species 
of elephant. About the year 1819, William Smith became famous 
by proving that rock strata could be traced across the country by 
their fossils, that at each outcrop across miles of interval a stratum 
could be recognized by the identity of the fossil shells it contained. 
Previous to this, fossils had been regarded as curiosities. Cuvier 
and Smith made it clear that fossils tell us of organisms of whose 
existence or nature we should otherwise be ignorant, and that the 
kinds of organism are, somehow, related to the different strata of 
rocks. 

Desbayes, who was a friend of Lamarck, Lyell, and a little 
later William Lonsdale were among the first to demonstrate the 
wide scope of paleontology and its inestimable importance in the 
interpretation of the problems of geology. 

Lyell tells us in his Antiquity of Man (Sir Charles Lyell, 
The geological evidences of the Antiquity of Man : 1870, p. 3) of 
the method he employed in determining the subdivisions of the 
Tertiary : " When engaged in 1828" (he writes) *' in preparing for 
the press the treatise on geology, above alluded to [the third vol- 
ume of 'Principles of Geology'] I conceived the idea of classing 
the whole of this series of strata according to the different degrees 
of affinity which their fossil Testacea bore to the living forms. 

(149) 



150 8E0TI0K E. 

Having obtained information on this subject during my travels on 
the continent, I learned that M. Deshayes of Paris, already cele- 
brated as a Conchologist, had been led independently, by the study 
of a large collection of recent and fossil shells, to very similar 
views respecting the possibility of arranging the tertiary formations 
in chronological order, according to the proportional number of 
species of shells identical with living ones, which characterized 
each of the successive groups above mentioned." 

The view of M. Deshayes may be given in the words of Robert 
Bakewell, as found in the 5th edition of his geology. He writes : 

^^M. Deshayes considers that the relative ages of different groups 
of strata or formations may be determined by their zoological 
characters alone ; that is, by the species of shells they contain. He 
forms two grand divisions of stratified formations : 1 . Those 
which contain no species of shells analogous to existing species 
[meaning identiccU species]. This division is stated to comprise 
all the secondary strata^ 2. Strata which contain a greater or 
lesser number of species analogous to existing species. The last 
division comprises all the tertiary formations. Again he subdi- 
vided this division into three groups, according to the greater or 
lesser proportion of species of shells that they each contain analo- 
gous to living species." (Robert Bakewell, An Introduction to 
Geology: 5th edition, 1838, p. 399.) 

The law here propounded is quite different from that announced 
by William Smith. ''That each stratum contained organized fos- 
sils peculiar to itself, and might, in cases otherwise doubtful, be 
recognized and discriminated from others like it, but in a different 
part of the series, by examination of them." (Phillips' Memoirs 
of William Smith, p. 15.) 

Smith's law considers only the significance of fossils as marks 
indicating the stratum to which they belong. Fossils studied and 
described on this basis, are at best but '^Medals of Creation," i. e., 
the classified signs by which geological formations may be recog- 
nized. This is the scope of the older paleontology. The higher 
or comparative paleontology, as set forth by Deshayes, Lyell and 
Lonsdale, considers the relationship which fossils bear to each 
other, to those which preceded them and to their successors. It 
deals with the history of organisms, and therefore is able to find in 
fossils themselves the evidence of the order of sequence of the 
rocks containing them. 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 151 

I quoted from Bakewell, beciause he considered Deshayes and 
LyelTs methods as innovations. When, in 1833, he wrote the 
preface to the fourth edition of his geology, he expressed his con- 
tempt thus : 

*'6reat importance," he writes, "is attached to the study of fos- 
sil siiells ; but the character of the animals that inhabited them, of 
the power they might possess of modifjing the form of the shell 
under various circumstances, has scarcely been thought of. Some 
French conchologists are endeavoring to establish the doctrine that 
fossil conchology, independent of the succession and stratification 
of rocks, is the only true basis of geology ; and a trifling difference 
in the form of a shell, is deemed sufficient to constitute a new spe- 
cies, and to warrant the most important conclusions respecting the 
age of the rock formations." (J. c. p. ix.) 

This was sixty years ago, when the general belief was that spe- 
cies are immutable, and therefore that new creation was necessary 
to account for distinct species. The geologists recognized the 
importance of species as indication of the age to which the con- 
taining rock belonged, and fossils were regarded as particularly 
valuable in classifying and identifying the stratified rocks, but the 
question was raised by Deshayea and Lyell — Is there not a natural 
sequence in the order of the successive species ? Lyell evidently 
did not for several years realize the full import of the question he 
propounded when he spoke of the relative affinity of the species. 

William Lonsdale, in 1839, made a still higher application of 
paleontology, in his determination of the fossils of South Devon- 
shire to be of intermediate age between the Carboniferous and 
Silurian systems, which led Sedgwick and Murchison in the same 
year to propose a Devonian system as of the same age as the Old 
Ked system, though containing no fossils of the same species. 

The conditions were these: ^^Murchison had recognized the 
^^Carboniferous limestones" and the following *'Coal Measures" in 
northern England containing their characteristic fossils. In the 
Cheviot hills the "Old Red sandstones" were found below them, 
with their fish remains. In western England the '^Silurian system" 
with its marine fossils was known to run upward into rocks with 
similar remains, considered to be the lower Old Red sandstone ; 
and the order, (1) Silurian system, (2) Old Red system, (3) 
Carboniferous system, it was believed, expressed a continuous 
stratigraphical series. When certain fossils from the limestones 



152 SECTION X. 

of Newton-Bushel, and other localities in Sooth Devonshire were 
given Lonsdale to describe, he determined them to be of the age of 
tlie Old Red sandstone, In tl»e following way (to use his own lan- 
guage) : '^It was therefore by combining together this evidence, 
the presence, in the same series of beds, of shells resembling or 
identical with Mountain limestone species, of Silurian corals, the 
Calceola Sandalina^ and Tarioos distinct Testacea, that I was in- 
duced to suggest that the Sooth Devon limestones are of an inter- 
mediate age between tlie Carboniferoos and Silorian systems, and 
consequently of the age of the Old Rod sandstone :" [Notes on the 
age of the Limestones of South Devonshire by William Lonsdale, 
F. 6. S. [i-ead March 25, 1840] Trans. Geol. Soc. 2d b.. Vol. y, 
p. 721.) 

Sedgwick and Murchison adopted Lonsdale's condusiooe without 
reserve, although they produced radical change in the classification 
they had already published, and on the strength of them they 
founded the Devonian System, and said : ^^Tbis is ondoabtedly 
the greatest change which has ever been attempted at one time in 
the classification of British rocks/' and further, ^' So far from think- 
ing ourselves rash and hasty in drawing the preceding conclusions, 
we think we may rather be accused of being over-cautious and 
tardy in accepting evidence, however opposed to commonly re- 
ceived opinions." 

(Sedgwick and Murchison, "On the Pliysical Strocture of Devon- 
shire, etc., Pt. II, on the Classification of the Older Stratified 
Rocks of Devonshire and Cornwall," Trans. Geol. Soc., 2d s., 
Vol. V, p. 688.) 

This Interpretation was not stratigraphical, nor was it a case of 
correlation by means of common species of fossils, after the William 
Smith method of paleontology, but it was a case of determining 
the stratigraphical position of the Devonian fauna by a comparison 
of its species with those of other faunas from which it differed. It 
is a typical case of what I would call Comparative Paleontology. 

In both of the cases cited it will be noted that the fundamental 
fact underlying the determinations made, consists in the recog- 
nized natural order of sequence of species corresponding to the 
stratigraphic order of the rocks containing them. It is not prob- 
able that any of these early paleontologists understood the full 
meaning of this sequence, and we are hardly yet able to see how 
much the studies of the paleontologist have done to establish the 



ADDRESS BY H. S. WILLIAMS. 153 

derivative theory of evolution. But it is becoming every day more 
and more apparent tliat the reason for its great value to geology, 
and for the grand ness of the scope of paleontology is the fact that 
its subject matter is the record of the history of organisms. 

To the comparative paleontologist fossils are hieroglyphics 
which tell more fully than those of Egypt and Persia of the habits, 
^customs, migrations and environments of the successive races from 
the beginning of the world. Although the stratigraphic order is 
all important in reading them, when the clew to the story is found, 
the fossils are as much more important than the stratigraphy (to 
the correct interpretation of geology) as the meaning of a sentence 
is more important than the succession of the words on the page. 

But I speak here of the scope of the pure science. Before this 
audience I would call particular attention to the value of compara- 
tive paleontology to the geologist, as a means of determining the 
structure and development of the earth. 

Lyell was the first to use paleontology as a means of classifying 
geological formations. In establishing the divisions of the Tertiarj', 
i, e., Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene, he made a. numerical com- 
parison of the faunas themselves. This method has its imperfec- 
tions, but the fundamental truth underlying its application is that 
there is a natural order of succession in the history of organisms 
whose remains are preserved in the strata. This order of succes- 
sion is observable in respect of three different sets of characters : 

(1) The parts or organs of which each individual organism is 
composed. 

(2) The separate species existing at any particular time. 

(3) The combination of species \nio faunas or floras which are 
associated with certain conditions of environment. 

In the first case we know how the organs arise, not ready made, 
but in each individual by gradual modification of the organless 
germ one after another the various parts and organs of the adult 
are perfected. The paleontologist has learned that in some gen- 
eral way, at least, the forms of organs have followed the same 
law of natural sequence. As among vertebrates, the multirayed fin 
of the fish, the webbed paddle of the eualiosaur, the paw of the 
crawling reptile, the hand of man form a natural sequence of de- 
velopment, the later in each case presupposing the preceding stage. 

In the second case it is well known that there is a natural suc- 
cession of species. This succession points to genetic relationship 



154 8ECTIOK B. 

between successive species, and it is an established law of this 
succession that species most like each other occur near together in 
the chronologic order, and species of the same genus, presenting 
the greatest divergence from each other, are also the more widely 
separated in time. 

In the third case it is known regarding living organisms that they 
present natural association with each other and in adaptation to the 
various conditions of environment. The law of this association is 
expressed by the terms fauna and flora. Paleontology teaches that 
the faunas and floras change, and, as the law of Lyell illustrates, 
that this cliange is gradual and in a definite order. The individ- 
uality of a fauna can be recognized and can be followed out in 
its successive changes, and these changes are best explained by 
the law of adjustment to environment. 

In the series of modified organs we see the law of organic devel- 
opment^ in the series of successive species of a race, the law of 
hereditary evohition^ and in the composition and changes of suc- 
cessive faunas the law of adjustive adaptation to environment. 

It is as expressive of these laws that the fossils become such 
delicate tests of the chronological order and the geological condi- 
tions of the past. 

In the interpretation of the divisions of the Tertiary, Lyell ob- 
served the law of succession of a single fauna, and, for a single 
continuous fauna, the gradual accession of new species and ex- 
tinction of old express a normal law of succession. If, how- 
ever, two faunas are compared, the number of common species 
will depend upon the likeness or difference in the environing con- 
ditions. To apply the Lyellian principle correctly, it is necessary 
to compare the successive faunas of the same province, and for the 
recognition of the province too, it is necessary to consider the pos- 
sible change of climate, or the effect of the shifting of conditions 
by elevation or depression of the bottom, or change of relation of 
surface of sea to surface of the land. This principle involves the 
fact that each species has a limited life period, but it does not in- 
volve, in Lyell's first usage of it, the fact that one species is nec- 
essarily descended from another. 

Before this latter law was accepted as a fact, the natural sequence 
of species, and of genera and orders was known. Lamarck had 
advanced the idea of the spontaneous origin and progressive de- 
velopment of the organisms of the earth, but it is interesting to 



/ 



ADDRESS BY H. S. WILLIAMS. 155 

note the fact that the natural sequence of different orders of beings 
was generally accepted before it was granted that natural descent 
was the explanation of the sequence. Deshayes maintained that 
the species of the Cretaceous were all extinct, and in this fact was 
found the ground for separating the Tertiary order of rocks from 
the Secondary, the former alone containing shells identical with 
those now living. 

The laws of geographical distribution, with resultant modifica- 
tions of those combinations of species called fauna and flora, and 
the modification of the species themselves in their adjustments to 
changed environment, are sufiScient to explain the imperfections 
of the Lyellian principle of determining relative antiquity of for- 
mations by the mere numerical proportion of recent species they 
contain, but as a general principle it is satisfactory. The same 
principle of numerical comparison when applied to genera, families 
and orders furnished the basis for the classification of the geologi- 
cal series into Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic. 

The mere numerical comparison of faunas is incapable of very 
minute application in marking the chronological scale, for the 
reason that the life period or range of species is often equal to that 
of a geological period, and the life period of a genus may span 
two or three systems. In these particulars I refer specially to 
invertebrates. Land vertebrates express a much greater sensitive- 
ness to changes of environment, but as a means of determining 
the geological age of strata, they are of such rare occurrence as 
to be practically useless for the general geologist. Vertebrates 
when they are present, as well as plants, are of extreme value as 
time indicators. Thus it is evident that we owe to comparative 
paleontology, and not to stratigraphy or lithology, the primary 
classification of the geological scale, and the means of distinguish- 
ing the chronological position of each formation. 

A second invaluable service of paleontology to geology is found 
in the application of the law of succession of the great groups of 
organisms. In the history of vertebrates we are all familiar with 
the law of succession : (1) Fish, (2) Amphibians, (3) Reptiles, 
(4) Mammals, and in another line, (3) Reptiles, (4) Reptilian 
Birds, (5) Birds. The finding of remains of any one of these 
groups of animals is sufiScient evidence that representatives of the 
lower type had previously existed. The abundance of reptilian re- 
mains is certain indication of later age than the Paleozoic ; the 



156 SECTION E. 

abundance of mammals, of age later than Mesozoic. In the same 
way the trilobites are known to be an ancient type, and the decapods 
a more modern type of Crustacea. The Tetracoralla are older than 
the Hexacoralla. And a great number of similar instances can be 
named, where, in a particular class or order of organisms, there 
is a definite succession in the order of their dominance, and theo- 
retically it is believed in their initiation also. 

^ A third application of Paleontology is made by a comparative 
study of species of a particular genus, or the genera of an order. 
In each genus there is observed to be a period of particular abun- 
dance before or after which there is more or less rapid diminution 
in the number of species found. Thus the brachiopods, so abun- 
dant all through the Paleozoic rocks, present a definite order of 
sequence in the genera and families, relative abundance of species 
of which, irrespective of specific names, is a reliable indication of 
geological age. The Cambrian is indicated by the abundance of 
its Obolidae and other inarticulate genera, the lower Silurian by 
abundance of Orthidse and Stropliomenidse, the upper Silurian by 
numerous genera of Strophomenidse, Pentameridse and Rhynchon- 
ellidae, the Carboniferous by dominance of the Productidse, the 
Mesozoic by dominance of Terebratulidffi and absence of the Pal- 
eozoic types. So, too, the Cephalopods furnish a scale of families 
which present a natural sequence, the Orthoceratidse, the Goniat- 
itidsB, the Ceratitidae, the Ammonitidse, and the dominance numeri- 
cally of these several divisions at once testifies to the first half of 
the Paleozoic, the second half of the Paleozoic, the first half of the 
Mesozoic, the second half of the Mesozoic, and the absence, or 
almost total absence of each, to the Tertiary and Recent. 

Less is known of the succession of species in continuous series 
as indicative of order of time. The famous case of the classifi- 
cation of the beds of the Lias by its Ammonites is a cliaracteristic 
example. Oppel, Wright, Buchman and others have studied the 
Ammonites peculiar to each stratum and classified and defined 
successive zones thereby. 

The name applied to each zone is the specific name of the Am- 
monite peculiar to the bed, as 

Zone of Ammonites {Aegoceras) planorhis^ the planorbis bed ; 
" " '^ " angulatus^ angulatus bed ; 

and so on, bucklandi^ tuherculatus^ obtusus^ etc., beds. 

Although this is not the purely comparative method, but is 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 157 

rather an extension of William Smith's principle of recognition of 
the beds by their fossils, the comparative element is seen in the 
succession of distinct species in succeeding, relatively thin beds. 
The studies of Branco and Hyatt expanded the investigation to a 
comparative study of the series of Ammonites of a single genus, 
and brought out thereby the exact laws of succession of the several 
known representatives of the family and their relation to each other, 
showing unmistakable succession in series of forms, whose order 
can be accounted for only as genetic. 

Hilgendorf,^ in his famous study of the Planorbis oi Steinheim, 
Waagen^ with the Ammonites^ Neumayi-^ with the Paludinaa and 
Hornes^ in the case of the Cancellaria^ have traced elaborately the 
paleontological series of forms of a single genus, illustrating this 
important principle. 

In th^case of the Pliocene PdLudinds examined by Nenmayr, a 
series from below upward was traced, which at the base exhibited 
a normal PaXudina (P. neumayri) and the latest of the series (P. 
hoernesi) was not only regarded as specifically distinct, biit as the 
type of a distinct genus, Tulotoma. (See Neumayr, L c. p. 57.) 
Professor Hyatt^ has elaborately traged out all the known species 
of the Arietidce in the same way, and arranged the different forms 
in series exhibiting their chronological mutations. Waagen applied 
this term ^'mutation" to the modification of form observed on 
comparing the successive representatives of such series, to dis- 
tinguish it from the modifications which are exhibited contem- 
poraneously, and are defined under the terms ^'variation" and 
"variety." The series of fossil horses described by Marsh and 
Huxley is another case in which the "mutations'* reached a generic 
value. 

All through the field of paleontology may be found similar series 
of genera in which the succession is of such a nature as to snggest 
genetic relationship and to lead to the theoretical construction of 

phylogenetic lines of descent. 

* 

1 Hilgendorfi Planorbis muUi/ormis in Stelnheimer SUsswasserkalk, Monatsb. Berlin. 
Akad. 1866. 

* Waagen, Formenriche des AmmowUea stdtradiaiuBf Benecke*B geognost-palttonto- 
log. Beitriige, Vol. ii. 

s Nenmayr nnd Paal, die Congerien- und Paludinenscliichten Westslavoniens, Ab« 
handl. d. geolog. ReichBanstalt, Bd. vii. 
Neumayr, Die SUimme dea TiiierreiclieB, 1889, pp. 56, etc. 

* Hdraes, Die fossilen Mollusken des Wiener Tertiarbeckens, Bd. I. 

* A. Hyatt, Genesis of tbe Arietld», Mem. Mus. Comp. Zodlogy, Vol. xvi, No. 8, 1889. 



158 SKCnoN E. 

Althoagh it may be rightly objected that evidence is in most 
cases extremely imperfect, and in attempts to fill out paleontolog- 
ical series imagination has been freely used in filling the gaps, 
there can be no question as to the immense yalue to geology of the 
knowledge already acquired in this highly theoretical part of pal- 
eontology. 

It is the differences observed on comparing fossils coming from 
different horizons and different regions that are of value in these 
determinations, and not the numerical proportion of identical forms, 
as in the William Smith method of identifying strata. It is the 
direct interpretation of observed variation and mutation of organic 
forms into terms of the amount ^of geological time and the extent 
of change in environment. 

This comparative paleontology, to be accurately used, must 
deal with the finer details of form and structure, because the evi- 
dence of genetic aflSnity must be perfectly clear before the series 
can be depended upon as expressive of the true order of evolu- 
tion. 

A remark should be made here upon the limitations to the use 
of fossils as indicative of geological age. Granting the general 
proposition that the differences exhibited by different species of the 
same genus are variations and mutations in the descendants of a 
common stock, still it is not possible to decide a priori what the 
rate of the modification may have been. Certain modifications are 
undergone in a season during the ontogenetic development of the 
individual from the germ cell to the adult. In the same way ex- 
amination of a large number of cases in different groups of the 
animal kingdom shows that in many cases there is in the early 
stage of the life history of a new genus rapid expansion in specific 
modification, and later on each specific line appears to express 
only very gradual '^ mutation " in respect of certain characters in 
which at its early stage it was definitely variable. In other words, 
upon studying the life histories of species, there appears good evi- 
dence of an initial stage in which the species present characters in 
a plastic state ; later these characters became fixed in each genetic 
line, and the species appear, on this account, to be more distinct in 
their characters. Hence the amount of difference exhibited between 
two species will not arbitrarily indicate their distance apart in the 
genetic series. Also different genera exhibit different rates of 
mutation. It results therefore that the law of mutation must be 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 159 

studied separately for each genus, and even then the accelerative 
effect of changed environment is not known, although it is within 
the reach of investigation. 

Another difficulty in the way of close application of these laws 
in determination of age is the fact that a priori it is impossible to 
tell whether the differences exhibited by two closely allied forms are 
varietal and associated with changed environment, or mutationcU 
and associated with the paleontological evolution of the race. The 
study of these problems must therefore be intimately associated 
with minute regard to stratigraphic sequence, just as in decipher- 
ing a manuscript, the succession of the words is essential to a cor- 
rect interpretation of the writing. 

The way in which the paleontological record supplements the 
stratigraphic evidence is seen in the fact that the paleontology is 
capable of showing gaps or omissions, the length and nature of 
which cannot be calculated from the strata themselves. 

Another mode of investigation has been employed in which the 
modifications of a particular part of an organism are made the sub- 
ject of inquiry. The case of the toes of the ancestors of the horse, 
from the five toed Eohippus to the one-toed modern horse, the 
camels, from the Poebrotherium of the Miocene to the Pliocene and 
recent Auchenia, as shown in the bones and in the teeth, are ex- 
amples. 

'A typical illtrstration is the case of the development of the su- 
tures of the tetrabranchiate cephalopods. 

It will be remembered that the distinguishing feature of the 
cephalopod shell is its chambers, which separate it from the shell 
of the gasteropod. The edges of the partitions forming the cham- 
bers, where they meet the external walls of the shell, are technically 
called sutures. In the Nautilian shell, whether exhibiting a simple 
elongated cone as in Orthoceras, or a curved horn as in Gyroceras 
or Cyrtoceras, or a close coiled shell as in Nautilus, the sutures 
are simple. In other groups of chambered shells the suture line is 
wavy, forming lobes and saddles, or variously crimped, as in Goni- 
atites or Ceratites. These suture lines form a regular series which 
both in time of isitiation and in the period of dominance express 
a simple law of evolution. Every geologist is familiar with the 
more apparent features of the series as seen in the genera Nautilus j 
Goniatites, Ceratites and Ammonites, 

The various degrees and forms of lobes and saddles are the basis 



160 8ECTIOK E« 

of elaborate classifications and systems of names proposed bj Bey- 
ricb, tbe Sandbesfgers and otbers, bat up to tbe present time I 
think we have not a published classification which recognizes tlie 
fundamental law of evolution expressed in the series. In analyzing 
the forms of suture, for my class in the History of Organisms, I 
found the following simple law to exist : The various suture lines 
of the chambered cephalopo<l shells can be distinguished by the 
differences in degree of complexity of the crimping of the edge of 
the septum, viz^ : 

(a) In the Orthoceran and NautUian type, the edge of the 
septum is straight, or the curving is not enough to produce more 
than a single oscillation of the suture line during its complete cir- 
cumference. 

(b) The Ooniatite septum presents a lobed sutui*e, but the edges 
of all the lobes and saddles are simple. 

(c) In the third type the lobes and saddles are variously crenu- 
lated. In the CercUite the crenulation affects the base of the lobes, 
in Helictites the top of the saddles is crenulated, and in MendH- 
cottia the lobes, the saddles and the connecting parts of the suture 
are crenulated. 

(d) In the typical Ammonite, there is a tertiary crimping of the 
suture line, i. e., each of the aixshings of the line corresponding to 
the crenulations of ikfencl/tcof^ea is again crenulated, forming a com- 
plexly foliate suture. 

(e) In the adult forms of Pinacoceras there is a still further 
elaboration of the crimping, the tertiary archings of the Ammon- 
ite are again crenulated, forming a quaternary stage of corruga- 
tion. 

The series presents a gradual elaboration of the crimping of. the 
edge of the septum, forming a suture line, 1st, simple, 2d, primarily 
lobed, 3d, secondarily corrugated or the crenulated type, 4th, ter- 
tiarily corrugated or the foliate type, and 5 th, the quaiemary cor^ 
negations of Pinacoceras. 

In their historical bearings it may be said of this series that, 

1st. It is the order in which the various types make their first 
appearance in the geological series. 

2d. It is the order in which the several types become dominant. 

3d. It is the order of elaboration in the ontogenetic growth of 
the individual. 

4:th. It is the normal order of physical relation borne by the 



ADDRESS BY H. 8. WILLIAMS. 161 

sevBral types to each other; each type is a physical elaboration 
of the next preceding type. 

The convolutions of the suture are crimpings of the edge of a 
more or less flat disc — the septum — and these convolutions are the 
simplest mode of adjustment of the edge of such a disc, whose cir- 
cumference increases more rapidly than its radius. 

Considering only the differences in the sutures in the comparison 
of the several types, it would be coiTect to state -that it would be 
physically impossible for the Ammonite's septum and suture to be 
formed without passing through the stages represented by the 
I^autilus, Groniatites and Ceratites. In other words, the exhaustive 
analysis of this one element of structure of cephalopod shells shows 
us that the actual history of the organisms has been exactly that 
which a serial classification on the basis of differences of this part 
would suggest, but that no other classification or order of succes- 
sion could take place by natural descent. It is unnecessary to 
speak of the value of such series for purely stratigraphical pur- 
poses. 

This is but one of a great many such mutations to be discovered 
in the study of comparative paleontology. The general law in- 
volved is this : in a series of genetically related forms in which 
the later representatives present a character which is but the 
physical elaboration of that found at a much earlier stage, there 
is implied the presence in the intermediate formations of species 
in which the character is in an intermediate stage of development, 
and of a continuous series connecting the extreme forms. 

I have thus far spoken of the general scope and application of 
comparative paleontology. I might cite many cases in which par- 
ticular problems have been settled by the use of these methods, 
and refer to the works of Neumayr, Waagen, Eayser, BaiTois, 
Grosselet, Freeh, Tscherneyschew, and others in Europe, to the 
investigations of Hall, Whitfield, Whiteaves, White, Marsh, Cope, 
Walcott, Herrick, Hill^ Prosser, Keyes, Clarke, and of Meek, who 
was one of the keenest of our earlier paleontologists. And there 
are many extremely valuable special investigations^ like those of 
Agassiz^ on the echinoids, Hyatt' on the cephalopods and those of 
their followers, Jackson, Beecher and others. But at the present 
time it will be impossible to speak of them, even were I able to 

*■ Revision of tlie Bcliiiil, Cambridge, 1878-74. 
* See note on p. 157. 

▲. ▲. A. S. VOL. XLI. II 



162 SBcnoH X. 

do them justice. I will, howeTer, beg your attention to a series 
of paleontological investigations, with the details of which I am 
more familiar, and the steps of which are more or less related 
to each other, and have, collect! rely, resulted in throwing consid- 
erable light upon the geology and geography of the Devonian 
system. 

As I have already said, the Devonian system was originally 
founded upon purely paleontological evidence. The question as 
to the lower limit of the Devonian in this country has been a 
purely paleontological problem, and the reason for including the 
Oriskany in the Devonian is because the fauna is more closely 
allied to that of the Looe and Cornwall slates, the Gredinnien and 
the Coblentzien formations of Europe, than to the Silurian faunas, 
and presents a larger proportion of species which connect it with 
the Corniferous faunas above than with the Helderberg below. 
(See Hall's list of species in 42d Annual Report of New York 
State Museum.) 

The correction of the * ^Chemung'* of Iowa and Missonri and 
the adoption of de Verneuirs earlier interpretations of the Car- 
boniferous age of the fauna as perpetuated in the Kinderhook 
group, was settled by the evidence of fossils. 

The Hcrcynian question of Europe was debated on paleontolc^- 
ical, not stratigrapbical grounds.^ 

In 1881, the minute study of Spirifera IcevU^ leading to the pre- 
diction that the character by which Davidson distinguished the 
lower Devonian Spirifera curvata from the Carboniferous Spirifera 
glabra would be found upon the higher form as well, which after- 
wards Davidson confirmed, was the first step toward distinguishing 
the fauna of the upper Devonian of eastern America from the mid- 
dle Devonian fauna as to its origin. The suggestive fact in this 
case was that this rare American upper Devonian spirifer was mor- 
phologically more closely allied to a common lower and middle 
European species than to any preceding American form. This 
thought led to a thorough dissection of the Devonian faunas of 



1 See'Kayser, DieFanna derXltesten DoTon-Ablagerangen des Harzes, Abhand. Geol. 
Specialkarte von Preussen .... Bd. ii. Heft 4, p. 247-1878. 

AlBo later discussions by Barrois, Lletze, Freeh, Novak and others and review by 
J. M. Clarke, 42d Annual Report of State Museum of Natural History of New Yorl^ 
1889, p. 409. 

* Williams, The life-history of Spirifer kevit Hale:-^ paleontological study, 1881, 
Ann. N. T. Acad. So., Vol. ii, No. 6. 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 163 

New York and neighboring states. The series of successive faunas 
along a common meridian were tabulated and compared.^ The 
sections were made parallel to each other and near enough together 
to make it possible to compare corresponding zones of the several 
series. By this method tlie law was established that the composi- 
tion of a fossil fauna changes on passing geographically from one 
place to another. Upon tracing single species across these sections 
it was learned that the mutation of the species, not only may be 
recognized on passing vertically upward through a continuous sec- 
tion, but that the more direct line of succession was often deflected 
laterally so that the immediate successor of a particular fauna of 
one section was found not directly above it in the same section, 
but at a higher horizon in a section ten or twenty miles distant. 
This shifting of faunas was taken as actual evidence of migration 
and was interpreted as the result of oscillations of level. 

The examination of the remarkable fauna of High Point, at the 
southern end of Canandaigua lake (the locality of which was first 
shown me by Mr. J. M. Clarke), furnished me with a still further 
clew to the solution of the origin of the faunas. I recognized, at 
once, upon seeing it, that it was related to the Iowa Devonian, and 
dififered widely from the typical upper Devonian of New York, in 
the midst of which it lay. Further analj^sis of the fauna led to the 
discovery that the species peculiar to it apparently had their ances- 
tors in the middle Devonian of Europe rather than in any middle 
Devonian of America. With this stage of progress I examined 
the fauna peculiar to the Tully limestone. Much confusion had 
been thrown about it by the publication of a large number of 
species as " known " Tully fossils. Special search was made in 
original localities with the result of eliminating a large number of 
reported species which were found immediately below the true Tully 
limestone in the calcareous termination of the Hamilton, where the 
typical Hamilton fauna is very abundant, and the true fauna which 
i described^ as the Cuboides fauna, was carefully compared with 
that of every locality in the world of which I could find report of 
its presence. The result showed that in eastern America where the 
Tully appears the fauna of the Cuboides zone begins abruptly, and 



^ Williams, On the Classiflcation of the upper Devonian, Proo. A. A. A. 8. Vol. 
XXIV, 1885. 

sTbe Cuboides zone audits fauna; a discussion of methods of correlation. BaU. 
Geol. Soc., Vol. 1, 18M). 



164 SECTION B. 

firom it npward, all throngh the npper Devonian, is a fauna closely 
related in its species with the upper Devonian of Europe, Russia, 
Siberia, China and British America, and down as far as Iowa in the 
interior, the Nevada Devonian also sliowing close affinities with 
this type or fauna. But in Europe, where the statistics are abun- 
dant and clear, and so far as evidence bore upon the fact, also in 
Russia, Asia, and British America, the Cuboides fauna is the nat- 
ural successor of the middle and lower Devonian of those regions. 

Mr. Whiteaves, in his recent studies of the British American 
Devonian along the Mackenzie River valley,^ adds many points of 
confirmation of this view, as in some species, like Stringocephaliia 
Burtini^ which had not heretofore been known in America, but 
were characteristic of certain middle Devonian of Europe. 

These purely paleontological investigations had proved, with a 
high degree of certainty, that, relatively speaking, the Tully lime- 
stone marks a chronological point in the strata which within rela- 
tively small limits may be said to be chronologically and not 
merely taxonomically the same as the Cuboides zone of Europe 
and Asia, and, second, that the upper Devonian faunas of these 
several regions are more closely allieil than the typical upper De- 
vonian fauna of New York is to its typical middle Devonian fauna 
of the same area. This is a very important fact, and the principle 
involved is of vast importance in further studies of comparative 
nature. It makes necessary the tracing of the geographical dis- 
tribution of species in order to get accurate data for the interpre- 
tation of their geological succession. 

As confirmation, however, of the above conclusion, there has 
recently appeared a paper by Steinman and Ulrich on the Devon- 
ian fossils of Bolivia,^ in which we are shown the origin of the 
middle and lower fauna of New York and eastern America. 

By the comparison of the Devonian faunas of Bolivia, the Andes, 
Brazil, Falkland islands and South Africa, Ulrich determines their 
natural affinities with each other, and with the lower and middle 
Devonian faunas of eastern North America, and that they are re- 
markably distinct from the corresponding faunas of Europe and 
northern Asia. Not only does the presence of peculiar species link 
together these several regions and separate them from the northern 

^ The fossils of the DeTOiiian Bocks of the Mackenzie Rirer Basin. Contributions 
to Canadian Paleontology, Vol. i, Part 8. 1891. 

* BeitrSge zur Geologie nnd Palaeontologie yon Sttdamerika, i Palaeozoische yer- 
Bteinerungen aus Bolivien, 1892. 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 165 

set of regions, but some of the more characteristic species of the 
southern hemisphere type, as VituUna and Leptocodia^ are abundant 
and common to many localities and of higher range in the southern 
hemisphere and are rare or confined to lower horizon in the Appa- 
lachian Devonian of North America, thus indicating their extra- 
limital range in the latter region. 

In the determination of the genetic affinities of the faunas of the 
southern hemisphere with those of the lower and middle Devonian 
in North America, just as in the tracing of the affinities of the Tully 
limestone fauna and upper Devonian, it is not the identity of species 
or the majority of species in contrasted regions that plays the 
greatest part, but it is the testimony of the somewhat isolated 
forms, whose local distribution is traceable, and also by the breaks 
in successive lines of species which are associated together as races, 
though the species at each stage or in different regions may be 
described under different names. 

In the study of the Cuboides zone, it was such species as Orthia 
tulliensia^ Strophodonta mucronata var. tuUiensia^ Bhynchonella 
venuatula^ which told the tale, each differing specifically from any 
European species, but belonging to races, which in Europe had 
representative species extending from the Silurian through the 
Devonian into the Carboniferous system, but in the Appalachian 
region lacked representatives in the middle Devonian, though well 
represented in the upper Devonian of New York, and were repre- 
sented also throughout the Devonian deposits in the Nevada and 
Iowa areas. The continuance of the European type above this 
zone in the Appalachian region was also testified to by such species 
as Spirifera Icevia and Spirifera diajuncta^ Productua diaaimilia of 
Hall (haXlianua of Walcott) , Orthia impreaaa^ Bhynchonella pugnua 
and others which, are well represented in the fauna above the Cu- 
boides zone, but have no forerunners in the Appalachian higher 
than the lower Helderberg (in rare cases seen in the Corniferous) , 
while in the European faunas there are connecting species all 
through the middle Devonian, thus pointing to a change of fauna, 
not by eootinction of the species, but by migration from one region 
to another. Just as the presence of the bones of Mylodon^ Mega' 
lonyxy and the tapir in the Uuited States, now extinct in North 
America, indicates a former extension of the South American living 
fauna of mammals into this continent. 

It was by a similar method that Dr. Ulrich traced the historical 



166 SEcnoK E. 

relations of tbe Hamilton fauna of the Appalachian province in 
eastern North America to the southern hemisphere. In his de- 
scription of the Bolivian fossils collected by professor Steinman, 
he made comparison not only with the species, but with the faunas 
of Brazil collected by Hartt, Derby and Rathbone, and of South 
African and Falkland islands' faunas described by Salter and 
Sharpe. The most striking evidence of the affinity of these several 
faunas was derived from the study of three rather abundant genera 
of brachiopods ; XepfocceZia, VihdinaeLnd Tropidolepttis, gener& which 
I would describe as old-type genera for this Devonian period, u e., 
preserving the form and general characteristics of the lower Silu- 
rian Orthidse and Strophomenidae but assuming the later character 
of calcified brachial supports of the TerebrcUukis and Spiriferidce. 
At least this is the case for the first two genera, and Tropidoleptus 
possesses the punctate structure characteristic of the Terebratulas. 

Dr. Ulrich observes that Leptoccdia is found in North America, 
particularly in the eastern part, in Bolivia, on the Falkland islands 
and in South Africa, but not a single case of it has been reported 
ft'om the Devonian deposits of the other regions, Europe, Asia 
and Australia, and that the South African and South American 
species reach larger dimensions than those of North America 
{I. c. pp. 62, 63). 

A point bearing upon the general discussion, which Ulrich did 
not observe, is the fact that this Leptocoelia fauna extended north- 
eastward as far as Quebec, Maine and Acadia, and in that region 
is the terminal marine fauna of the Devonian. There was evi- 
dently a barrier already separating the European sea from that of 
the Appalachian region, and the connection with the South Ameri- 
can faunas was by the southwest. This in some measure may ac- 
count for the conspicuous absence of characteristic European types 
in the Appalachian Hamilton faunas. 

In regard to the genus Vitvlina^ Dr. Ulrich remarks that it ap- 
pears in America, but is there a rare species in the later Hamilton, 
^^ While," he says, 'Hi is in South America apparently present in each 
of the hitherto discovered Devonian regions," viz., the province of 
Para in Brazil, as reported by Rathbone in Coati Island, Titicaca 
lake, according to Agassiz and Garman, the province of Sao Paulo, 
reported by Derby, Central Brazil by Smith, and in Bolivia, in sev- 
eral localities, by Steinman, South Africa, Schenk (I. c pp. 73, 74). 
But it is entirely wanting in Europe, Asia and Australia. These 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 167 

facts show the type to be peculiarly a soathern one, but it may still 
further be remarked that the Vitvlina is in America isolated and 
above the horizon of Leptocodia^ whereas in Bolivian region it is not 
only associated with Leptoccelia^ but is common and appears also 
in other apparently higher zones in association with Tropidoleptus, 
which later in South America is not found associated with LeptO' 
codia indicating that the North American appearance of the type 
is extra-limital and later than its greatest dominance in South 
America. 

Tropidoleptus shows a different history. It is seen in Europe as 
well as North and South America and Africa, but in North Amer- 
ica it is associated with a southern origin, for while it is particu- 
larly a Hamilton species and of the Appalachian province chiefly, 
it runs up into the upper Devonian of eastern New York, and is 
seen above the Cuboides zone. But it is wanting in the Macken- 
zie river basin fauna ( Whiteaves, ^' The Fossils of the Devonian 
Bocks, etc., 1891), which is the Devonian of European -Asia. In 
the European fauna it seems to be confined to a lower horizon, the 
Coblenzien of Europe or the Looe slates, while in America it is 
more characteristic of the higher part of the Hamilton, and in Cen- 
tral New York is even a Chemung species. It is reported from 
Illinois and Iowa, but is evidently a rare form in those faunas, 
and in Nevada, where it is in the lower Devonian as it is in the 
European faunas. Thus its range in the Devonian deposits of the 
Appalachian region points to its association with the southern 
faunas and migration with them after their general separation 
from the European faunas, whose connection with North Ameri- 
can areas was by way of Asia and across the Pacific basin after the 
close of the Silurian, rather than by any connection across the 
Atlantic basin. 

The other species cited in Ulrich's paper on Fossils of Bolivia 
support the same conclusion that there was a close relationship ex- 
isting between the Devonian faunas of South America and South 
Africa and the fauna in the Appalachian trough, reaching as high 
as the Hamilton formation, and that this general fauna was distinct 
from the European-Asiatic fauna of the same period. This dif- 
ferentiation of the lower from the upper Devonian faunas occur- 
ring in the Appalachian region, and the tracing of them to centres 
jf geographical distribution in opposite hemispheres of the globe, 
throw light upon certain otlier important geological problems con- 
cerning the Devonian deposits of North America. 



168 8ECTI0K E. 

As we follow the elaborate series of Devonian fonnations of 
New York southwestward across Pennsylvania, Ohio and Kentucky, 
we gradually lose the separate members, and black shales become 
conspicttOQS in their places, and in Tennessee there is but a thin 
black shale to represent this whole interval, and in northern Al- 
abama scarcely anything separates the Silurian (in some cases 
lower Silurian) from the Carboniferous resting nneonformably or 
even conformably upon it. Similar conditions are seen in north- 
ern Arkansas, where, about the Ozark uplift, the erosion of the 
Silurian terrane is such that at the corner of Illinois, Helderberg, 
Oriskany and even traces of Hamilton are left in place, while fur- 
ther west, the latest is Helderberg, or Niagara, or Trenton, and at 
extreme points magnesian limestone was the surface rock when the 
black shale was deposited, to be immediately followed by typical 
carboniferous fossils. In Texas we find a similar cutting out of 
the Devonian, and more or less of the upper Silurian, and the Car- 
boniferous following the Interval. These facts point to an elevation 
suificient to occasion extensive erosion toward the southwest, fol- 
lowed by depression, which gave occasion for the deposition of the 
black shale over extensive areas. 

If we are correct in tracing with Ulrich his Bolivian Devonian 
fauna to South Africa and recognizing it in the lower and middle 
Devonian faunas of the Appalachian area of North America, and in 
nferring, as I have suggested, that the change in fauna at the close 
of the Hamilton in New York was associated with the arrival of 
the Cuboides fauna into the Appalachian region, and thus that the 
upper Devonian is distinctly a European-Asiatic fauna and con- 
nected with it across the Pacific down the Mackenzie region, it 
is evident that the time of the change of these faunas corresponds 
with the time of the geologic events in the southern central part 
of the United States, above referred to. The elevation which oc- 
casioned the erosion did not take place till the Hamilton period, 
and the depression and deposit of Black shales followed the 
incursion of the new fauna, or was, in part, contemporaneous with 
it. The erosion ceased and the deposition began in the south later 
than in the north, as is indicated by the fuller representations of 
the separate deposits at the north than at the south, also by the 
smaller amount of the deposits, as indicated by the gradually 
thinning black shale on passing from Ohio across Kentucky to Ten- 
nessee and Alabama. It was as early as the age of the Oriskany 
that the separation of the typical southern from the typical north- 



ADDRESS BT H. S. WILLIAMS. 169 

ern faunas took place, and in the extreme northeastern extension 
of the Appalachian region, the Acadian province of Maine and 
New Brunswick, we observe that this is the highest marine fauna 
reached in the Devonian. Elevation evidently shut out access to 
the sea for this region. 

It is from that time on that the faunas of the Appalachian region 
present their essential relation to the southern hemisphere faunas, 
and show the absence of the typical European fauna. We assume, 
therefore, that a barrier was raised that shut off connection with 
European regions during the lower Deyonian. The elevation to 
the south took place somewhere near the close of the Hamilton, 
and the theory we propose is that an elevation such as to divert 
the currents, bringing in first the Cuboides fauna' from the north- 
west and finally replacing entirely the Hamilton by the Chemung 
as far east as New York is the reasonable explanation of the facts. 

The interesting point is that the testimony of the migrating fauna 
chronologically agrees with the testimony of the oscillation, as re- 
corded in the deposits. All along the southern limits of Devonian 
exposures in the United States there is indication of an oscillation 
upward and then downward between the Hamilton and the begin- 
ning of the Carboniferous. 

The succession of faunas in New York indicates a change at the 
close of the Hamilton from a fauna whose closest affinities were 
with the South American faunas, to a fauna whose earlier stages 
were seen in Iowa, Nevada and the Mackenzie river, and whose 
afiSnities were with the Asiatic and European Devonian. 

In Arkansas and Tennessee the faunas of the Black Shale indi- 
cate that the first marine fauna to appear after the elevation and 
erosion are of an age as late as the Cleveland shale of Ohio, t. «., 
the very terminal parts of the Devonian or beginning of the Car- 
boniferous. This event, it will be noticed, is associated with 
that general elevation of the continent, beginning in the northeast, 
which is expressed by the cessation of marine faunas, and ter- 
minating in the Coal Measures and the final elevation above the 
surface of the great mass of the continent east of the Mississippi 
river. 

This illustrates the general law of the close relationship between 
the fossil faunas and their environment. Just as the geologist 
knows how to interpret the fineness or coarseness of sediments into 
relative distances from a shore line, so the paleontologist is able to 



170 SBCTIOM E. 

see in the shifting of faunas and the oomparison of species evi- 
dences of elevation or depression of the marine bottom, which up- 
on reaching sea level prociaced often the diversion of ocean carrents 
and consequent modification of faunas. By the comparison of ex- 
tinct faunas he learns to recognize the continuity or the discontin- 
uity of the conditions of environment such as mark geographical 
areas of distribution of living animals. The fossil faunas, their 
modifications and their migrations, as indicated by presence, ab- 
sence, rarity, abundance, size, variation, or mutation of their spe- 
cies, are the sensitive evidences of changing geological conditions 
upon which the geologist must depend for tying together his dis- 
connected facts. Fossils have too often been regarded as only 
marks for distinguishing the different geological formations, but 
the scope of the paleontology of to-day is far wider. The modern 
conception of the evolution of life has made paleontology the science 
of the History of Organisms. And it is because fossils exhibit in 
morphological characters the evidence of the ancestry through which 
they have arisen, and of the conditions of environment through 
which they have successfully struggled, that they are of such par- 
amount value in all geological investigations in which the elements 
of time or the order of sequence of events is concerned. 



PAPERS READ. 



SCTBMARINE VALLEYS ON CONTINENTAL SLOPES. By WaRREN UpHAM, 36 

Newbury St., Somerville, Mass. 

[AB8TBACT.] 

On the Atlantic side of our continent the submarine valleys of the 
Hudson, St. Lawrence, and other rivers have been described by Dana, 
Liindenkohl, Spencer, and the present writer. The one of these valleys 
most perfectly known is the continuation of the present land course of the 
Hudson river to a distance of about 100 miles into the ocean. The course, 
width, and depth of this submerged channel have been very accurately de- 
termined by special work of the United States Coast Survey, many sound- 
ings having been taken along all its extent and on the adjoining ocean 
bed. Where this valley reaches the outer part of the continental plateau, 
300 to 600 feet beneath sea level, a submarine fjord or cailon is cut below 
the general plain of the ocean bed along a distance of 26 miles, from 80 to 
100 miles southeast of Sandy Hook, to a maximum sounding of 2,844 feet 
in the fjord near its mouth. The edge of the continental plain is sub- 
merged 600 feet in the sea, while the eroded fjord itself is more than 
2,200 feet deep. This fjord is cut in the seaward continuation of the 
Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous beds of Long Island and New Jer- 
sey. It proves that this portion of North America has been uplifted to a 
height at least 2,800 feet greater than now, allowing the Hudson to flow 
along the bottom of the fjord, during the closing part of the Tertiary 
era and the beginning of the Quaternary ; or the great uplift may have 
occurred or been repeated during the comparatively late stage of the 
Quaternary era when the principal interglacial epoch was succeeded by 
the accumulation of the later ice-sheet. 

Qn our Pacific coast several submarine valleys have been found by 
soundings, as reported by Prof. George Davidson of the United States 
Coast Survey. The bottom of the deepest of these, near Cape Mendocino, 
lies 3,120 feet beneath the sea level where it passes across the general 
submarine contour line of 600 feet. The fjord or canon is thus eroded 
2,500 feet below the top of its banks. Prof. Joseph LeConte has shown 
that the uplift of this western side of North America more than 3,000 feet 
above its present height, as known by the Californian submarine fjords, 
was during late Tertiary and Quaternary time, and that it was probably 
contemporaneous with the similar uplift at the east. 

(171) 



172 SBcnoN B. 

Land fjords which indent all our northern and Arctic coasts show that 
this epeirogenic moyement reached to the archipelago north of our conti- 
nent and to Greenland. Similar land fjords Indent the shores of Ireland, 
Scotland, the Hebrides, Orkney, Shetland and Faroe islands and the Scan- 
dinavian penlnsola, attaining a maximum depth in the Sogne fjord, the 
longest in Norway, 4,080 feet below the sea leveL These deeply eroded 
yalleys, now filled by long inlets of the sea, prove that northwestern 
Europe was likewise lately elevated far above its present height. 

The most renuurkable known example of submarine valleys is found, 
however, not in northern or circnmpolar latitudes but near the equator. 
This is the continuation of the channel of the river Congo, on latitude 
6^ 8., to a distance of about 100 miles and a df pth of more than 6,000 feet 
beneath the sea. A map of this wonderful submerged cafion, and a de- 
scription of the surveys and many series of soundings made for the selec- 
tion of the best course to lay a submarine cable connecting commercial 
stations on the African coast, by which the extent and depth of this call- 
on were ascertained, are given by Mr. J. Y. Buchanan, in the Scottish 
Geographical Magazine for May, 1887. Previous to Mr. Buchanan's ac- 
companying the party ^which with a steamship made this survey, he had 
been engaged in similar observations on the CAa^en^er in its well known 
scientific cruise of three and a half years. 

Along Ito last twenty miles before it enters the ocean, the Congo has a 
depth of 600 to 1,450 feet beneath the sea leveL At the mouth of the 
river the width of this gully, as Mr. Buchanan calls it, is three miles, and 
its depth is 2,000 feet. Thirty-five miles out to sea, the width of the gul- 
lied submarine valley or cailon is six miles, and its depth 8,440 feet. Its 
bottom there is 8,000 feet below the adjoining ocean bed of the continen- 
tal slope. At the distance of 70 miles off shore the general slope has 
fallen off to the depth of 8,000 feet, and below this the canon has an ad- 
ditional depth of 8,000 feet more, the sounding to its bottom being 6,000 
feet. 

Several other submarine valleys of very remarkable character are found 
on this African coast a few degrees north of the equator, one of which, 
called the * 'Bottomless Fit," is also mapped by Mr. Buchanan, v^ith de- 
scription from five transverse lines of soundings. In this place, near 
latitude 5° N., the 600 feet submarine contour line approaches within a 
quarter of a mile of the shore. At the distance of one mile off shore, the 
width of the gully is less than a mile, with a depth of 900 feet ; eight 
miles off shore, its width is one and a half miles, with a depth of 1,960 
feet ; and two miles farther seaward, its width has increased to four miles, 
and the sounding to the bottom of the valley is 2,700 feet. The gradient 
of ascent at its side averages in some places 40 feet in the distance of 100 
feet, being at the rate of 2,000 feet per mile. 

Though* Mr. Buchanan attributes these submerged cations to the action 
of marine currents setting in landward under the lighter fresh water of 
the rivers, while the land, according to his belief, has held its present re- 
lation to the sea level, I think that geologists who have studied the sub- 



GEOLOGT AND GBOGRAPHT. 173 

marine valleys of the eastern and western coasts of North America will 
confidently refer their origin in Africa, as on our own continental bor- 
ders, to a formerly greater altitude of the land when it stood higher than 
now by as great an amount as the depths of the cailons below the ocean's 
surface. 

That the Congo submarine valley is not yet filled with the alluvial silt 
of the river, which discolors the surface water to the distance of many 
miles off shore, proves that the subsidence of the land from Its former 
altitude was geologically recent. These great epeirogenic movements of 
the vast plateau forming the southern half of Africa, like the oscillations 
before noted in North America and Europe, took place doubtless no long- 
er ago than during the Pleistocene or Glacial period and the closing stage 
of the preceding Tertiary era. 

It seems certain that these earth movements had an intimate relation- 
ship with the origin of the great lakes of Africa, and with the accumula- 
tion and departure of the North American and European ice-sheets. 

Why large areas of the earth's crust have been thus upheaved and 
afterward depressed, I have attempted to explain in a previous paper on 
**Probable Causes of Glaciation" (Appendix of Wright's Ice Age in North 
America). These movements appear to me referable to the earth's con- 
traction, relief being provided between epochs of mountain-folding by the 
upheaval of continental areas and correlative sinking of sea beds, where- 
by the earth's volume is diminished This process is well consistent with 
Dana's doctrine of the general permanence of the continents and oceanic 
basins ; for upheaval of an ocean bed would not diminish but increase the 
earth's volume. 

Between times of mountain-building, portions of the continents have 
been greatly uplifted and anon depressed. Where such uplifts affected 
lands in high northern and southern latitudes, they became ice-covered. 
Bat at length the weight of the ice-sheet, and cessation of the stress in 
the earth's crust when late mountain ranges, as the Himalayas, the Sierra 
Nevada, and the St. Ellas range, have been further folded and faulted on 
overthrust planes, again depressed these elevated areas and induced the 
rapid dissolution of their land ice. 



Tebminal MORAINBS IN Nkw ENGLAND. By Prof. C. H. HrrcHcocK, Han- 
over, N. H. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The existence of a terminal moraine to the great ice-sheet was advocated 
by the author in 1868-9, when he discussed the Geological History of Long 
Island before the New York Lyceum of Natural History and the Long Isl- 
and Historical Society. He then stated that the back bone of Long Island 
was a section of it. Since that time these moraines have been found to ex- 
tend continuously from Long Island to Dakota ; and not less than a dozen of 
them have been found in Minnesota and Dakota. Owing to the lack of field 
work in New England it has been generally assumed that these phenomena 



174 SECTION E. 

were wanting at the east, and that the drift occurring there represented 
only the deposit made by the second ice sheet. Early this year Mr. R. S. 
Tarr described one of these moraines extending from Cape Ann in Massa- 
chusetts to near Tamer's Falls npon Connecticut river, one hundred 
miles in length, In the American Journal of Science. 

Daring the present season the author has Identified the peculiar fea- 
tures of these moraines In New Hampshire and Vermont ; and is satisfied 
that three or four Ifnes of them can be identified. The deposits are in- 
dicated first, by moraines, either situated upon ledges or smoothed older 
till ; second. Immense masses of material, or plains consisting of sand, 
gravel and boulders that have been washed from the moraines; third, 
eskers and kames; fourth, the situation of lakes and ponds, being de- 
termined by morainic accumulation, and to some extent by the areas of 
drumllns. 

The firnt line determined Is clearly defined, extending from Bartlett 
through North Conway, Albany, Tamworth, Sandwich and along the south 
border of Squam Lake. In Albany and Tamworth there are enormous 
piles of more or less water-worn material, over 200 feet high. In Sand- 
wich the ridge is capped by numerous dumps of boulders and moraine 
rubbish. In Centre Harbor, outcrops of ledges are very scarce because 
of the abundance of nhoved material. Another marked feature of this 
moraine is the sand and gravel plains of the Saco Valley in Conway, 
Fryeburg, Maine, and farther south ; and the region of Silver Lake in 
Madison, and Ossipee Lake in Osslpee. This plain also extends up the 
valley of Bear Camp river to Sandwich. 

To the west of Ashland this moraine may be continued in the formation 
of Newfound Lake, immense piles of kames and moraines, south of Mt. 
Cardigan in Alexandria and Grafton, and in the abundant gravel and till 
about numerous ponds in Canaan and Mascomy Lake in Enfield. 

To the south another line of moraines may be Indicated by the moraines 
of Wakefield and Cottonboroagh, the damming up of the Winniplseogee 
lake in Alton, ponds In Gllmanton, Northwood and Bamstead and the great 
plains of the Merrimack river near and about Concord including its eskers. 

Fragments of another line may be indicated in immense piles of mo- 
raine rubbish to the south of Moosllauke in Warren, traceable to ponds in 
Flermont to the west and to the sand plains of the Pemigewasset and Bak- 
er's rivers to the south. There may be relics of another line along the 
principal White Mountains as indicated by kames near Littleton, moraines 
at Bethlehem Hollow and Carroll. To the south of Mt. Washington there is 
a very large pile of moraine stuff in Mt. Washington river and to the east 
in the south part of Gorham. Combining these with the recent accumula- 
tion of specimens of boulders from near the top of Mt. Washington for 
the Columbian Exposition by Prof. W. O. Crosby, it would appear that 
the trustworthiness of the observations upon this highest summit of New 
England have not yet been satisfactorily challenged. 

The most important of all these moraines seems to extend through both 
Vermont and New Hampshire, from near Burlington, Vt., to theBangeley 



6EOLOOT AND GEOORAPHT. 175 

r^akes in Maine. The author's map of the Surface Geology of Vermont 
(1861) indicates uncommonly large delta deposits at the mouths of the 
Winooski and Lamoille rivers, which may have been the wash from a mo- 
raine. To the east are the very thick terraces of the Lamoille river, hund- 
reds of ponds in Calais, Woodbury, Elmore and Cabot, much modified drift 
in the Fassumpsic valley and to the north near Lake Memphemagog, abun- 
dant kames blocking up the south end of Willoughby Lake, Island Fond, 
etc. Farther east there is Umbagog Lake in New Hampshire, an expanse of 
the Megalloway river produced by glacial obstructions, and very likely 
some of the large adjacent Rangeley Lakes. 

It is noticeable that the drumlins of southern New Hampshire are 
grouped in two or three areas very suggestive of moraines that had been 
shoved southerly by an earlier ice-sheet, and thus compacted by a later 
movement of the ice. Their absence in the central and northern parts of 
the state are equally significant 

All these suggested morainic lines trend somewhat north of east. Be- 
cause of the presence of hills, mountains and valleys, the determination of 
these lines is much more difficult than in the prairies and level regions of 
the more western states. 



EXTRA-MORAINIC DRIFT IN NeW JeRSKT. By Prof. AUBERT A. WrIGHT, 

Oberlih, Ohio. 

[ABBTBAOT.] 

The writer reported recent examinations of the region south of the 
moraine where glaciated material had been reported to occur, extending 
from Belvidere on the north, to Trenton on the south. Those which were 
north of the Musconetcong mountain were explained as having been 
formed by a temporary extension of the same Ice-sheet that formed the 
moraine. This includes the localities about Oxford Furnace, Washington, 
Harmony, FhUlipsburg, and on Musconetcong mountain, two miles south 
of Bloomisbury, at an elevation of 760 feet. The striated material at 
Monmouth Junction, and at Falsingtoii, Fa., near Trenton, was referred 
to the Columbia formation, a river wash. The two localities at High 
Bridge and Fattenbarg, on the southeastern slope of Musconetcong moun- 
tain, were differentiated from those north of the mountain, as being com- 
posed of local material, mainly gneissic, and wanting in the northern 
quartzites and conglomerates which are so conspicuous in the deposits 
north of the mountain. Search for a continuous drift-sheet, connecting 
these two deposits with those to the north, was unsuccessful, so that they 
appear to be isolated and in ^n unglaciated region. The absence of drift 
from the large Triassic area of Hunterdon county, and the non- distur- 
bance of the diabase outcrop on Sourland mountain were presented as evi- 
dence that no ice-sheet had ever passed over that region. 

[This paper is printed in full with map, Oct. No. Amer. Geologist, 
1892.] 



176 SBcnoii B. 



NOTIS BSABINO UPON CRAHGBS IN THB PRRGLACIAL DRAINAOB OF WBSTRRK 

iLUMOifl A2n> BA0TKBN lowA. By Fbank Lbvsbbtt, Denmark, Iowa. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Data are famished showing that a broad and deep channel eaters the 
Illinois f^om the northwest near LnSalle. The data so far as collected 
bear oat the hypothesis that the portion of the KIsslssippi above the Rock 
Island Rapids was drained in preglaclal times throagh this channel to the 
Illinois, instead of down the present Mississippi, there bring declsiye evi- 
dence that no deep preglaclal channel exists along the present coarse of 
the river from the Rock Island rapids to Muscatine. 

There Is a large preglaclal valley along the present Mississippi below 
Moscatine, whose upper coarse is undetermined, bot it seems probable 
that It was throagh the region now drained by the Red Cedar and Iowa 
rivers and it may have embraced the upper Minnesota. Examinations 
have shown that this channel passes the Des Moines or lower rapids on 
the west, throagh Lee county, Iowa, as suggested some years ago by 
General Warren. 



An BPI80DR IN THK HI8TOBT OP THB CUTAHOGA BIVBR. By ProF. £. W. 

Clatpolb, AkroD, Ohio. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

This paper deals with the development of the recent Cuyahoga at the 
end of the ice-age. North of Akron a peculiar feature is manifested in the 
present channel which leaves its preglaclal path and passes through a rock- 
catting about half a mile In length. The causes which led to the deviation 
form the subject of the paper, In which it is shown that the whole upper 
channel was filled with the sediment of a lake which formerly existed 
there. Through this sediment the present river has cut its way, removing 
a large part of the same. Various details regarding the history and pres- 
ent stage of the river are considered at some length. 



SOMB PROBLBM8 OF THB MrSABI IRON ORB. By Prof. N. H. WiNCHBLL, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

After briefly mentioning the theories that have been offered for the 
origin of this ore, the paper states some of the geological environments, 
and calls attention to the absence in the MesabI range of Minnesota of the 
various essential conditions which have been relied on for support for the 
separate theories In other iron districts. The trne explanation of the ore 
therefore, seems not to have been yet suggested, and the problem remains 
an unsolved one. 

[This paper will be printed In the American Geologist.] 



GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHT. 177 

The Cekozoic beds op the staked plains op Texas. By Prof. E. D. 
Cope, 2102 Fine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

[ABfiTRAGT.] 

The Cenozoic beds referred to are the Loap-Fork, Blanco and Equos 
beds. Their ideographical and stratigraphical relations and their paleon- 
tology are descril)ed, especial attention being given to the Blanco Fauna, 
which is intermediate in character between the others. 

[This paper will be printed in Report Geological Survey of Texas.] 



On a nrw fobm of Marsupialia from the Larabcib formation. By 
Prof. E. D. Cope, 2102 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

This genus displays its marsupial character in the inflected inferior 
border of the mandible. It presents the peculiarity of true molars, | -tu- 
bercular, with four simple premolars, well-developed canines and probably 
small incisors; and farther, in the molar function of the premolars. The 
g^enus was named Thlseodon. 

[This paper will be printed in American Naturalist.] 



Paleobotany of the Yellow Gravel at Bridgbton, N. J, By Arthur 

HOLLICK. 

[abstract.] 

A LITTLE more than ten years ago attention was first called to the fact 
that leaf impressions were to be found In a sandstone used for building 
purposes at Brldgeton, Cumberland Co., N. J. Specimens transmitted to 
Prof. Geo. H. Cook, then State Geologist, were by him referred to Dr. N. 
Jj. Britton, at that time his assistant on the State survey. A paper upon 
the subject was presented by Dr. Britton at the Montreal meeting of the 
A. A. A. S., in 1882, entitled **0n a Post Teitiary Deposit Containing 
Impressions of Leaves, in Cumberland County, New Jersey .*'* Subse- 
quently he embodied the result of his Investigations in a paper read before 
the N. Y. Academy of Science, Nov. 24, 1884, under the title of **The Geo- 
logical Age of the Pre-Glaclal Drift."* During the year 1884, and a year 
or so subsequently, Messrs. J. B. Marcou and Frank Burns made further 
collections and the specimens were submitted to Prof. Leo Lesquereux 
for determination. They were numbered and some of them briefly de- 
scribed and provisionally named in the Proceedings of the U. S. Natural 
Museum.' Dr. John I. Northrop, of Columbia College, next took hold 
of the matter. Thus fur the specimens had been too poor for accurate 

^Froc. A. A. A. S. zxxi, 887-3.^9. "Trans. N. T. Acad. Sci., iy, 31-33. 

«Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 21-40 and xi, 11-42. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 12 



178 ncnoH s« 

■ 

utodj or comparlton. Pr. Northrop spent same time lo 1889 collecting 
and unoeeeded In obtaining a floe snlte of specimens and was invited to 
publish bis conclosions as a bulletin of tlie U. S. Geological Surrey. 
If any of the flgures had been drawn and a few of the description b com- 
pleted, when a sodden accident terminated his life, Jane 86, 1891, and I 
was subsequently requested to take up the work where be had lefb it and 
to carry it through to completion. It is now practically in shape for pub- 
lit ation. 

Some twenty-flye genera are figured and described, representing a flora 
almost identical with that of to-day a few hundred miles farther south. 
Nearly every genus is a Hying one, as are also a majority of the species. 

The medium In which they occur — a coarse, more or less ftriable sand- 
stone — is a poor one for the preservation of flne velnlng or serrations and 
scores of the specimens are worthless for this reason. Nevertheless the 
great abotidance of the material is snch that an excellent selection has 
beeu pobsible. So far as I am informed this Is the only deposit of such 
remains known from the horizon of the Yellow Gravel. The following 
well known genera are represented : Magnolia, Asimina, Diospyroiy 
jEmcuIvs, Nyua, Viburnum, Liquidambar, Hex, Marus, Leucotho^, Laurus, 
Persfa, AmelanchieTf Hiearia, Castanea, Ulmus, Flanera and Ostrya, be- 
sides several whose exact aflluitles are doubtrdl. Amongst the most 
abundant and interesting of these latter are a number of leguminous pods, 
apparently allied to tlie genera Metoneuron or Pongamia, and a reed-like 
organism, referred provisionally to Cyperites. The following are some of 
the living species which have been satisfactorily identifled: Magnolia 
acuminata^ L., Asimina triloba^ (L.) Don., Diotpyros Virginiana, Willd., 
NyBsa uniflora, Walt., Planera aqwUiea, Gm<*i., Ulmus Americana, L., lUz 
opaca, Alt., Lencothoi racemosa^ DC, Liquidambar styraciftuaj DC, Persea 
Borbonia,{Jj.) Spreng, etc. — practically thearboresceutfloraof our Virginia 
lowlands to-day. It probably represents one of the latest fossil floras of 
which we have any remains and it no doubt flourished Just previous to the 
era of the glacial epoch. The leaves bear evidence of having been de- 
posited in slowly running water, sm they are frequently so matted together 
tliat they cannot be separated. Further Investigation would be sure to 
yield rich results, as the material Is both abundant and readily obtained. 

[The paper was Illustrated by drawings and specimens.] 



Exhibition of Gxjelph fossils found in Rochester, N. Y. By Albert 
L. AiiEY, Rochester, N. Y. 



Cerro Viejo and its cones of volcanic bjecta and extension in Nic- 
aragua. By John Crawford, Government Geologist, L6on, Nicara- 
gua. 



The mathematics of mountain sculpture. By Verflanck Colvin, 
Supt. New York State Land and Adirondack Survey, Albany, N. Y. 



OEOLOGY AND GEOGBAPHT. 179 



Recent geological explorations in Mexico. By Prof. Bobert T. Hill, 
Anstin, Texas. 



The volcanic cratbbs op the United States. By Prof. Robert T. 
Hill, Austin, Texas. [To be printed in Harper's Magazine.] 



The homotaxic relations op the North American Lower Cretaceous. 
By Robert T. Hill, Austin, Texas. 



The American mastodon in Florida. By Dr. John Kost, Adrian, Mich. 



The mining, metallurgical, geological, and minkralogical exhibits 
to be shown at the World's Columbian Expostion. By George F. 
KuNZ, Hoboken, N. J. 



Pleistocene geography. By W J McGeb, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 



Distribution op the Lapatettb pormation. By W J McGeb, U. S* 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 



SECTION P. 



BIOLOGY 



OFFICERS OF SECTION F. 



Viee-Pruid4nt. 
8. H. Qaob, IthAca, N. Y. 

Secntaty. 
Btbom D. Hal8TU>, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Member of Counett. 

Thomas Mobono, New York, ontil Aug. 22 ; afterwards 
A. H. Tutti;b, Uoirersity of Virginia. 

Mmben of SeeHonal OommUtee. 

8. H. Gaob, Ithaca, N. Y. Btboh D. Halstsd, New Bnmswick, N. J. 
J. M. CouLTBB, Bloomington, Ind. A. J. Cook, Agricaltnral College, 
Mich. H. H. RusBT, Newark, N. J. Hbrbxbt Osbobk, Ames, 
Iowa. W. J. Bkal, Agrlcnltnral College, Mich. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
C. v. Bujbt, Washington, D. C. 

Membere of St^<ommittee on Nbmination$, 

S. H. Gaob, Ithaca, N. Y. Btbon D. Halstbd, New Brnnswlck, N. J. 
L. M. Undxbwood, QreencAstle, Ind. E. D. Copb, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. C. NimiNO, Iowa City, Iowa. 



ADDRESS 



BY 

SIMON HENRY GAGE, 

VICE PRESIDENT, SECTION F. 



THE COMPASATIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF BESPIBATIOX. 



Among tlie very first of the pliysiological acts observed were 
those of respiration. The regular movements of breatliing, from 
the first feeble efforts of-tlie new-born babe until the sigh in the 
the last breath of the dying — after which is silence, cold, and dis- 
solution — have commanded the attention and claimed the interest 
of every one, the thoughtful and the thoughtless alike. And one 
comes to feel that in some mysterious way ''the breath is the life." 
But in what way does breathing subserve life or render it possible? 
Aristotle and the naturalists of the olden time supposed that it was 
to cool the blood that the air was taken into the lungs, and, as they 
supposed, also into the arteries. With the limited knowledge of 
anatomy in those early days, and the fact that after death the ar- 
teries are wholly or almost wholly devoid of blood, while the veins 
are filled with it, what could be more natural than to supi)ose that 
the arteries were vessels for the cooling air? If one supposes that 
be has entirely outgrown this view of Aristotle, let him think for 
a moment how he would express the fact that an individual is de- 
scended from the Puritans, for example. In expressing it even the 
physiologist could hardly bring himself to say other than ''he has 
the blood of the Puritans in his veins,** Would he ever say ^'he has 
the blood of the Puritans in his artenesV* 

As observation increased, the cold-blooded animals were more 
carefully studied and found to possess also a respiration ; they cer- 
tainly do not need it to cool the blood. Then there are the insects 
and the other myriads of living forms that teem in the oceans, 

(183) 



184 SECTioir F. 

lak€A, rivers and even in the wayside pools. Do these, too, have 
a breath ? And tlie plants on the land and in the water, is the air 
vital to them? Aristotle and the older naturalists could not answer 
these questions. To them, on the respiratory side at least, all life 
was not in anv sense the same. 

It was not till chemistry and physics were considerably devel- 
oped, not until the air-pump, the balance and the burette were 
perfected that it was |X)ssible to give more than a tentative answer. 
Not until the microscope could increase the range of the eye into 
the fields of the infinitely little, was it possible to form even an 
approximately correct conception. The first glimmering of the 
real significance of respiration for all living things was in the 
observation that the air which would not support a flame, althongh 
it might be breathed, could not support life. That is, there must 
be something in the transparent air that feeds the flame and becomes 
the breath of life, the real pabulum vUce, the merely mechanical 
action of the air not being sufiQcient. 

Since the experiments on insects and otl>er animals with the air- 
pump, by Boyle (1670) by Bernuilli on subjecting fishes to water 
out of which all the air had been boiled, and those of Mayow 
(1674), it became more and more evident that respiration was not 
confined to the higher forms, but was a universal fact in tlie organic 
world. Then came the most fruitful discoveries of all, made by 
the immortal Priestley (1775-6), viz., that the air is not an ele- 
ment but composed of two constituents : Nitrogen, which is inert 
in respiration, and Oxygen, which is the real vital substance of the 
air, the substance which supports the flame of the burning candle 
and the life of the animal as well. 

What would seem more simple at this stage of knowledge than 
that the parallel between the burning candle and the living organ- 
ism should be thought to represent truly the real conditions? that 
as the burning candle consumes the oxygen and gives out carbon 
dioxide, so the living thing breathes in ox3'gen and in place of 
that consumed gives out carbon dioxide. And as in each case heat 
in produced, what would be more natural than to look upon respi- 
ration as a simple combustion? This was the generalization of 
Lavoisier (1780-1789). As he saw it, the oxygen entered Uie 
lungs, reached the blood and burned the carbonaceous waste there 
found and was immediately given out in connection with the carbon 
with which it had united ; and as the gas given off in a burning 



ADDRESS BT 6IM0K HlfiNRT GAGE. 185 

candle makes clear lime water turbid, so the breath produces a like 
turbidity. 

But here, as in many of the processes of nature, the end products 
or acts were alone apparent, and while the fundamental idea is 
probably true that respiration is, in its essential process, a kind of 
combustion or oxidation, yet the seat of this action is not the lungs 
or blood . If the myriads of m icroscopic forms are considered , these 
have no lungs, no blood, and many of them even no organs, — they 
are, as has been well said, — organless organisms; and yet every 
investigation since the time of Vinci and Von Helmont, Boyle and 
Mayow have rendered it more and more certain that every living 
thing must be supplied with the vital air or oxygen and that this 
is in some way deteriorated by use ; and the nearer investigation 
approaches to the real life stuff or protoplasm, it alone is found to 
be the true breather, the true respirer. And further, as was shown 
long ago by Spallanzani (1803>1807), if one of the higher animals, 
as a frog, is decapitated and some of its muscle or other tissue ex- 
posed in a moist place, it will continue to take up oxygen and give 
out carbon dioxide, thus apparently showing that the tissues of the 
highly organized* frog, may, under favorable conditions, absorb 
oxygen directly from the surrounding medium, and return to it 
directly, the waste carbon dioxide. This proves conclusively that 
it is the living substance which breathes, and that the elaborate 
machiner}' of lungs, heart and blood-vessels is only to make sure 
that the living matter, far removed from the external air, shall not 
be suffocated. Still more strange, it has been found that, if some 
of the living tissue is placed in an atmosphere of hydrogen or ni- 
trogen entirely devoid of oxygen, it will perform its vital functions 
for a while, and although no oxygen can be obtained, it will give 
off carbon dioxide as in the ordinary air. If it is asked, ^^ how can 
these things be ?" the answer is apparently plain and direct. Not 
as the oxygen unites directly with the carbon n the burning candle, 
does it act in the living substance. The oxidations are not direct 
in living matter, as in the candle ; but the living matter first takes 
the oxygen and makes it an integral part of itself, as it does the 
carbon and nitrogen and other elements ; and finally when energy 
is to be liberated, the oxidation occurs, and the carbon dioxide 
appears as a waste product. 

The oxygen that is breathed to-da}', like the carbon or the nitro- 
gen that is eaten, may be stored away and represent only so much 



/ 



186 6BOTIOM r. 

potential energy to be ased at aome futare time in mental or phys- 
ical action. 

So far only living animal substance has been discussed. If 
plants are considered, what can be said of their relations to the air? 
The answer was given in part by Priestley (1771) who found that 
air which had been vitiated by animal respiration became pure and 
respirable again by the action of green plants. He thus discov- 
ered the harmonizing and mutual action of animals and plants 
upon the atmosphere ; and there is no more beautiful harmony in 
nature. Animals use the oxygen of the air and give to it carbon 
dioxide which soon renders it unfit for respiration ; but the green 
plants take the carbon dioxide, retain the carbon as food and return 
the oxygen to the air as a waste product. This is as thoroughly 
established as any fact in plant physiology ; and yet in his work 
Priestley had some which he called ^* bad experiments ;" for in- 
stead of the plants giving out oxygen and purifying the air, they 
sometimes gave off carbon dioxide, and rendered it more impure 
after the manner of an animal. What investigator cannot sympa- 
thize with Priestley when he calls these ^' bad experiments?" They 
appeared so rudely to put discord into his discovered harmony of 
nature. But nature is infinitely greater than man dreams. The 
^^ bad experiments *' were among the most fruitful in the history of 
scientific discovery. Ingenhausz (1787) followed them up, care- 
fully observing all the conditions, and found tbat it was only in 
daylight that green plants gave out oxygen ; in darkness or insuffi- 
cient light they conducted themselves like animals, taking up oxy- 
gen and giving out carbon dioxide. Finally it was proved by 
Saussure (1804) and others that both for green plants, and those 
without green like the mushrooms oxygen is as necessary for life 
as for animals. It thus became evident that this use of oxj^gen 
and excretion of carbon dioxide was a property of living matter, 
and that the vei*y energy which in the green plant set free the oxygen 
of the carbon dioxide was derived from oxidations comparable with 
those giving nse to energy in animals. Further that the purifica- 
tion of the air by green plants in light is a separate function — a 
chlorophyll function, as it has been happily termed by Bernard— 
and resembles somewhat digestion in animals, the oxygen being 
discarded as a waste product. Indeed so powerful is the effort 
made to obtain oxygen for the life processes by some of the lowest 
plants — the so-called organized ferments, — that some of the most 



ADDBESS BT SIMON HENRY OAOE. 187 

useful and some of the most deleterious products are due to their 
respiratory activity. In alcoholic fermentation, as clearly pointed 
out by Pasteur and Bernard, the living ferment is removed from all 
sources of free oxygen and in the efforts of the ferment for respira- 
tion the molecules of the sugar are decomposed or rearranged and 
a certain amount of oxygen set free; and this oxygen supplies the 
respiratory needs of the ferment. 

It has been found that the motile power of some bacteria like 
Bacterium termo, e, g,y depends on the presence of free oxygen in 
the liquid containing them. When this is absent they become quies- 
cent. This fact has been utilized by Engelmann and others in the 
study of the evolution of oxygen by green and other colored water 
plants. The bacteria serve as the most delicate imaginable ox- 
ygen test, so that when the minutest green plant is illuminated by 
sufficient daylight, the previously quiescent bacteria move with great 
vigor and surround it in swarms. Out of the range of the plant 
the bacteria are still or move very slowly as if to conserve the mi» 
nute energy-developing substance they have in store until it can be 
used to the best advantage. 

May we not now approach the problem directly and answer, for 
the whole organic, living world, the question, ^'what is respiration ?'* 
by saying it is the taking up of oxygen and giving ov^ of carbon 
dioxide by living matter. This is the universal and essential fact 
with all living things whether they are animals or plants, whether 
they live in the water or on land. But the ways by which this fun- 
damental life process is made possible, the mechanisms employed 
to bring the oxygen in contact with the living matter and to re- 
move the carbon dioxide from it are almost as varied as the groups 
of animals ; each group seems to have worked out the problem in 
accordance with its special needs. It is possible, however, in 
tracing out these complex and varied methods and mechanisms, to 
recognize two principal ones, — The Direct and the Indirect. 

In the first, there is the direct assumption of oxygen from the 
surrounding medium, and the excretion of carbon dioxide directly 
into it. The best examples of this are presented by unicellular 
forms like the amoeba where the living substance is small in amount 
and everywhere laved by the respiratory medium. But as higher 
and higher forms were destined to appear, evidently the minute, 
organless amoeba could not in itself realize the great aim toward 
which Nature was moving. There must be an aggregation of 



188 BBcnoK r. 

amoebae, some of them serving for one purpose and some for 
another. Like human society, as civilization advances, each indi- 
vidual does fewer things, becomes in some ways less independent, 
but in a narrow sphere acquires a marvelous proficiency. Or, to 
use the technical language of science : In order to advance there 
must be aggregation of yhom, differentiation ofetructure and special- 
ization of function. Evidently, however, if there is an aggregation 
of mass, some of the mass is liable to be so far removed from the 
supply of oxygen and the space into which carbon dioxide can be 
eliminated that it is liable to be starved for the one and poisoned 
by the other. Nature adopted two simple ways to obviate this : 
First, to form its aggregated masses into a kind of network or 
sponge with intervening channels through which a constant stream 
of fresh water may be made to circulate, so that each individual 
cell of the mass could take its oxygen and eliminate its carbon di- 
oxide with the same directness as its simple prototype, the amoeba. 

But in the course of evolution forms appeared with aerial respi- 
ration ; and the insects, among these, solved the mechanical dif- 
ficulty of respiration by a most marvelous system of air tubes or 
tracheae extending A*om the free surface, and therefore from the 
surrounding air, to every organ and tissue. By means of this in- 
tricate network air is carried and supplied almost directly to every 
particle of living matter. The respiration is not'quite direct with 
the insects, however, for the oxygen and carbon dioxide must pass 
through the membranous wall of the air tube before reaching or 
leaving the living substance. 

In the next and final step, the step taken by the highest forms, 
the living material is massed, giving rise not only to animals of 
moderate size, but to the huge creatures that swim in the seas like 
the whale or walk the earth like the elephant. With all of these 
the step in the differentiation of the respiratory mechanism con- 
sists in the great perfection of lungs or gills, and in the addition 
of a complicated circulatory system with a respiratory blood, one 
of the main purposes being, as the name indicates, to subserve in 
respiration by carrying to each individual cell in the most remote 
and hidden part of the body the vital air, and in the same journey 
removing the poisonous carbon dioxide. 

This has been called Indirect Bespirationj because the living 
matter of the body does not take its oxygen directly either from 
air or water, but is supplied by a middle man, so {o speak. 



ADDRESS BT SIMON HBNBT GAGE. 189 

The complicated moTements by which water is forced over the 
gills, or by which the langs are filled and emptied, and the great 
currents of blood are maintained, that is, the striking and easily 
observed phenomena of respiration are thus seen to be only super- 
ficial and accessory ; they only serve as agents by which the real and 
the essential processes that go on in silence and obscurity are made 
possible. 

So far I have attempted to give a brief r6snm6 of the views on 
respiration that have been slowly and laboriously evolved by many 
generations of physiologists, each adding some new fact or cor- 
recting some misconception ; and I trust that this brief sketch has 
recalled to your minds the salient facts in our knowledge of res- 
piration, and that it will give a Just perspective, and enable me, if 
I may be permitted, to describe briefly what I believe to be my own 
contribution to the ever-accumulating knowledge of this subject. 

In 1876-1877, Professor Wilder, who may be said to have in- 
herited his interest in the ganoid fishes directly from his friend and 
teacher, Agassiz, who first recognized and named the group, was 
studying the respiration of the forms Amia and Lepidosteus^ com- 
mon in the great lakes and the western rivers. As his assistant it 
was my privilege to aid in the experiments, and thus to acquire the 
spirit and methods of research in the most favorable way, bj^ fol- 
lowing an investigation by a master from its beginning to its close. 
The results of that inquiry were reported to this section in 1877, 
and formed a part of the Proceedings of the Association for that 
year. From that time till the present the problems of respiration 
in the living world have had an ever increasing fascination for me 
and no opportunity has been lost to investigate the subject. The 
interest was greatly increased by the discovery that a reptile — the 
soft-shelled turtle— did not conform to the generalizations in all 
the treatises and compendiums of zoology, which state with the 
greatest definiteness that all reptiles, without exception, are purely 
air breathing, and throughout their whole life obtain oxygen from 
the air and never from the water. The American sofk-shelled tur- 
tles, Amyda and AspidonecteSy at least, do not conform to this gen- 
eralization, but on the contrary naturally and regularly breathe in 
the water like a fish as well as in the air like an ordinary reptile, 
bird, or mammal. 

In carrying on the investigation of the respiration of the turtle 
there appeared for solution the general problem, which briefiy stated 



190 8E0TI0N V. 

is as follows : — In case an animal breathes both in the a!r and in 
the water, or more accurately, has both an aerial and an aquatic 
respiration like the Ganoid fishes Amia and Lepidosteus^ like the 
sofb-shelled turtles, the tadpoles and many other forms, what part 
of the respiratory process is subserved by the aqueous and what by 
the aerial portion of the apparatus? So far as I am aware this prob- 
lem had not been previously considered. It was apparently as- 
sumed that there were in these fortunate animals two independent 
mechanisms, both doing precisely the same kind of work, that is, 
each serving to supply the blood with oxygen and to relieve it of 
carbon dioxide as though the other were absent. That was .a nat- 
ural inference, for with many forms the respiration is wholly aquatic, 
all the oxygen employed being taken from the water and all the 
carbon dioxide excreted into it. On the other hand in the exclu- 
sively air breathing animals, as birds and mammals, the respiration 
is exclusively aerial. 

This natural supposition was followed in the first investigations 
on the respiration of the soft-shelled turtle's, and while it was 
proved with incontestable certainty that they take oxygen from the 
water like an ordinary fish, that is, have a true aquatic respiration 
in addition to their aerial respiration, there was altogether too much 
carbon dioxide in the water to be accounted for by the oxygen 
taken from it. Furthermore, upon analyzing the air from the lungs 
of a turtle that had been submerged sometime, the oxygen had 
nearly all disappeared and but very little carbon dioxide was fcftind 
in its place, whereas by analogy with human respiration for exam- 
ple, a quantity of carbon dioxide nearly as great as that of the ox- 
ygen which had disappeared should have been returned to the 
lungs. Likewise in Professor Wilder's experiments with Amia^ 
to use his own words : ^'Rather more than one per cent, of carbon 
dioxide is found in the normal breath of the Amia; but much more 
of the oxygen has disappeared than can be accounted for by the 
amount of carbon dioxide." Everything thus aj^peared anomalous 
in this mixed respiration, and instead of a clear, consistent and in- 
telligible understanding of it there seemed only confusion and am- 
biguity. Truly these seemed like *'bad experiments." 

It became perfectly evident that the first step necessary in clear- 
ing the obscurity was to separate completely the two respiratory 
processes, to see exactly the contribution of each mechanism to the 
total respiration. But this was no easy thing to do. In the first 



ADDRESS BY SIMON HBNBY GAGB. 191 

place the animal must be confined in a somewhat narrow space in 
order that air and water which are known to have been affected 
by its respiration may be tested to show the changes produced in it 
by the respiratory process ; in the second place the water has so great 
a dissolving power upon carbon dioxide that even if it were breathed 
out into the air it would be liable to be absorbed by the water ; 
then some means must be devised to prevent the escape of the 
gases from the water as their tension becomes changed ; and, final- 
ly, as the animal in the water must be able to reach the air, a dia* 
phragm must be devised which would prevent the passage of gases 
between the air and the water^ and at the same time offer no hin- 
drance to the animal in projecting its head above the Virater. As a liq- 
uid diaphragm must be used it occurred to me that some oil would 
serve the purpose ; but the oil must be of a peculiar nature, it must 
not allow any gases to pass from air to water or the reverse, it 
must not be in the least harmful or irritating to the animal under 
experimentation and, finally, it must itself add nothing to either 
air or water. Olive oil was thought of and later the liquid par- 
aflSns. The latter were found practically impervious to oxygen and 
fulfilled all the other requirements, but unfortunately they absorb 
a considerable quantity of carbon dioxide. Pure olive oil was 
finally settled upon as furnishing the nearest approximation to the 
perfect diaphragm sought.^ 

The composition of the air being known, and a careful determi- 
nation of the dissolved gases in the water having being made, the 
animal was introduced into the jar and the water covered with a 
layer of olive oil from ten to fifteen millimeters thick. The top of 
the jar was then vaselined, and a piece of plate glass pressed down 
upon it thus sealing it hermetically. Two tubes penetrate this 
plate-glass cover, one connecting with the overlying air chamber 
and the other extending into the water nearly to the bottom of the 
jar. As the water and air were limited in quantity the shorter the 
time in which the animal remained in the jar the more nearly 
normal would be the respiratory changes ; the experiments were 
therefore continued only so long — one or two hours — as was found 
necessary to produce sufiScient change in the air and the dissolved 
gases of the water to render the analyses unmistakable. 

Proceeding with the method just described, the results given in 
the following table were obtained : 

iSee Wm. ThSrner on the nse of olive oil for the prevention of the absorption of car- 
bon dioxide. Beperterium der analytUchen Chemie, 1886, pp. 16-17. 



192 



SBCnON F. 



TdbU ofnUxed Be$pirationt $howing iK$ number of cubic eentim^tera of oxy- 
gen removed firom air and uxUer, and the amount of carbon dioxide 
added to t?u air and the water per hour and kilogram. 





OXTGBIf 


CARBON 


DIOXIDB 




FROM 


FROM 


TO 


TO 




▲IS 


WATBS 


AIR 


WATER 


Ganoid Fleih (^Amia ealva) 


65 


10 


22 


53 


Tadpoles (Larval Batraehia) 


70 


5 


24 


51 


Soft-shelled Turtle (Amyda mutica) 


81 


8 


10 


29 


Boll Frog ( J?ana catetbiana) 


188 


4 


no 


77 



Tbe oxygen from both the water and the air and the carbon dioxide in the air, were 
determioed with exactneM in all the experiments; but owing to the failure of Bome 
steps in the titration for tbe carbon dioxide in the water, the fign -es given for the Amia 
and the solt-ahelled tartle are the calculated results, assuming that the respiratory 
quotient is one, as that is the relation found by analysis in the other cases. This table 
will be greatly extended when the results of the investigation now in progress are 
published. 

It requires but a glance at the figures in this table to see that 
the aerial differs markedly from the aquatic part of the respiration. 
Even in the frog, in which the skin forms the only aquatic respi- 
ratory organ, the tendency is marked. The law appears to be un- 
mistakably this, viz., tliat in combined aqtuUic and aerial respira- 
tion^ the deriail part i» mainly for the supply of oxygen and the 
aquatic part largely for the excretion of carbon dioxide. This law 
which I stated in 1886 has been confirmed by the repetition of old 
experiments and by many new ones made during the present sum- 
mer. It is also confirmed by the experiments made on Lepidosteus 
in a different way by Dr. E. L. Mark, and published in 1890. I 
therefore feel confident that this is the expression of a general 
physiological law in nature. 

From the standpoint of evolution we must suppose that all 
forms originated from aquatic ancestors, whose only source of 
oxygen was that dissolved in the water. As the water is every- 
where covered with the limitless supply of oxygen in the air — there 
being 209 parts of oxygen in 1000 parts of air as contrasted with 
the 6 parts of oxygen dissolved in 1000 parts of water — it is not 
difficult to conceive that in the infinite years the animals found by 
necessity and experience that the needed oxygen was more abun- 
dant in the overlying air, and that some at least would try more 
and more to make use of it. And as any thin membrane with 
a plentiful blood supply may serve as a respiratory organ to fbrnish 



ADDRESS BT SIMpN HBNRT GAGE. 193 

the blood with oxygen, it is not impossible to suppose that such a 
membrane, as intbe throat, could modify itself little by little with 
ever increasing efficiency ; and that one part might become especially 
folded to form a gill and another might become saccular or lung-* 
like to contain air. While I am no believer in the purely mechani- 
cal physiology which sees no need of more than physics and chem- 
istry to render possible and explain all the phenomena of life, yet 
it is patent to every one that, although vital energy is something 
above and beyond the energies of physics and chemistry, still it 
makes use of these ; and certainly dead matter forms the material 
from which living is built. So, given a living thing, it, in most 
cases, moves along lines of least, rather than of greatest resistance ; 
therefore, if a practically limitless supply of oxygen may be ob* 
tained from the air and only a limited amount from the water, if 
any thing that might serve as a lung is present, most naturally 
the animal will take the oxygen from the air where it is in greater 
abundance and more easily obtained. On the other hand, carbon 
dioxide is so soluble in water that practicall}' an unlimited amount 
may be excreted into it ; and as it is apparently somewhat easier, 
other things being equal, for it to pass from the liquid blood to the 
water than to the air, it seems likewise natural that the gills should 
serve largely for the excretion of the carbon dioxide into the water. 
This is the actual condition before us in these, and I believe in all 
other cases,' of mixed or of combinned aerial and aquatic respiration. 
And I believe, as stated above, the law in respiration is, that wherer 
ever both water and air are used with corresponding respiratory 
organs tJie aerial part of the respiration is mainly for the supply of 
oxygen, and the aquatic part largely for the getting rid of carbon 
dioxide. 

It is not difficult to see in an actual case like that of the Ganoid 
Fibhes {Amia and Lepidosteus) the logical steps in its evolution, 
by which this most favorable condition has been reached ; a con- 
dition rendering these fishes capable of living in waters of almost 
all degrees of purity, and thus giving them a great advantage 
in the struggle for existence. But what can be said of the soft- 
shelled turtles, animals belonging to a group (Reptilia) in which 
purely aerial respiration is almost exclusively the rule? Standing 
alone, this might be exceedingly difficult or impossible of explana- 
tion. The Batrachia (frogs, toads, salamanders, etc.), all have 
gills in their early or larval stage, and most of them develop in the 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 18 



194 SECTION F. 

water^ and are In the beginning purely aquatic animals. The adnlts 
mast therefore, in most cases, repair to the water at the spawn- 
ing season, and frequently in laying the eggs they must remain 
under the water for considerable intervals. Being under the water 
and the need of oxygen becoming pressing, there seems to be, by 
a sort of organic memory, a revival of the knowledge of the way in 
which respiration was accomplished, when as larvae their natural 
element was water, and they may take water into the mouth and 
throat. This may be done by as highly a s|)ecialized and purely 
aerial form as the little brown tree-frog {Hyla pickeringii) or the 
yellow spotted salamander {AmUystoma punctcAum), Another 
very interesting form, the vermilion-spotted newt (Diemyctylus) , 
after two or three years of purely aerial existence, goes to the water 
on reaching maturity, and remains there the rest of its life, regularly 
breathing both by its lungs and by taking water into its mouth. 
A still more striking example is given by Professor Cope. The 
young Siren almost entirely loses its gills, and later regains them, 
becoming again almost completely aquatic in its habits as in the 
larval stage. 

With these examples, which may be seen by any one each re- 
curring year, is it impossible or difficult to conceive that, in the 
struggle for existence, the soft-shelled turtle found the scarcity of 
food, the dangers and hardships on the land, greater than those in 
the water? On remaining constantly in the water, and advanta- 
geously submerged for most of the time, it gradually re-acquired 
the power of making use of its pharyngeal membrane for obtaining 
oxygen from tlie water and excreting carbon dioxide into it as had 
its remote ancestors. And, further, is it not intelligible that with 
capacious lungs, which it can fill at intervals with air containing so 
'large a supply of oxygen that it, like the other double or mixed 
breathers, should use its lungs to supply most of the oxygen and 
Its throat to get rid of much of the carbon dioxide? 

Indeed, it seems to me that if the evolution doctrine is a true ex- 
pression of the mode of creation, then development may be in any 
direction that proves advantageous to an organism, even if the 
development is a re-acquirement of long discarded structures and 
functions. 

In closing may I be permitted to say to the older biologists, — to 
those familiar with the encouragements and inspirations that come 
with original investigation, that I trust they will pardon what to 



ADDBBSS BT SIMON HENBT GAGE. 195 

them is unnecessary personality or excess of detail in this address, 
for the sake of the younger ones among us, to whom the up-hill road 
of research is less familiar. Judging from my own experience in 
listening to similar addresses by my honored predecessors, it is 
helpful to know, when one is beginning, something of the dead v}orky 
the difSculties and discouragements as well as the triumphs in the 
Advancement of Science. 



BEFERENCES. 



1. Milne-Edwards. Lemons sor la Fhysiologle at TAnatomie com- 
part de rhomme et des animaux. Tome i, Paris, 1857. The historical 
discussion and the older bibliography are excellent. 

2. Bert, Paul. Lemons sur la physiologie compar^e de la Bespiration. 
Paris, 1870. Admirable bibliography, historical summary and account of 
the subject in all classes of animals. 

3. Bernard, Claude. Lemons sur les Phftnom^nes de la Vie communs 
aux animaux et aux y6g6taux. Tome u, Paris, 1879. A very suggestive 
and helpful work; it brings out with especial clearness the idea of the 
similarity of the underlying vital processes in animals and plants. 

4. Flint, Austin, Jr. The Physiology of Man (Five Volumes) Vol. I, 
New York, 1868. Excellent historical summary. 

5. ZuNTZ, N. Blutgase und respiratorischer Gaswechsel, in Hermann's 
Handbuch der Physiologie. Band it, Theil ii, Leipzig, 1882. Historical 
summary, some comparative physiology. 

6. Wilder, Burt G. Notes on the North American Ganoids, Amia^ 
Lepido$teus, Adpenser and Polyodon. Proceedings of the Amer. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci. Vol. xxiv (1875), pp. 151-198. On pp. 151-158, are discussed 
the respiratory actions of Amia and Lepidosteus. 

7. Wilder, Burt G. On the Bespiration of Amia. Proc. Amer. Assoc. 
Adv. Sci., Vol. xxvi (1877), pp. 806-818. Discusses fully the respira- 
tory actions of Amia, and shows by analyses the changes that are pro- 
duced in the air by its respiration. 

8. Gagb, Simon H. See Proc. American Assoc. Adv. Sci. Vol. xxxn, 
pp. 816-817; Vol. xxxiv, pp. 816-818. Vol. xxxiz, pp. 887; American 
Naturalist, 1886, p. 283; 1891, pp. 1084-1110; Science, Vol. vii, p. 894; 
The Beference Hand-book of the Medical Sciences, VoL vl, p. 197. 



196 KECnCfK F. 

9. Mark,E.L. StQdies onLepldostevB. Fart I. Bulletin of the Mnseam 
of Comparatiye ZoOlogy* Hsnrard UniTersity, Vol. xiz (1890)^. Respira- 
tion is discoBsed on pp. lS-27. ArriTes at tlie same oonclusion as that 
giren in 8, abore. 

10. Bacteria as a tost for the actiritj of the chlorophyll fonctioii in 
aqaatic plants. See Vines, Physiology of Flants^ London, 1886, p. 255, 
Engelmann, Jonr. Boy. Micr. Soc., 1881, p. 962, 1882, p. 663, 1888, p. 473, 
1890, p. 80. 

11. Hudson, W. H. The Naturalist in la Plata, London, 1892. Gives 
numerous examples of apparent re-acqnlrement of characters, especially 
habits. 

12. Good ALE, Oeorok L. Physiological Botany. New York, 1885. Ex- 
cellent statement of the respiratory function in plants, p. 371. 



PAPERS READ. 



A PBEUBflNABT ACCOTTNT OF THE BRAIN OJF DiBMYCTTLUS VIRTDESCENS, 
BAJ9ED CPON SECTIONS HADE THROUGH THE BNTIRB HEAD. By SuSANNA 

Phelps Gage, Ithaca, N. T. 

[ABSTBAOT.] 

I. An effort has been made to determine whether the remarkable changes 
in appearance, physiological fanction and histological structure, which 
occur at certain crises in the life history of Diemyctylus viridescens are 
accompanied by corresponding changes in the structure or mass of the 
brain. 

II. Thus far in the investigation the facts found negative this idea, as 
it appears that within a few days of hatching, the main differentiations of 
the brain have been laid down. 

III. In young larva the cells are very large but the diminution to the adult 
size seems gradual, while in general appearance the brain of the young is 
shorter and thicker than the adult, and the commissures seen in recon- 
structed mesal sections are less developed. 

The remarkable muscular correlation, and the well developed condition 
of the eye and ear, in the young larv» probably corresponds to the early 
development of the brain. 

IV. Attention is called to the coalescing of the optic lobes, the remark- 
able lateral projection of the inftindibulum or torus ; the changes in the 
hypophysis ; the condition of the pineal eye ; the relations of the plexuses 
to the cavities and the endyma; and the relation of the intermaxillary gland 
to the brain. 

[This paper was illustrated by a model and diagram.] 



On thedigestivb tract of some North Abcerican ganoids. By G. S. 
Hopkins, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.l 

A. Several organs (air-bladder, nasal cavity, gall-bladder and its duct) 
of Amia ealva have been found to be lined by a ciliated epithelium. 

J?. In the common sturgeon either the oesophagus possesses glands or 
else the air-bladder opens into the stomach. 

C Nearly the whole of the ental surface of the stomach of sturgeon 
is liued by ciliated cylindrical cells. 

(197) 



198 SECTION F. 

2>. Ciliated ceHs are also found in the stomach of Polyodon and Scaph- 
orhynchops. 

E. In the rectom of Amia, Jast candad of the spiral valve, there is a 
small area containing ciliated cells. 

[This paper will be printed in Proceed, of Amer. Micros. Society.] 



The "MAXIIXABT TENTACLES" OF PRONUBA. By JOHN B. SMITH, Sc.D., 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

In his excellent studies on the species of JVonti&a, Dr. C. V. RUey has 
called special attention to the peculiarities of the mouth structure, and 
particularly to the development of a so-called **maxlllary tentacle." The 
figures given of this structure In the various species are excellent, and 
aroused a suspicion In my mind that, while they were really special devel- 
opments in one sense, so far as we now know unique in Lepldoptera, yet 
that there were homologous structures elsewhere in other orders. That 
is to say, there is really no new organ or process, but a mere adaptation or 
development of a known maxillary sclerite, which is paralleled by similar 
developments of the same sclerlt« In other groups. To the courtesy of 
Dr. Kiley I owe a supply of specimens for examination, and from a careful 
study of these, I have concluded that the so-called tentacle is really an ex- 
tension of the palpifer or palpus bearer. Of all the Lepldoptera known 
to me, Pronuha has the maxillary sclerltes best developed. Dr. Riley has 
called attention to the fact that the two halves of the spiral tongue are not 
united, as is usual In the higher Lepldoptera to form a tube, and I find 
that when the two maxill» are dissected off, the structure bears a re- 
markable resemblance to that found In the coleopterous genus Nemognatha ; 
the lacinla being lacking while some of the other sclerltes are better 
marked. A comparison of the figures of Nemognatka and of Pronuha^ 
male, will at once, emphasize this similarity. In the male Pronuha the 
'* maxillary tentacle" Is not developed; but if we examine the large sclerite 
at the base of the palpus, which Is palpifer without question, we see, evi- 
dently, the structure whose prolongation and specialization form the "ten- 
tacle." This special development of the palpifer is not unique in Pronuha ; 
but Is of common occurrence in the piercing Diptera, 

In a paper published by me In the Transactions Amer. Ent. Society, 
xvu, 1890, I showed the modifications of this structure In the Diptera ; 
but I was at that time unable to decide whether I had to do with a palpifer 
or with a stipes. In the Hemiptera the same sclerite Is also developed 
into a piercing organ although the maxillary palpi themselves are rudi- 
mentary. It may be objected that these are rigid, chltlnous processes 
while in Pronuha the process Is fiexlble and set with numerous tactile or 
specialized spines. This kind of change Is not unusual In insects, and 
precisely the same difference appears between the rigid chltlnous llgula 
of the piercing DipUra and the flexible sensitive ligula of the bees. In 



BIOLOOT. 199 

the structure of the galea, yet more marked changes occur; but In the 
JPanorpicUe of the order Hymenoptera we have a development of the palpifer 
which is not rigid, but is membraneous though not flexible, and Is set with 
hair which In part at least is tactile in function. In the same family of 
Panorpidoe we have a mo^t remarkable example of the elongation of mouth 
parts. The lacinia is small, but obvious ; the subgalea is elongated from 
each side forming lobes ; each joint of the galea is elongated between these 
lobes and finally the palpifer is a flattened elongated process from the base 
of which the palpus arises. The conclusion, after an examination of these 
structures is irresistible. The flexible process in Pronuha is an extension 
of the palpifer, homologous with the rigid structures in the Hemiptera and 
piercing DipUra and with the more membraneous structure in the Panor^ 
pidce. It is a special development only in the sense that it is adapted for 
a special duty, and in the same sense that the ligula in Tabanua and Apia 
are each special developments for the advantage of those insects. 
[This paper will be. printed in Insect Life.] 



The descent of the lepidoptera. An application of the theory of 

NATURAL SELECTION TO TAXONOMY. By Prof. JOHN HeNRY CoMSTOCK, 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

There is indicated in this paper a method of applying the theory of nat- 
ural selection to taxonomy somewhat more fully than seems to have been 
done before. 

The method consists in beginning with the study of a single organ pos- 
sessed by the group of organisms to be ciassifled. The variations in form 
of this organ are observed ; the ftinction of the organ is studied ; and an 
effort is made to trace out the phylogenetic development of the organ, 
keeping constantly in mind the relation of the changes in form of the or- 
gan to its function. In other words, the record of the action of natural 
selection upon the group of organisms is read as it is recorded in a single 
organ. This gives data for a provisional classification of the group. Then 
another organ is selected and its history worked up in the same way. 
Then the results obtained in the two investigations are compared ; and 
where they differ there is indicated the need of renewed study. For if 
rightly understood the different records of the action of natural selection 
will not contradict each other. The investigation is continued by the 
study of other organs and a correlating of results obtained until a con- 
sistent history of the group has been worked out. 

This method differs from that commonly employed, in being a constant 
effort to determine the action of natural selection in the modification of 
the form of organisms, in order to better adapt their parts to perform 



200 8VCTI0K F. 

their ftinctlons. By the old method a search Is made for characters by 
which a group can be divided and sabdlrlded with bat little regard to the 
meaning of these characters. In tkcl we rarely see in purely taxonomic 
worlcs any reference to the functional significance of the characters nsed. 

As illnstrating the proposed method of study, the structare and func- 
tion of the wings of the Lepidoptera are discussed and conclusions are drawn 
from this study regarding the phytogeny of the order. 

It is shown that as a rule those forms In which the wings are broad and 
Ibrnished with many veins are more generallxed than those having narrow 
wings ftimished with fewer veins. 

But it is also shown that in some cases broad-winged forms have evi- 
dently been developed fk*om forms with narrower wlns:s, as in the Satorn- 
lldse, and, probably, in butterflies ; and an explanation of this apparent 
retrograde development is offered. 

It is also shown that the action of natural selection has tended towards 
a uniting of the two wings of each side during flight in order to insure 
their synchronous action. In the minority of the existing families this is 
accomplished by means of a frenulum. But in some families the frenolam 
has been superseded by an overlapping of the wings and a development of 
a forward projecting shoulder at the base of the costal edge of the hind 
wings, which render a frenulum unnecessary. 

It is also shown that in the case of two families, the Hepialid» and the 
MIcropterygidiB, the wings are united in an entirely dllTerent manner. 
Here, instead of a frenulum bom by the hind wing, there has been devel- 
oped a backward projecting lobe near the base of the inner margin of the 
fore wing. This lobe passes beneath the hind wing ; and thus the costal 
edge of the hind wing is held between this lobe and the inner margin of 
the fore wing which overlies the hind wing. 

For this lobe of the fore wing which has not been observed in the Lep- 
idoptera heretofore the name jugum is proposed. 

From this study the conclusion is drawn that in the primitive Lepidop- 
tera the wings of each side were not fastened together during flight; that 
later in certain forms a ft'enulum was developed; while in other forms s 
Jugum arose. We have therefore in existing Lepidoptera representatives 
of two distinct lines of development. And it is proposed, therefore, to 
divide the order into two sub-orders ; one to be named the FrencUas and the 
other the Jugatce. 

The relative reduction of the different areas of the hind wings in differ- 
ent families is then discussed. And it is shown that an entirely different 
course is followed in the Jugatie from that which takes place in the Fren- 
atsB, thus confirming the conclusion drawn as to the naturalness of the 
proposed division of the order Into two sub-orders. 

Reference Is also made to the taxonomic value of the clothing of the 
wings of the Lepidoptera, and to a discovery made by Prof. V. L. Eel- 
logi;, while working In my Laboratory, that in certain important respects 
the clothing of the wings of the Jugat» more closely resembles that of the 



BiqLOGT. 201 

Caddice-flies than that of the Frenat». It is also pointed out that at least 
many of the Caddice*flies resemble the Jugatie in the possession of a 
jagam. 



An interesting case of parasitism. By Prof. Axbekt H. Tuttle, Uni- 
versity of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

[absthaot.] 
This paper reports the discovery of a nematoid living as a parasite in 
the venom organ of the common rattlesnake (^Crotalus horridus L.). The 
Tenom (which was removed for experimental purposes) was foand to con- 
tain a large namber of immatare worms, which continued to live in the 
fresh venom during the time the latter was under examination (nearly two 
weeks), and several disrupted females containing larvae, showing the 
species, which is not yet determined, to be viviparous. An account will 
be published in the American Naturalist. 



On the adult cestodes of cattle and sheep. By Dr. C. W. Stiles, 
U. S. Dept. Agric, Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

An account was given of recent investigations by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry of the microscopic anatomy of cestodes found in cattle and sheep. 
Specimens (microscopic slides) of various species were exhibited. The 
relation of T, Giardi to Blanchard's new scenus Moniezia was discussed. 
Two forms from Africa were exhibited. Also the original specimens of 
Taenia denticulata and T. expansa Rudolphi, 1810. The generic and spe- 
cific characters which followed are based upon Internal anatomy (posi- 
tion and number of testicles, uteri, penis, vagina, etc.). 

[This paper will be printed in Report of U. S. Dept. Agric] 



The production of immunity in guinea pigs from hog cholera by the 
USB of blood serum from immunized animals. By Dr. E. A. db 
Schweinitz, Bur. Animal Ind., Dept. of Agr., Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTBAGT.] 

The paper gave an account of some experiments on the production of 
immunity in guinea pigs by the use of blood, and of curing them in the 
same way. It also gave the result of some observations which go to 
show the increase in the number of white blood corpuscles in guinea pigs 
while they are being immunized, and afterwards again when inoculated. 

[This paper will be printed in Medical News, Fhila.] 



202 SECTION F. 



Prbliminart note on thn anatokt of thb Ubodklb brain a» bxempu- 

FIED BY DSSMOaNATHUS FUSCA. Bj PlKBRB A. FlBH, Ithaca, N. Y. 



The animal pABAsrrts of dogs. By Prof. E. W. Doran, Maryland Ag- 
ricultural College, College Park, Md. 



Thb insect fauna of the Mississippi bottoms. By Prof. H. E. Weed, 
Agricultural College, MlBsissippl. [Paper will be printed in the 
Canadian Entomologist.] 



On Carphoxbra ptblbaria, the new HBRBARimf FB6T. By Prof. C. Y. 
RiLET, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



Biological notes on the fauna of Cold Spring Harbor. By Prof. 
C. W. Hargitt, Syracuse, N. T. 



Notes on some fresh-water mollusks. By Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, 
Baldwinsville, N. Y. 



On two embrto chicks in a single blastoderm. By Robert W. Moodt, 
Fair Haven Heights, New Haven, Conn. 



Heredity of acquired characters. By Dr. Manlt Miles, Lansing, 
Mich. 

The remarkable progress of science for nearly half a century must be 
largely attributed to the general recognition and extended applications of 
the laws of evolution, and the conservation of energy. 

In the biological departments of science, evolution has had a predomi- 
nant influence in suggesting lines of investigation, and in the interpreta- 
tion of results, while the significance of energy as a factor Ih all organic 
processes has not been as fully recognized. 

In both vegetable and animal physiology there is a growing tendency to 
look upon the collocations of matter as incidents, or manifestations of the 
transformations of energy, and the changes taking place in vital activities 



i 



BIOLOOT. 203 

are conyeniently expressed by the general term metabolism that inclades , 
the dynamic as well as the material factors, which cannot be separately 
considered fW>m the complexity of their intimate relations. Even In the 
processes of nutrition it appears that the demands for the material ele- 
ments of tissue are limited, while the expenditures of energy in the con- 
structive processes, and their collateral functions, are enormous. 

It is not my purpose to attempt a general discussion of the consenra- 
tion of energy as a factor in biological activities, but to call attention to 
some of the processes of nutrition with reference to their import as causes 
of variation, or the origin of new characters that may be made available 
through natural selection In the evolution of plaifts and animals. 

The inheritance of acquired characters has been called In question by 
Weismann and positively denied by those who accept his theory of the 
continuity of the germ plasma as originally formulated, and all Inheritable 
variations are assumed to be the result of fortuitous changes in the repro- 
ductive germs. The advocates of this theory confine their attention al- 
most exclusively to gross morphological characters, which have been de- 
veloped and fixed through an accumulation of numerous slight variations 
for many generations, and ask for direct proof of the complete transfor- 
mation of these established characters, by changes in the habits of a sin- 
gle Individual ; while the abundant evidence of physiological or functional 
changes in nutritive processes, which must be considered as the neces- 
sary precursors and probable causes of morphological changes, is claimed 
to be inadmissible. 

The processes of metabolism in the nutrition of plants and animals, as 
DOW interpreted by physiologists, fbrnish a rational explanation of the 
manner in which the reproductive cells may be influenced by functional 
adaptations of organisms to their environment, which are admitted to be 
causes of individual variations, and theories of heredity and evolution in 
which these physiological factors are not taken Into consideration, cannot 
be accepted as a satisfactory solution of the problems presented. 

Omitting subordinate details, which represent the separate links in the 
chain of events, the processes of nutrition may be summarized in general 
terms as follows : In plants the chemical elements and binary compounds 
on which they feed, are built up by successive steps of Increasing com- 
plexity and instability Into protoplasm, with a storing of the energy made 
use of in the constructive process, which is derived from the heat and 
light of the sun. The constructive processes are expressed by the term 
anabolism and the products of the difllierent upward steps are called anas- 
tates. 

Protoplasm, the most complex and unstable of organic substances, is 
the summit of the ascending steps of anabolism ; and katabolism, which 
represents the succeeding downward steps of metabolism, then follows, 
and its products or katastates are starch, cellulose, protelds, etc., or what 
We recognize as the proximate constituents and tissues of plants. 

The heat developed in the nutrition of plants Is also a product of 
katabolism, and it represents the dilference between the potential energy 



204 8ICTI0X F. 

of the protopiMm aad the potential energy of the other katastates formed 
from It. This Is not, however, safficlent to enable the plants to maintain 
an independent temperature, as It is rapidly dissipated by radiation firom 
the extended sarfltce of the foliage, and a large amount Is nsed in yapor- 
iaing the water exhaled by the leaves. An approximate qnanti tattve esti- 
mate of the energy expended in exhalation was given in a paper read 
before section I last year, and published in the Popular Science Monthly 
for May. 

From their greater complexity the more highly differentiated processes 
of nutrition in animals are not so readily traced, but the general coarse 
and results of metabolism, broadly stated, are essentially the same as ob- 
tain in plants. The food of animals consists of the proximate constitu- 
ents of plants, or the katastates of plant metabolism ; and, with the excep- 
tion of oxygen introduced in the process of respiration, they are unable 
to assimilate the simpler elements on which plants feed. 

The first demand of the animal economy is for energy to be nsed in the 
constructive processes, and this is derived exclusively from the stored 
energy of the organic substances of their food, through the destructive 
metabolism Involved in the processes of digestion. The proteids, fats, 
and carbhyd rates of the food of animals are not directly converted into 
animal proteids and fats, but the evidence indicates, as pointed oat by Dr. 
Foster, that they are reduced almost to their original elements and then 
reconstructed through the agency of animal protoplasm. In no other way 
can the energy required in animal nutrition be obtained, and as an inci- 
dent of the destructive metabolism of foods in the processes of digestion, 
the materials for the constructive process are provided for immediate use 
in a simpler form than that In which they were ingested. 

In general terms we may then say that the anabolic processes of animal 
nutrition consist in utiliaing the liberated energy in building these disin- 
tegrated food constituents into protoplasm, with a storing of the energy 
as an essential condition of its constitution ; and the animal proteids and 
fats, and in f&ct the tissues generally are the katastates of its destructive 
metabolism that contain less potential energy than the protoplasm from 
which they are formed ; the difference appearing as animal heat, which is 
supplemented by the destructive metabolism of the tissues involved in 
their ftinctional activity, or what is popularly called the wear and tear of 
the system. As in plants protoplasm is the summit, or the highest phase 
of the anabolic activities, and tissue building must be looked upon as a 
result of its katabolic transformations. 

In the higher animals the nutritive processes are more complex, and 
the number of upward and downward steps of metabolism is increased, 
through the elaboration of a common nutritive fluid, the blood ; but the 
sum and final outcome of the anabolic and katabolic changes are essential- 
ly the same as in the simpler organisms. Energy is used and stored up 
in the anabolic, or constructive, processes and liberated again as animal 
heat in the '^simultaneous and successive" katabolic processes which re- 
sult in the formation of the various tissues. 



BIOLOOT. 205 

Protoplasm is no longer looked npon as a substance of a definite chem- 
ical composition and constitution, as it must vary -widely in its specific 
properties In the dilferent species of plants and animals, and even in the 
difiTerent organs of the individual, and the varieties of protoplasm are 
therefore innumerable. In addition to these variations, arising from the 
characteristics of protoplasm in different specie^, and in their highly dif- 
ferentiated organs, the anastates representing the successive steps of its 
elaboration, and the katastates resulting from its destructive metabolism, 
in the same individual, must vary with the ever changing conditions of 
the environment, and the functional activity of every part of the organism. 
Individual variations from the prevailing type of the group, or family, 
are thus readily accounted for by a disturbance in the symmetrical bal- 
ance of the metabolism of the different organs of the body, by prevailing 
habits, or changes in the environment and conditions of food supply. 

In the phases of life from the embryo to the final decline of the bodily 
powers, there are changes in the relative predominance of anabolic and 
katabolic activities which we should not fail to notice. In Dr. Minot's 
interesting address at Indianapolis, *'0n Certain Phenomena of Growing 
Old," the sequence of mutations in metabolic activities in the life of the 
Individual were clearly shown. The greater activity of the nutritive func- 
tions in youth, and their gradual decline to maturity and old age, were 
strikingly illustrated by an instructive series of statistical diagrams. It 
-was also shown ^*that with the increasing development of the organism 
and its advance in age, we find an increase in the amount of protoplasm." 

This apparently conflicts with the conception of protoplasm as the phys- 
ical basis of life, and the most plausible inference from these facts, as 
suggested by Dr. Minot, was that **the development of protoplasm is the 
cause of the loss of power of growth," and that ''protoplasm was the 
physical basis of advancing decrepitude." 

A less obvious but more satisfactory explanation is furnished in the 
outline of the processes of nutrition already presented. It is evident that 
protoplasm is but a way station, as it were, in the development of tissues, 
and its destructive metabolism is an indispensable condition of growth 
and increase of organic substance. The greatest activity of the katabolic 
phases of metabolism take place in the embryo and youth, aod they then 
keep pace with the anabolic or constructive processes of the organism, so 
that the protoplasm elaborated is used in tissue building as fast as it is 
foimed. 

When maturity is reached the demand for new materials in growth 
ceases, the wear and tear of the system is diminished, with less intense 
demands for the processes of repair. With this falling off in the require- 
ments of the organism for katabolic products, including energy, anabol- 
ism predominates and protoplasm is allowed to accumulate in the different 
organs from the check to destructive metaboUsm arising from the general 
decline of vital activities. 

The hypothesis, that the germ plasma or its representative reproduc- 
tive granules are immortal and entirely independent of the body plasma, 



206 8BCTIOK F. 

on which is based the Msnmption that acquired characters cannot be 
transmitted, appears to be in direct conflict with these physiological 
laws of nntrition. The protoplasm of the body presents, as we hare seen, 
many differentiated rarieties adapted to the specific function of each or- 
gan, and its katastates differ accordingly. The Tarions glandular secre- 
tions, the products of nervous and muscular actiyities, the numerous ex- 
cretory products, and even the germ cells, so far as their molecular 
structure is concerned, must be considered as katastates of the protean 
varieties of protoplasm. The so-called body plasma must then be looked 
upon as made up of many differentiated subdivisions in genetic relations 
with many katabollc products, all of which are correlated, through vitai 
activities, to act in harmony to serve the entity we recognize as the indi- 
vidual. The differentiation of a germ plasma especially concerned in the • 
function of reproduction must be accepted as a physiological factor of 
the first importance, but we are not warranted in assuming that it is ex- 
empt from the metabolic transformations tibat characterize other living 
substances. 

Herbert Spencer defines life as **the continual adjustment of internal 
relations to external relations,** and Dr. Foster expresses substantially 
the same conception in defining living substance as *'not a thing or body 
of a particular chemical composition, but matter undergoing a series of 
changes." These definitions fairly represent our present knowledge of 
vital activities. Metabolism, with its '^simultaneous and successive*' phases 
of anabolic and katabollc transformations of matter and energy, is ad- ' 
mltted to be an essential condition of life in all tissues and elements of 
the body. A s living matter, the germ plasma must be continually under- 
going metabolic changes in adjusting its internal relations to its external 
relations with the body plasma, and interchanges of matter and energy 
must be involved in its increase and growth. 

These constant changes in the substance of the germ cells were not rec- 
ognized in the original hypothesis of the continuity of the germ plasma. 
As formulated by Welsmann *' heredity is brought about by the transference 
from one generation to another of a substance with a definite chemical, 
and above all, molecular constitution," which he called germ plasma, and 
assumed that it possesses a * 'highly complex structure conferring upon 
it the power of developing into a complex organism,** and heredity was 
further explained "by supposing that in each ontogeny a part of the spe- 
cific germ plasma contained in the parent egg-cell is not used up in the 
construction of the body of the offspring, but is preserved unchanged for 
the formation of the germ cells of the following generation.** Again he says, 
'*The germ plasma, or Idioplasm of the germ cell (if this latter term is 
preferred), certainly possesses an exceedingly complex minute structure, but 
it is nevertheless a substance of extreme stability, for it absorbs nourishment 
and grows enormously without the least diange in its complex molecular 
structure:* 

It is difilcult to understand how a living substance undergoing constant 
metabolic changes can be ''a substance of extreme stability/' or how it 



BIOLOGY. 207 

can "grow enormously without the least change in its molecular struc- 
ture." This assumed stability of molecular structure, and definite chem- 
ical composition of the germ cells, appeared to be necessary to give plaus- 
ibility to the cl^m of immortality, and the further assumption of the 
non-inheritance of acquired characters. The transmission of a definite, 
stable, self-propagating substance from one generation to another, unin- 
fluenced by the body plasma, has in fact been the shibboleth of those who 
deny the transmission of acquired characters, but Weismann himself has 
retreated from this stronghold of his theory as he found it untenable. 

In reply to the criticism of Professor Vines that it was "absurd to say that 
an immortal substance can be converted into a mortal substance," Professor 
Weismann without hesitation abandons the conception of molecular sta- 
bility in the germ plasma aiid presents his theory of heredity in a new 
form that is more in accordance with physiological laws, and at the same 
time appears to be fatal to the assumptions made by his followers. He 
says, "Does not life here as elsewhere depend on metabolism — ^that is to 
say, a constant change of material? And what is it then which is immor- 
tal? Clearly, not the mbstance, but only a definite form of activity." — "4n 
immortal, unalterable living substance does not eodst, but only immortal forms 
of activity of organized matter.'* The material continuity of the germ 
plasma is therefore discarded and replaced with the conception of modes 
of motion manifest in matter that is continually undergoing metabolic 
changes. As the complex molecular substance of the germ plasma is 
brought into intimate relations with the metabolism of the body plasma, 
through its own metabolic activities, we can readily perceive how acquired 
habits of the organism in modifying the general and special metabolism 
of the body must also have an influence on the substance of the germ 
cells, and through their constantly changing substance on the forms of 
activity, or modes of motion, that are transmitted from one generation to 
another in accordance with the new theory. It must then be evident that 
the assumed Independence of the germ plasma of all influence from the 
surrounding body plasma, that Is relied on to prove the non-inheritance 
of acquired characters, derives no support from the present conditions of 
physiological science. 

There are many functional variations in the activities of the different 
organs of the body that can only be attributed to changes in the environ- 
ment and food supply, in connection with the habits of the individual, 
and they are so clearly defined and of such frequent occurrence that it 
seems to be unnecessary to assume fortuitous variations in the germ cells as 
the sole factors for natural selection to act upon. In order to evolve two 
adult forms that are precisely alike in every detail, from two germs with 
the same identical qualities and tendencies, there must be in each case the 
same metabolic activity of every part of the system, giving rise to the 
same series of anastates in the constructive processes of every organ, 
and the same series of katastates in destructive metabolism, throughout 
the entire period of growth, which would of course rarely occur from a 
lack of uniformity in the surrounding conditions of the two individuals. 



208 SECTION F. 

Indiyidnal variations, which are so frequently observed, are then readily 
accoonted for, and there are no physiological reasons for the assumption 
that the metabolic bias of the organism which gives rise to them does not 
* likewise have an influence on the germ cells. 

The non-appearance of an acquired habit or peculiarity of the organism 
in the next generation cannot be accepted as evidence that it has not been 
potentially transmitted. The known facts of atavism show that an inher- 
ited peculiarity of the organism may be obscured for several generations 
by other characters, and then reassert itself with all its original Intensity. 
The established family characters, and the acquired habit or peculiarity of 
the individual represent antagonistic factors, and their relative Intensity 
in connection with conditions of development must determine which is to 
dominate in the offspring. The transmission of a character, in the first 
place, should not be manifest in a direct reproduction of the morphologi- 
cal peculiarity, but it must consist in a habit of the organism that leads 
to the development of the peculiarity in the offspring under favorable con- 
ditions for its exercise. The failure of the effects of injuries or mutila- 
tions to make their appearance in the offspring cannot be admitted as 
evidence to prove the non-inheritance of acquired characters, as the phys- 
iological activities of the system that are required to produce the morpho- 
logical peculiarity have not been established and there can be no tendency 
of the organism to reproduce them. 

The repetition of an acquired habit for several generations, under the 
same conditions, may be required to establish it as a dominant character 
over inherited family traits that have been fixed by transmission through 
a long line of ancestors, but the final result would show that it had been 
uniformly transmitted, although It had been for a time obscured by other 
prevailing hereditary tendencies of the organism. 

In discussing the evidence relating to the inheritance of acquired char- 
acters, or the effects of use and disuse, these antagonisms in hereditary 
tendencies should not be lost sight of, as the immediate results looked for 
may be obscured for a time by other predominant influences. 

The development of the improved breeds of live stock furnishes abun- 
dant evidence of the inheritance of acquired characters, but the limits of 
this paper will only permit a passing notice of its significance. The most 
successful breeders of domestic animals have acted on the principle that 
habits of the organs of nutrition, which determine the expenditure of the 
available energy of foods in a special direction, may be cultivated and in- 
tensified by persistent exercise for a number of generations, and it is 
difiacult to explain how the gradual improvement of the desired qualities 
are obtained without the transmission of the modified habit. 

The capacity to fatten at an early age, or, for abundant milk produc- 
tion is promoted by liberal feeding, in connection with a judicious exer- 
cise of the desired habit of the system, and the highest excellence is ob- 
tained when the system of management in each generation is especially 
directed to the cultivation of the habit in its integrity. This is particu- 
larly noticeable in the habit of milk production for a more or less extended 



BIOLOQT. 209 

period in the course of the year. The fashion of raising lambs by nurses 
of other breeds, and drying up the dam at once to keep her in show con- 
<lition, resulted in seriously diminishing the inherited capacity for milk 
production in the females of the families so treated. It is well known to 
farmers that cows on short pastures and under careless management will 
form the habit of **going dry" early in the season, and that this habit of 
giving milk for a short period is not only transmitted, but becomes a 
marked peculiarity of the females of the family that is persisted in under 
better conditions of food supply. 

It appears to be unnecessary to assume fortuitous changes in the germ 
cells to account for the increase, or the suspension of functions that can 
be so clearly traced to an acquired ancestral habit. Morphological pecu- 
liarities are not the only ones that give character to an organism and de- 
termine its significant qualities. As in isomeiic compounds in chemistry, 
we find living organisms that are, so far as we can determine, morpholog- 
ically identical that differ widely in their habits and general properties. 
Even in the higher animals the same organ may perform a variety of 
functions, as the liver for example, and the dominant function for the time 
being seems to be determined by the requirements of other organs, or of 
the general system under the special conditions in which it is placed. 

There are many species of microbes having the same form and structure 
that are distinguished by their habits, or the katastates formed in their 
processes of metabolism, and these katabolic products known as toxines, 
tox-albumins, ptomaines, etc., differ widely in their specific properties. 
Peculiarities in the functional activity of certain organs, or of the general 
system, appear to be transmitted with the same uniformity and certainty 
as morphological characters that are more readily observed, although not 
more significant as distinguishing characteristics. 

The experiments of Dr. Dallinger with three species of monads, under 
prescribed conditions of temperature, are of particular interest in show- 
ing that the modified or acquired habits of organisms are beyond question 
transmitted to their offspring. From the rapid repetition of the process 
of reproduction in these organisms by fission and sexual fusion, they have 
marked advantages in experiments for determining the inheritance of new 
characters. 

Throughout the experiments an abundant supply of suitable food was 
provided, and beginning with a temperature of 60^, which appeared to be 
most favorable for them, a gradual increase of temperature was made 
from time to time as they were able to endure it, until a final temperature 
of 158° was reached, in the course of seven years, at which there appeared 
to be a perfect adjustment of their vital activities to the abnormal envi- 
ronment. 

There were critical periods, as the temperature was increased, at which 
a considerable time was required for the organisms to become fully accli- 
mated, and when this was secured a more rapid increase of temperature 
was for a time admissible, until another point was reached at which a 
fhi'ther rise in temperature could not for some time be made. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 14 



210 SECTION P. 

No advance wan possible for eight months after the temperature of 78^ 
was reached ; at 93^ a halt of nine months was reqalred ; and at 137° a 
farther Increase of temperature was not permitted nntil after twelve months 
had elapsed. The manner In which the organisms were affected at the 
critical periods will be snfflclently lllastrated by Dr. Dallinger's remarks 
on their behavior at 187^. He says: "When the IS&^ dee:ree had been 
ptiiksed there were symptoms of oppression and distress, and on toaching 
187° this was very manifest," and it was fonnd necessary "to play the 
tliermal point backwards and forwards for three weeks before there was 
an approach to normal activity and fecandlty.** At the close of the twelve 
months, during which the temperature was maintained at 137^, there was 
an Increase In the vacnolation of the protoplasm, which disappeared on 
raising the temperature 49 In the following month. From this time more 
rapid progress was made until the final temperature of 158° was reached, 
when the experiment was terminated by an accident to the apparatus for 
regalating the temperature. 

At times a slight Increase of temperature was not tolerated nntll the 
changed habits of their protoplasm provided for the complete adjustment 
of their vital activities to the new environment, but when this adaptation 
was fblly attained there was apparently developed an increased flexibility 
of their organization that enabled them for a time to bear a comparatively 
rapid rise of temperature without any perceptible discomfort, but a limit 
to this toleration was again soon reached. The organisms that had been 
trained to live at a temperature of 158° with apparent satisfaction, and 
exhibiting a normal exercise of their nutritive and reproductive functions, 
were, however, killed when subjected to a temperature of 60°, which was 
the most favorable for their ancestors. 

The acquired habit of adjusting their physiological activities to an ab- 
normally high temperature was undoubtedly transmitted through many 
thousand generations, and it is evident that the germ plasma was affected 
by the changes of the environment, either directly, or with greater proba- 
bility through the modified metabolism of the body plasma. 

These experiments clearly indicate the importance of time, in some 
species at least, as a fttctor in the complete adjustment of even functional 
activities to changes in the environment. Seven years of persistent effort 
was required to bring about a change in the habits or metabolic processes 
of these organisms, that enabled them to endure or actually enjoy the final 
temperature of 158°, and a much longer time was evidently needed to 
produce any marked morphological changes. 

The transformations of energy In the metabolic processes of nutrition 
appear to be probable causes of variation, and possible factors in evolu- 
tion, that require investigation. The effects of use and disuse are not ob- 
vious in many organs of an obscure nature, and undetermined function, 
some of which may have intimate relations with the dynamic factors of 
nutrition, and thus serve a useful purpose which we are now unable to 
perceive. 

What are the relations of the so-called ductless glands, like the thyroid 



BIOLOGT. 211 

and sapra-renal capsules, to the utilization and conservation of energy? 
Are not the polar bodies of the ovum, and the thymus of the embryo, tem- 
porary organs to transfer and conserve energy under special conditions 
that disappear at later stages of development? 

What molecular or other changes take place in the organism to bring 
abont an intense activity of special functions, Involving a more complete 
utilization of energy, as in Increased milk production, or in improved fat- 
tening qualities? 

Questions like these must be answered to furnish a satisfactory explan- 
ation of biological activities, and theories of nutrition and heredity in 
which energy Is not recognized as one of the prime factors in every vital 
process, should be received with caution, and the fallacious arguments 
based upon them estimated at their real value. 



On the supposed correlations of quality in fruits— a study in evo- 
lution. By Prof. L. H. Bailet, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

It is commonly supposed that as quality in cultivated fruits increases, 
various other characters, as size, color and vigor of plant, decrease. The 
question is a philosophical one, for its answer must determine whether 
cultivated plants are subject to the same laws of variation as their wild 
congeners, whether all characters vary independently, or whether culti- 
vation introduces some new law of progression in parallelisms. The 
subject is approached by a study of the scales of points used in the best 
fruit-lists, by which it becomes apparent that many desirable qualities often 
appear in the same variety of fruit, and that many of our best market 
fruits are also best for the dessert. The best records show that diminished 
size, low color, comparative seedlessness, tenderness of tree, and lessened 
vigor are not correlated with high flavor. It is also shown that there is 
no loss of sweetness or aroma in domesticated fruits which is due to cul- 
tivation and amelioration. *'It is evident fk*om our whole discussion that 
quality and other characters of cultivated fruits appear independently of 
each other, that there is no correlation between these characters. There 
is a general increase in all characters as amelioration progresses, at least 
in all characters which are particularly sought by horticulturists; and this 
fact must ever remain the chief inspiration to man in the amelioration of 
plants." 



The significance of cleistogamy. By Thomas Meehan, Vice President 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pa. 

[abstract.] 
The author defines cleistogamy in a limited sense, as relating to those 
flowers, which, fertilizing in the bud, have parts of their floral organs sup- 
pressed or modified, — though in a general sense those which fertilize in 
the bud, without such modification, might be included. 



212 BBCnON F. 

He contrasts the limited namber of natural orders In which cleistogamy 
was known when Mr. Darwin wrote **Form8 of Flowers/' with the larger 
list now existing, and suggests that the additional facts may modify Mr. 
Darwin's conclusion that the slgnlflcance of cleistogamy was a mere labor- 
saving draft on the nutritive forces. He refers to his recent discovery 
that Dalibarda repens is clelstogamic, and to his former recorded discovery 
that all the fertile flowers of most Polygonl are absolutely closed and self- 
fertile, while the open, apparently perfect, and nectar-secreting flowers 
are sterile, — to the enormously productive power of clelstogene nemophl- 
las and other plants — to the great waste of nutrition in producing petalif- 
erous but sterile flowers in so many plants which produce cleistogene 
ones, and concludes that there is much greater waste of effort under these 
•conditions than in plants which self-fertilize without producing cleistoga- 
mlc flowers. 

His view is that cleistogamy Is simply one of the phases in the struggle 
for ascendancy between the vegetative and the reproductive forces, and 
of no especial significance so far as any benefit to the individual or the 
•race is concerned. 

[This paper has been published in full in the London Gardener's Chroni- 
cle for Oct. 1, 1892, p. 898.] 



The ferthjzatiok of fear flowers. By M. B. Waite, Dept. of Agric, 
Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTRACT]. 

The paper gives a brief general account of a large series of experiments 
on the fertilization of pear flowers. Notes the abundant insect visitors 
and the effect of climatic conditions on them. The conclusions reached 
are : (1) That some cultivated varieties of pear are capable of self fertil- 
ization but that the majority are not. (2) That cross-fertilization is ef- 
fected by Insects and (8) that cross fertilization, at least the kind required 
for the selling of fruits, consists In crossing one horticultural variety with 
another and not in crossing one tree of a certain variety with another of 
the same name. 

[This paper will be printed in Dept. of Agriculture Bulletin.] 



Gbrmixatiox at intervals of seed treated wffh fungicides. By W. 
A. Kellbrman, Ph.D., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

[abstkaot.J 
Experiments in connection with a study of fungicides for smut of oats 
have shown that seed treated with hot water and with solutions of potas- 
slc sulphide germinates more quickly than untreated seed. Experiments 
of Dr. J. C. Arthur with seed treated with hot water gave a similar result. 
He showed, moreover, that the treated seed would continue to germinate 
more quickly after a considerable period of time had elapsed. Experiments 



BIOLOOT. 



213 



toQching this matter were instituted. Oats and corn were used. The 
seed was treated with water, 132^ F. fifteen minutes; and with potassium 
sulphide i% solution eight hours, and the same twenty-four hours. The 
following table of percentages of germination gives the summary of re- 
sults : — 



When tested 


Untreated seed. 


Treated seed. 


1st day 


2d day 


3d day 


8th day 


1st day 2d day 


3d day 


8th day 


At time of treatm't 
5i inos. after treotm't 
18| " ** " 





1 


22 
26 
69 


62 
58 
90 


99 
98 
93 


10 




63 
87 
80 


75 
63 
GO 


94 
98 
79 



Rather low temperature at the time of the first test (July 1, 1891) in the 
above table unfortunately reduced the germination the second day. 

It is evident (1) that the germination of the treated seed is more rapid 
than of the untreaited seed immediately after the treatment, and (2) That tliis 
ratio continuously declines with time and the germination is ultimately 
less rapid and inferior. 

Besides, the seed which was treated twenty-four hours with a one-half 
per cent solution of potassic sulphide twenty-four hours, though germin- 
ating well at first, lost its germinating power to a remarkable degree sub- 
sequently as the following table shows : — 

PRRCENTAGE GERMINATION OF CORN. 



When tested 


Mode of treatment 
of the seed. 


Germination. 


Ist day 


2d day 


8dday 


8th day 


At time of treatment 


UNTREATED. 





12 


35 


100 


it 


Water, 132* P. 16 min. 





28 


58 


100 


»< 


K, S, ^ solution 8 hrs. 





86 


70 


100 


« 


K,S, " " 24 " 


42 


85 


97 


100 


• 

6^ months after treatment 


UNTREATED. 





1 


20 


00 


(( 


Water, 132" P. 16 min. 





6 


87 


99 


« 


K, S, a solution 8 hrs. 








14 


97 


<f 


K, 8, " " 24 " ^ 








1 


75 


18| months alter treatment 


UNTREATED. 





70 


97 


07 


14 


Water, 132* P. 16 min. 





88 


96 


99 


i< 


K, S, ^ solution 8 hrs. 





83 


92 


97 


H 


K, S, *' " 24 •« 





2 


15 


66 



214 SECTION F. 



Thb fsktiuzation of thr fig and capbification. By C. Y. Relet, 
Ph.D., U. S. Dept. Agric, WashingtoD, D. C. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

In the prodoctioo of the best Smyrna tigs, certain minute insects are 
concerned in a manner which is Tery puzzling to the lay mind. The sub- 
ject of caprlflcation Is, In fact, most complicated, and has occupied the at- 
tention of some of the best investigators ; and since fig culture is rapidly 
becoming an important Industry in parts of the United States, especially 
In California, onr people are beginning to realize that caprlflcation is nec- 
essary to the successful cultivation of the Smyrna figs. The question has 
been Intelligently discussed by Gnstav Eisen and other enterprising fruit 
growers of California, but one of the* most conspicuous writers on the sub- 
ject from San Francisco, instead of adding to our knowledge, has simply 
obscured the facts and increased the errors. 

The term ^'capriflg** denotes one of the two forms of the cultivated fig 
tree (^Ficus carica) and is commonly, though erroneously, called the "Wild 
Fig Tree." The other form is the flg tree proper, i. e., that form which 
produces the edible fruit. The capriflg also produces fruit, but it is small 
and insipid. ^'Caprlflcation" is a botauico-entomological operation con- 
sisting in the transfer of certain minute insects which develop in the seeds 
of the capriflg to the flg tree proper, in order to secure, through these in- 
sects, the fertilization of the female flowers, and thereby the production 
of the edible fruit. The usual mode of caprlflcation practised from time 
immemorial In Asia Minor, Greece, Turkey, Southern Italy and Southern 
Spain is as follows : — On a certain day in the spring of the year the young 
figs of tlie cflpriflg are gathered, two or more of them fastened to the end 
of a tough reed, and these loaded reeds are then laid or dexterously thrown 
on the twigs of the true flg tree. 

The author here sketched the history of caprlflcation since the days of 
Aristotle, and gave details of the peculiarities of the flg flowers and of the 
flg insects, especially of the true capriflg Insect, Blastophaga psenes. He 
referred to some twelve difl^erent flg insects, most of them new, con- 
nected with the wild flgs of America, from Florida, Mexico and St. Vin- 
cent, and closed with the following practical considerations : — 

The Adriatic varieties of flgs have been transported by means of layers 
and cuttings, and are now cultivated in almost every part of the globe pos- 
sessing a climate suitable to the growth of the flg tree. Thus we see that 
in the more southern parts of our own country, and more especially in 
California, where soil and climate appear to be admirably adapted to flg 
culture, large quantities of flgs are produced annually, which, in quality 
and size, compare favorably v^ith the best Adriatic flgs produced in Italy 
or France. But even the most enthusiastic of these flg growers concede 
that their flgs are inferior in every respect to the Smyrna flgs, and all agree 
that the superiority of the latter consists not so much in their greater size, 
greater sweetness and pulpiness, as in the delicate flavor of their fertile 
seeds. Strong efforts have been made in California to introduce the gen- 
uine Smyrna flg. Seedlings, cuttings and layers from the most famous fig 



BIOLOOT. 215 

growers in the MsBander Valley, near Smyrna, have been produced regard- 
less of cost, and extensively planted in California. The trees have grown 
admirably, bat lo I the fruit drops when still quite young, or, in some few 
instances where it adheres to the branches, remains small and insipid. 
This failure has been attributed to all sorts of causes : influence of climate, 
soil, irrigation, dishonesty on the part of dealers in roots and cuttings, 
etc. ; but the true explanation, as given by Mr. Gustav Elsen, who has in- 
telligently studied the subject, was till lately disregarded and ridiculed, 
the fact having been generally overlooked that the Smyrna fig has always 
been, and is still cultivated by means of capriflcatlon, and that the tree 
which, in its home, produces fruit with fertile seeds solely by the agency 
of the Blastophaga, cannot produce the same kind of fruit when trans- 
planted into a country where there are no Blastophagas. 

There is but one way to cultivate successfully the genuine Smyrna fig 
in California, and that is to plant both the female fig trees and the caprifig, 
and to introduce and colonize the Blastophagas. The planting and raising 
of the caprifig present no difficulty whatever; it is only necessary to sow 
the seeds of the genuine Smyrna fig« and both caprifig and true fig trees 
will result. Indeed this has already been done. But the genuine Blas- 
tophagas must also be introduced, for it is highly improbable that the 
Blastophagas, peculiar to our own wild fig trees in southern Florida and 
Mexico, are fitted to do the work. The Blastophagas, peculiar to Ficus ca- 
ricGj must, therefore, be introduced from their native home in Asia Minor 
or some other part of the Mediterranean. Fruits of the caprifig or twigs 
of the tree, with adhering f^uit, may doubtless be brought over at the 
proper season in good condition, i. e., with the Blastophagas within the 
fruits living and healthy ; but success in the experiment depends not only 
on the good condition of the Blastophagas, but also on the condition of 
the caprifig trees growing in California at the time of the arrival of the 
insects. The gall-flowers of the trees must, at that time, have attained 
just the precise state of development when they are ready for the ovlposl- 
tion of the insects. If they are not advanced enough, or are advanced 
too far, the acclimatization of the Blastophagas is sure to be a failure. I 
have for sometime recognized the importance of the introduction of these 
Blastophagas, and have had correspondence with parties in California in 
reference to the matter. But my plans to send a special agent abroad for 
this and other purposes have been hitherto frustrated by conditions over 
which I have had no control. The ett'orts made last summer, however, by 
Mr. J. Shinn, of Niles, Alameda Co., and Mr. Gustav Elsen, of San Fran- 
cisco, have sufficiently proved the practicability of the scheme. A box of 
caprifigs and Blastophagas arrived in San Francisco last August, many of 
the insects belngalive and aiiparently just hatched. The figs were collected 
at Lochia near Smyrna in the last days of June. The box reached Smyrna 
on the 2d of July, arrived in New York on the 16th, and on the 2dd reached 
Mr. Shinn at Niles, requiring only twenty-five days for the journey ; this 
time being quick enough to insure full success in any similar importations. 

So far as I have been able to learn from correspondence, we have no 



216 SECTION F. 

evidence that this effort of Mr. Shinn's was snccessfiil. Bat sach enter- 
prises, requiring considerable ezpenditnreSt should not be left to private 
effort, bat belong particularly to our National Department of Agricaltnre ; 
and it Is not particularly encouraging to reflect that projects very gener- 
ally condemned by men of science will be apt to find favor at Washington 
if they but add to political and appointive power; whereas thoroughly sci- 
entific and practical work, which appeals less to political susceptibilities, 
too often finds little sympathy. 



KOTEBONSBLF-FOIXINATIOKOFTHBGRAFB. By S. A. BeACH, GrCneva, N. Y. 

[ABSTBACT.] 

The paper explains that the proper time for examining grape bnds to 
determine whether self-pollination occurs before the flowers open is jnstat 
the time when dehiscence of the corolla begins. The process of dehiscence 
and self-pollination is then explained. The total number of individuals 
in which self-pollination was observed is seventy-seven, distributed among 
eight species and their hybrids and crosses. 

Clusters of grapes were inclosed in bags before blossoming to prevent 
the access of foreign pollen. Three cultural varieties having pure Za- 
brusca blood were found to be fully self -fertile and a fourth was nearly 
so. Of seventeen hybrids and one cross having Labrusca and Vinifera 
blood three were fully self -fertile; these had long filaments. One partly 
self-fertile also has long filaments. Eleven had pollen self -irritant only. 
So far as known these had short filaments. One had pollen self -impotent ; 
it has short filaments. Every one of these eighteen plants having 8hort fila- 
ments is practically pistillate, every one with long filaments is self -fertile. 
A specimen of AestivalU has long filaments and is self -fertile ; the same is 
also true of the Delaware (hybrid of Vinifera &ud Hipariaf). Vitis Doa- 
niana as represented by a vineyard specimen has pollen self -irritant only. 



Adaptations of plants to external environment. By Wiluam P. 
Wilson, 640 N. 82d St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

[ABSTBACT.] 

A COMPARISON of various lowland vegetation with that of desert and 
mountain areas. 
Illustrated by photos and drawings from the living plants. 



The COMPARATIVE INFLUKNCB OF ODOR AND COLOR OP FLOWERS IN ATTRACT- 
ING INSECTS. By Geo. B. Sud worth. Forestry Division, Dep*t of 
Agric, Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTBACT.] 

The author of this paper called attention to a supposed evolution, or de- 
velopment from a low to a high grade in the colors of flowers, ranging from 



BIOLOGY. 217 

**the simplest, yellow ; second, white ; third, pink to red ; fourth, the most 
perfect color, blue." He spoke then of his own and other experiments 
which seemed to prove that nectar-gathering insects of higher orders 
(honey bees, etc. ,) show a preference for the higher-grade colored flowers. 
He believes, however, that the comparative attractability of color is less 
powerful in its influence on insects than that of odor, his experiments 
showing, first, that honey bees work persistently upon syrup scented with 
an artificial sweet odor (anise), but refuse to take the same sweet when 
nnscented ; and second, his experiments showed that color does not attract 
Insects at all when tested equally with an odor, the supply of sweet to 
be obtained in connection with the color and odor test being equal in both 
cases. 



A COMPARATIVB STUDY OF THE ROOTS OP RANUNCULACKJE. By Dr. F. B. 

Maxwell, Bockford, 111. Presented by W. R. Dudley. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

This paper contains the results of the microscopic examination of the 
roots of about thirty species of Ranunculacese, native to the northern 
United States, including a comparative study of the apical meristem and 
of the changes taking place through secondary growth. 

The authorities on meristem structure, so far as they have treated of 
the roots of this natural order, have assigned them to a single type, while 
the writer finds there are two principal types represented, ^ach including 
a considerable number of species, and has also made a subsidiary type for 
the roots of two species. 

It is usually assumed that secondary changes take place to a greater or 
less extent, in the mature roots of Dicotyledons. The present study de- 
monstrates, however, that in many RanunculacesB, the primary structure 
persists in the older root. On the basis of the changes taking placis 
through secondary growth, the author has made three classes for the 
roots studied. 



The root- system op Mikania scandens L. By W. W. Rowlee, Instruc- 
tor IN Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Many aquatic plants develop roots that exist in the water and never 
reach the soil. Mikania scandens develops a great number of these roots. 
A few appear upon the plant during its growth in summer, but the great- 
est development of the root-system is during and after flowering in the 
autumn. In the earlier part of the season they show comparatively little 
tendency to branch; in autumn the branching is immense. At this time 
most of the rootlets spring from the larger roots, but many come from 
the lower part of the stem especially the nodes. All these roots are 



218 BECTION F. 

negatively geotropic. They come to the surface of the water and either 
float there or rise above it. If the water rises above them, they will grow 
longer. 

If the plant be transplanted to a dry place, it will still develop this 
root-system. The rootlets, however, do not attain so great a length, but 
stop just above the surface of the ground forming a multitude of little 
'^knees'* about an inch or less hfgh. 

The structure of these rootlets is as follows :~In the center is the ple- 
rome in the circumference of which is the fibro-vascular system. This is 
of the regular radial type. The xylem portion is only feebly developed. 
The cells of the phloem portion consists of only six or eight cells, slightly 
smaller than the surrounding parenchymatous cells of the plerome. The 
phloem takes a decidedly deeper stain with haematoxylin than does the 
surrounding tissue. A distinct endodermis surrounds the plerome, and 
its cells are in contact with the outermost cells of the phloem. Four cells 
(in the section) are peculiarly modified. Two belong to the endodermis, 
two to the row of cells just outside of it. These cells always lie in con- 
tact with the cells of the phloem. They are so arranged as to enclose a 
rectangular intercellular space between them of considerable size and 
definite shape. They have large nuclei and these are always upon the 
side of the cell next to the intercellular space. The cortex of the root Is 
made up of loose parenchyma tissue but in no other part of it are regu- 
larly organized intercellular spaces. The root is covered with a thin epi- 
dermis. The intercellular spaces above mentioned extend to very near 
the growing point of the root. 

In longisection the strongly nucleated cells form a conspicuous lining 
to the intercellular spaces. It seems highly probable that Ihese spaces, 
regularly organized in connection with the phloem portion of the root, 
have some special function. This, taken in connection with the peculiar 
development of these roots and their place of growth, is strong evidence 
in favor of their performing the function of aeration. 



Geoorafhic relationship of the flora of the high Sierra Nevada, 
California. By Frederick Vernon Coville, Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. 

fABSTRAOT.] 

A LIST of representative species of the high Sierra Nevada is given. A 
comparison of these plants with those found in the Rocky mountains and 
the Cascade mountains shows (1) a large endemic flora of the Sierra 
Nevada; (2) a group of species common to all three ranges; (3) a group 
common only to the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade mountains; (4) a 
group common only to the Sierra Nevada and the Bocky mountains. 

[This paper will be printed in Contributions ftom the U. S. National 
Herbarium.] 



BIOLOOT. 219 



ChARACTRRIBTICS and ADAPTATlOKS OF DE8BBT VEOETATIOK. By FBKDKR- 

ICK Vkbnon Covillb, Department of Agrlcalture, Washington, D. C. 

fABSTRAOT.I 

SouBCR and distribution of moisture. Conservation of moisture. Tem- 
perature. Seasons. List of species of the Mohave Desert, arranged by 
groups. General adaptations. Particular modifications. 

[This paper will be printed in Contributions from the U. S. National 
Herbarium.] 



NOTBS ON A MONOGRAPH OF THE NORTH AMERICAN 8PB0IIBS OF LBSPBDBZi. 

By Prof. N. L. Bbitton, Columbia College, New Yorlc, N. Y. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

A DISCUSSION of the American species of this genus, illustrated by speci- 
mens. 

[This paper will be printed in Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club.] 



Notes on Ranunculus repens and its eastern North American allies. 
By Prof. N. L. Britton, Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 

[abstract.] 

A discussion of the relationships of the European Banunculus repens 
to several North American specleH. Illustrated by specimens. 

[This paper will be printed in Transactions of the New York Academy 
of Sciences.] 



Freliminart comparison of the Hepatic flora of boreal and sub- 
boreal REGIONS. By Prof. Lucien Marcus Underwood, Oreencastle, 

Indiana. 

[abstract.] 

Becrnt explorations in boreal America and Asia enable us to make com- 
parisons with flora of Europe which is better known. Of about 575 Hepat- 
icaB Arom north temperate and arctic zones, 875 are European, 800 
American and about 150 Asiatic. In the boreal and sub-boreal portions 
there are 178 north European species, 168 species In northern America and 
98 species in northern Asia. Fourfold difficulties in studying northern 
flora of America are : — (1) Necessity of close familiarity with European 
species, varieties and forms ; (2) Undue refinement of species In cer- 
tain genera; (8) Periodic upheaval of nomenclature; (4) Inacessibil- 
ity of types and uncertainty of European aathorities and exsiccatce. 

Deductions Arom study : — 



220 SBcnoM F. 

1. Of 214 boreal species, 80% are European, 76% are American, and 
46% are Asiatic, the last doubtless dae to l%ss extensive exploration. 

2. 78% of American species are foand in Europe, 42% in Asia, 20% are 
endemic. 

8. 86% of Asiatic species are found in Europe, 9% are endemic. 

4. 15% of European species are endemic. 

5. 67 species are circumpolar. 

6. Certain northern herolAphere genera predominate in greater propor- 
tion than elsewhere. (Notably Cephaloxia, Manupella, Scapania, Jungev' 
mania.) 

7. 87 genera are represented among 98 Asiatic species; Calycularia 
alone endemic. 

8. Two European genera, 8calia and PleuroMia not found in either 
America or Asia. 

9. The genera Aitonia, Anthoceros, FossombroniGt Herberta, Hygrobiella, 
Jubula, LiocMoBna, Maraupella^ Pallavicinia and Fleuroclctda of boreal 
America and Europe (together with SphasrocarpuSf Dumortiera, Lunula- 
ria, Targionia and Notothyl<u from lower latitudes) haye not yet appeared 
in Asia. 

10. Tabular comparisons of the larger genera summarizing distribution. 
11-17. Lists of species common and endemic giving the data for above 

deductions. 
[This paper will be printed in Botanical Gazette.] 



A STUDY OF THE RELATIVB LENGTHS OF THE SHEATHS AKD INTERKODES OF 
GRASSES FOR THE PURPOSE OF DETERMINING TO WHAT EXTENT THIS IS 

A RELIABLE SPECIFIC CHARACTER. By Dr. Wm. J. Beal, Agricultural 
College, Mich. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Some agrostologlsts use the character above mentioned ; some do not. 
Ten to thirty plants of forty-seven species were examined and the inter- 
nodes and sheaths measured and tabulated. In thirty-five species the 
character is a good one. In very variable grasses it is of less importance. 
In no case would it be safe to rely on one or two stems alone. The 
sheaths and internodes of very tall specimens or very short ones are usu- 
ally much less reliable for specific character in this point, than those of a 
common height. The second and third sheaths and internodes from the 
top are more reliable for this purpose than are the upper ones or those 
lower down. The sheaths seldom follow any exact proportion when com- 
pared with corresponding internodes, but often do so within moderate 
limits. 

[This paper was illustrated by diagrams.] 



BIOLOGT. 221 



Plkospora of Trop-kolum MA.JU8. By Prof. Byron D. Halstbd, Kutgers 
College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

A FX7NGUS of the Alternaria type was found upon foliage of garden nas- 
turtium (Tropceolum majus) associated with perithecia of a Pleospora. 
Cultures were made of the Alternaria spores upon slant agar tubes and a 
pure growth of the black mould obtained followed by the ascigerous form 
in, and not upon the surface of the agar. The perithecia were of many 
and strange shapes not at all resembling those of the leaves except in the 
cellular structure of the wall and the size and shape of the spores. This 
was an unusual instance of the direct modification of the surrounding 
media upon the size and form of the perithecia. The history of the forma- 
tion of the perithecia was easily made out and while there were hints of 
the presence of the process of fertilization it was not demonstrated. 

The species is apparently new and while it approaches Pleospora Amer- 
icana E. and E. upon the pea it dlfiers in several characteristics. Follow- 
ing the ordinary rule of recognizing the host in the specific term the name 
of the species in hand may well be Pleospora tropceoli n. s. 



Secondary spores of Anthracnoses. By Prof. Byron D. Halsted, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

A STUDY of the germinating spores of species of Anthracnoses teaches 
that the formation of the "special cells" or "secondary spores" is probably 
confined to two genera namely : Gloeosporium and CoUetotrichum. They 
seem to be constantly present in these two genera. Those conditions 
which are not especially favorable for the production of ordinary spores 
are well adapted to the formation of the secondary spores. There is some 
uniformity in the color and shape of the special cells but more in the posi- 
tion they occupy upon the filament. 

The nature of these cells is not easily determined. They seem to be 
bodies for enduring periods unfavorable for the growth of the ftmgus. 
These cells sometimes increase in number and form asclerotium as is well 
known among some other fungi. Twenty-four species of spores were 
studied. 



A BACTERIUM OF pHASEOLUs. By Prof. Byron D. Halsted, Rutgers Col- 
lege, New Brunswick, N. J. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Complaints of a serious disease of beans with samples were received 
A:om a large seed-growing firm. The diseased beans were small and were 
marked at one or more places with brown irregular somewhat sunken spots. 
When sown they failed to produce healthy plants and when placed on 
perforated porcelain plates over water they began soon to decay. 



222 SECTION F. 

An examination preTlonsly made reyealed no fllamentons fbngos, and 
therefore there were strong anspicions of a bacterial trouble. The fact 
of easy Inoculation was demonstrated and the microscopic examination of 
the diseased tlssne showed the constant presence of a germ. 

The bacterium Is characterized by its peculiar habit of growth. In It- 
self the cells are oval 1.6« by 2.5» and when seen In rapid growth are ar- 
ranged in bent and twisted chains. The organism prefers the exposed sur- 
face of nutrient media as plugs of radish and sweet potato roots to the 
interior, and produce a thick patch becoming almost milk white with age. 

The reproduction of the spots upon beans involves perhaps insurmount- 
able difficulties as the germ probably effects Its entrance while the seed is 
quite young.and before the coat Is tough. The germ has been grown upon 
young beans in $(tu in split pods In tube cultures. 

(Samples of diseased beans and cultures were shown.) 



NOK-PARASTTIC BACTBItlA IN VXaSTABLK TISSUB, By H. L. BUSSELL, Univ. 

of Chicago. 

[abstract.] 

The evidence Is conclusive that the tissues of the animal body are in a 
healthy state, f^ee (Vom bacteria, but the proof is not as strong with re- 
spect to plant life and micro-organisms. The following experiments which 
were carried out in another connection may help to throw some light apon 
this question and may serve to explain the contradictory results that have 
been brought forth flrom time to time. 

Healthy plants were Infected with various species of bacteria, sapro- 
phytic as well as those that are pathogenic for animals, in order to see, 
first, the effect if any, of the micro-organisms upon the plant, and second, 
the reciprocal effect of the host upon the micro-organism. Macroscopi- 
cally, no change was evident when the various species were Inoculated in- 
to healthy plants. " Microscopically, the condition was much the same, ex- 
cept in the case of B. Pyocyantu$ in geranium when the plant's vitality 
was purposely weakened and then the organism was able to penetrate the 
tissues. 

The effect of the plant and its Juices on the micro-organisms was how- 
ever quite different. All the pathogenic species except B. Pyocyaneus died 
under the unfavorable conditions which surrounded them, but not a few 
of the saprophytic species such as B, hutyricus, B. prodigiosua, B. luteiis, 
B, coli communet and B, acidi lactici were to be found in a living condi- 
tion after a period of incubation in the plant ranging from fifty to seventy 
days. A peculiarity of their presence was that they were not only present 
at point of introduction bat were to be found at varying distances above 
tlie point of inoculation. This indicates that saprophytic species can at 
least live In vegetable tissue for a not inconsiderable length of time so 
that it is easy to see how bacteria could obtain an entrance to the plant by 
means of a wound and then become enclosed by the healing over of the 
woanded tissues. Such tissue may to all appearances remain perfectly 
healthy and still It is possible that it may contain bacteria. 



BIOLOGY. 223 

In this connection I have also made numerous attempts to Isolate bac- 
teria from different forms of vegetable tissue where I first made sure that 
there were no previously existing wounds, but in no case have I been able 
to find micro-organisms present. 

The evident conclusion from my experiments is that healthy plant tissue 
like animal tissues is normally free from bacteria; but that, unlike the an- 
imal tissue, many micro-orgauisms are able not only to exist within the tis- 
sues of plants but possibly possess some powers of multiplication. 



Bacteriological investigation of marine waters and the seafloor. 
By Dr. H. L. Russell, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

[abstract.] 

The observations stated below give in bare outline the results obtained 
by the analysis of marine waters and underlying mud from a bacterlologl- 
cal standpoint. This field of bacteriology has heretofore been left quite 
untouched but in the present discussion mention can only be made of the 
more salient points. 

After detailing the methods used in securing the water and mud and the 
methods of analysis that were adopted, the author gave some of the more 
prominent conclusions that he had drawn from the study of the marine 
water and mud, which had been carried on at Naples and also at Wood's 
Holl, Mass., during the past two years. 

I. The marine waters are inhabited by a specialized bacterial flora that 
is present In the waters irrespective of land proximity. Outside of the 
line of coastal contamination, no marked variation could be traced in. the 
contents of the superficial waters other than that attributable to local va- 
riation. In regard to the vertical distribution of germs the same result 
was found. The water from 2500 feet deep contained quite as many as did 
that from the surface. 

II. The marine mud Is likewise rich In micro-organisms. Indeed, as 
regards numbers per unit of volume, the mud is infinitely richer iu germ 
life than the superincumbent water masses. These numbers vary greatly. 
Near Naples at the depth of 150 feet and two miles from land, the mud of 
the sea bottom yields 200,000 to 300,000 germs per cc. This number fell rap- 
idly as the depth increased until at 3,500 feet, there were only about 25,000 
per unit of measure. 

The work at Wood's Holl this year shows that the mud at this point is 
much less rich than the Mediterranean slime. Here it ranged from 10,000 to 
80,000 germs at a depth of thirty to sixty feet and outside of land contami- 
nation. The excess of the mud over the water contents Is brought about 
largely by the growth of indigenous mud forms as revealed by qualitative 
analysis. These species are distinctively mud-llvlng in their habitat and 
are only found in the slime at the bottom. They did not reach their present 
position by deposition from above, but have gradually worked their way 



224 8KCTIOK F. 

ftlong the seft bottom. By meftos of differential cnltares, the actual condi- 
tion of the germa In water and mod waa determined and it was foand that 
both mud and water were rlclily endowed with bacterial life in an aotively 
Tegetating condition. 

In regard to the species diatribntion some points were also broaght ont. 
The bathy metrical range of the predominating species was in some cases 
determined and it was fonnd ttiat ttie same species was able to live at 
widely different depths, the limits of growth exceeding in some cases 3,500 
feet. 

Wlien the difference in environment at the surface and at this depth is 
considered, it will be seen that certain forms have a remarkable power of 
adaptation. The comparative work at Naples and Wood's Holl also gave 
an opportunity to determine the nniversality of species distribution geo- 
grapliically. 

At Wood's HoU, besides working over qnlte thoroughly the region of 
Bnzzard's Bay and Vineyard Sound, samples were also taken on the Gram- 
pus, the U. S. F. C. schooner, at a distance of 100 miles from land and the 
same species in general were found to be distributed over this entire area. 
The species found at Naples were quite different with but one exception 
flrom those isolated on our Atlantic coast. One of the most marked of the 
Naples forms was also found to be an occasional inhabitant of the ocean 
slime on this side showing that the distribution in this particular instance 
was quite widespread. 

[This paper will be printed in the Botanical Gazette.] 



On the VAL17E OF WOOD ASHES IN THE TBBATMENT OF FEACH YELLOWS. 

By Erwin F. Smith, U. S. Dep't or Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

These experiments were undertaken for the United States Department 
of Agriculture. They were begun in the spring of 1889. 

The orchard Is about seven miles south of Dover, Del., in what was for- 
merly considered one of the most productive and valuable peach regions 
of the State. The locality contains many extensive orchards seriously In- 
jured by yellows and rapidly becoming worthless. This field was set in 
the spring of 1882 and contained about 2,800 trees, 20 x 20 feet apart, i. e, 
108 per acre. The trees have been thoroughly cultivated and otherwise 
well cared for. They grew vigorously and all of them were healthy for 
four years. In 1886 there were 8 cases of yellows; in 1887, 257; in 1888, 
814. The remainder of the orchard was healthy and thrifty in the spring 
of 1889, and the trees were of quite uniform growth. 

The field Is a level tract only a few miles distant and not many feet above 
Delaware bay. The soil Is a light loam resting on several feet of porous 
yellow clay beneath which are yellowish and reddish stratified sands. 

Five plats were selected for treatment. Each consisted of a double row. 



BIOLOGY. 



225 



separated from the next treated plat by a doable row of untreated trees. 
The treated plats contained 135 trees; the untreated, 136. In the spring 
of 1889 there were four cases on the untreated, leaving 132 healthy trees. 
The treated plats contained ten cases, leaving 125 healthy trees. Eight of 
these ten cases were on one plat, and if they* exerted any influence* on the 
results it must have acted equally on treated and untreated. 

The treatment consisted of strong, unleached, hard-wood ashes applied 
twice as follows : 



AA 136, lbs. per tree, May 8, 1889 ; 136, lbs. per tree, April 22, 1890. 

BB SB, " " " 88, ** " 

CC 69, *• ** " 69, " ** 

DD 48, *« ** ** 48, " ** 

EE 46, ** *« " 45, ** ** 

The ashes were sowed on plowed ground and harrowed in. The soil 
was also plowed and harrowed In 1891 and 1892. No eifect on the foliage 
was noticeable until the second season. 

The results are as follows : 

(1) None of the ten diseased trees were cured. Other cases appeared 

(2) The cases did not become numerous until more than a year after 
the first treatment, e'. e., until the ashes had had time to become blended 
with the soil. 

(3) One of the controls remained freer from disease than any of the 
treated plats, and very free until 1892 when nearly all of the trees became 
affected. 

(4) Almost all of the treated trees succumbed to the disease in 8^ years. 
C5) The same is true of the untreated, but a comparison by years up 

to the fall of 1891 shows that the disease progressed more slowly among 
the untreated. 

(6) Light and heavy treatments were equally ineflfectnal in staying the 
progress of the disease. 

The cases by years and the per cents, are given in the following table. 



TRBATBD— 6 PLATS— 185 HBALTHT TKBBS. 



UNTREATED— 5 PLATS— 132 HBALTRT TREES 



Year 


1889 


1890 


1891 


1892 


Total 


Total 


1892 


1891 


1890 


1889 


CaseB 


3 


29 


42 


42 


115 


116 


65 


38 


26 


2 


* 


1.6 


28.2 


S3.6 


88.6 


92.0 


88.0 


41.7 


25.0 


19.7 


1.6 



The conclusion is that peach yellows cannot be cured or prevented by 
the use of wood ashes. 
[This paper will be printed in substance in Dep*t of Agric. Bulletin.] 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 15 



226 SBcnoH p. 



OV THK YALUR OF 8UPKBPH08FHATB8 AND MURUTB OF POTASH IN THE 
TBBATMKXT OF PKACH TKLLOWS. Bj ERWIN F. SlOTH, U. 8. Dept. Of 

Agricoltare, Wasbiogton, D. C. 

[ABSTlUCr.l 

The experimento here de«*cribed form part of a large nmnber nnder- 
Uken by the U. 8. Department of Agricoltare in the spring of 1889, and 
continned three years. 

The orchard is in the north part of Kent County, Md., in a great peach 
region now seriously affected by yellows. It includes about 2,900 trees 
set in 1881. and cultivated In the usual way. The trees grew thriftily and 
all of them were healthy for five years. In 1886, there were four cases of 
yellows; in 18(^7, 818; in 1888, 800. The remainder of the orchard was 
still in good condition In the spring of 1889. The field is a level upland 
only a short distance from Chesapeake bay. The soil is rather stiff loam 
on a yellow clay subsoil resting in turn on a deep red clay. 

For treatment ten plats were selected in various parts of the orchard so 
as to fairly represent the whole. Each was then subdivided so as to make 
twenty in all. These plats contained 644 healthy trees, and fewer cases 
of yellows than any other areas of like size. For comparison ten equally 
representative plats were selected. These contained 810 healthy trees, but 
a slightly greater per cent of cases of yellows. The remainder of the or- 
chard contained many healthy trees, but was least free from disease. 

The twenty plats (ten subdivided) received four treatments with a mix- 
ture consisting of kieserite 4%; muriate of potash 24%; and dissolved bone 
black 72%. The treatments were given in the spring of 1889, autumn of 
1889, spring of 1890, and spring of 1891. During the course of the two 
years each tree received about 12 lbs. of.this mixture. The north half of 
each plat also received two extra treatments with muriate of potash. 
This was put on in the springs of 1889 and 1891, at the rate each time of 
two lbs. per tree. The fertilizers were hurrowed in or plowed down. An 
examination In the autumn of 1891 showed the following conditions: 

Per cent of new cases on the controls 15.1 

Do on S i of the treated plats (281 trees) 23.1 

Do on N i which received extra muriate (286 trees) 29.3 

Average of the entire orchard. 19.4 

The conclusions drawn from these experiments are that superphos- 
phates and muriate of potash have no specific action in peach yellows, and 
that, if anything, the treatments here described favored rather than hin- 
dered the spread of the disease. [The substance of this paper will be 
printed In Bull, of Dep'tof Agriculture.] 



How THR APPLICATION OF HOT WATER TO SEED INCBEASES THE YIELD. Bj 

Prof. J. C. Arthur, LaFayette, Ind. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The use of hot water for preventing smut in wheat and oats has led to 
the discovery that when the seed of cereals is immersed for a few minutes 









:<:■ 



^-:t>' 



BtOLOOT. 227 

in water at 125^ F. and upward, the rate of growth and yield from sach 
seed is greatly increased. It is fonnd that this is not dae to any change 
in the character of the seed coat by which it is enabled to absorb water 
more readily, or to the presence of extra water in the seed at the time of 
sowing. The paper details the experiments and evidence, which have led 
to the conclusion that the moist heat renders an additional amount of en- 
zym available, which otherwise would only come into action slowly as the 
seed grew. This active ferment renders an unusual amount of starch 
soluble at the outset, and in consequence there is increased growth and 
final yield. 



Notes on Maizb. By Dr. Qborgb Magloskie, Prixcbton, N. J. 



Spikes of wheat beabing abnormal spikelets. By Prof. W. J. Beal, 
Agricultural College, Mich. 



Adaptation of seeds to facilitate germination. By W. W. Rowlee^ 
Instructor in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y, 



Note on the yellow pitch-pine, Pinus rigida Mills, var. lutea, n. v. 
By Dr. W. A. Kellerman, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 



Do Termttes cultivate Fungi? By O. F. Cooke, Clyde, Wayne Co., 
•N. Y. 



Notes on Daucus carota. By Prof. Charles W. Hargitt, Syracuse, 
N. Y. 



Conditions that determine the distribution of bacteria in the water 
OF A RIVER. By Prof. JASfES H. Stoller, Union College, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. 



Variation in native ferns. By Rev. W. Bbauchamp, Baldwinsville, 

N. Y. 



vi; 



Sketch of flora of Death Valley, California. By Prof. Frederick 
V. Coville, Dep't of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



228 SEcnoK t. 



LlVB-FOR-EVEB ERADICATED BT A FUNGOUS DISEASE. By Dr. D. F. FaIB« 

CHILD, U. S. Dep't Agricalturei Washington, D. C. 



Otto Eunze's changes in nomenclature of North American Grasses, 
By Dr. George Vaset, U. S. Dep't Agricaltnre, Washington, D. C. 



Revised nomenclature of the arborescent flora of the United 
States. By B. E. Fernow and G. B. Sudworth, U. S. Dep*t of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. Or 



Shrinkage of wood as observed under the microscope. By Fiu- 
BERT Roth, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Feziza sclerotium. By Prof. L. H. Pammel, State Agricultural College, 
Ames, Iowa. 



Temperature and some of its relations to plant life. By Prof. L. 
H. Pammel, State Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa. 



Report to the biological section of the A. A. A. S. on the American 

TABLE AT NAPLES. 

The committee appointed at the Washington meeting to solicit sub- 
scriptions for the support of an American Table at the International Zo5- 
logical station at Naples, Italy, respectfully submits the following report : 

Subscriptions were obtained as follows : 

A. A. A. S. $100.00 

Association of American Naturalists (Annual meeting, at 

Philadelphia in December, 1891), -' 100.00 

University of Indiana, -- -----. 50.00 

Prof. C. O. Whitman, 26.00 

Maj. Alex. Henry Davis of Syracuse, N, Y. ------ 226.00 

Total $600.00 

Upon application highly endorsed by Professor Whitman and others, 
Dr. B. B. Wilson, Adjunct Professor of Biology, Columbia Coll., N. Y., was 
granted the use of the table from Jan. Ist to July 1st, 1892. Professor 
Wilson worked upon the embryology of Annelida. 



BIOLOOT. 229 

V 

Upon application endorsed by Professor Brooks and Dr. H. L. Rnssell of 
Jolins Hopkins University, the nse of the table from Sept. 1, to Dec. 1, 

1892, was granted to Dr. G. W. Field, A.B., Brown University, 1889, 
Ph.D., J. H. U., 1892. 

Dr. Field has already started for Naples where he intends to study the 
phenomena of the regeneration of lost parts among Echinoderms. 

Tour committee has heard indirectly that an American lady zodlogist 
has recently made application direct to Gehemirath Dohrn for permission 
to Tvork at the station and that the permission has been granted. 

Dr. H. L. Russell, who occupied the Table from April 1, to July 4, 1891, 
has published the results of his Investigations conducted at Naples in two 
ai*ticle8 : 

••XJntersuchungen iiber im Golf von Neapel lebende Bacterien (Zeits- 
chrift f tir Hygiene und Infectionskrankheiten, Bd. xi, p. 165-206, Taf. xn 
u. xni) ; Impfungsversuche mit Giard's pathogenem Leuchtbacillus 
(Centralblatt fiir Bakteriologie und Parasitenkunde, Bd. xi, p. 557-559). 

Very general satisfaction has b'een expressed by American biologists 
upon the action of the A. A. A. S. last year, in taking the initiative for 
the support of an American table at the Naples station and several prominent 
investigators have expressed the hope that the Association will appoint 
a committee this year to collect the necessary money for the support of a 
table for the year 1898. Two biologists have already signified their wil- 
lingness to subscribe for the table for 1893. 

Your committee therefore respectfully recommends that the Biological 
Section of the A. A. A. S. petition the CouncU for a subscription for 

1893, and that a committee be appointed to raise the balance necessary for 
the support of the table. 

Respectfully submitted, 

B. E. Fernow, Chairman. 

R. W. Stiles, Secretary. 
Washington, D. C, August 15, 1892. 



Report upon the proposed biological station at Jamaica. By Albert 
H. Tuttlb, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

This report is made to Section F for the purpose of calling attention to 
the movement now on foot for the establishment of a Station at some de- 
sirable point upon the island of Jamaica, to be known as **The Columbus 
Marine Biological Station.** It is the intention of the promoters of the 
enterprise to make the Station international, but chiefly under English 
and American auspices, and steps have already been taken in England and 
America towards the accumulation of an adequate fund. 

The advantages oifered by sach a Station to American biologists will 
be manifold. Among others may be mentioned the richness of the' fauna 



280 sscnoH r. 

and flora, both niftrine and terrestrial. Prof. Jas. D. Dana says of this, "I 
know of no place on either side of the northern Atlantic so well suited In 
this respect for a biological station :** Prof. W. K. Brooks, who has already 
spent se.veral months at Janudoa, and who has made prolonged yisits to 
nearly erery point of Importance along onr coast and at several places in 
the West Indies, expresses himself equally strongly In favor of the pro- 
posed location. The opportunity which every naturalist desires to see 
something of tropic life can nowhere be afforded more advantageoasly. 

e ell matic conditions are favorable to a marked degree, and the high 
mountains of the interior aflbrd numerous pleasant places of resort when 
a change is desired firom the heat of the coast. The island is well gov- 
erned under English rule, and good sanitary conditions exist in the towns. 
The cost of living is small, and access from American ports is easy and 
not expensive, rendering it practicable for American investigators to spend 
successive summer vacations at the Station without great inconvenience or 
outlay. 

It is certainly desirable that the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science should do all in Its power to aid in the establishment and 
maintenance of the proposed Station : to this end it is suggested to this 
Section that it recommend to the Council of the Association the appoint- 
ment of a committee to report at the next meeting upon a plan of coopera- 
tion, including the permanent establishment of a table at the Station, to 
be known as the American Association table. 



BkFORT of COMIOTTKB ON BIOLOGICAL NOBfENCLATURB. 

SeMoltUions of the Australtuian AModaHonfor the AdvaneemefU of Scienee 
concerning an IntemMional Committee on Biologieal Nomenclature. 

"1. That it Is desirable to secure greater uniformity in Biological No- 
menclature, especially in the department of Morphology. 

2. That in order to secure such uniformity the following steps be 
taken : — (A) The appointment of an international committee to define 
terms of general Importance, e. g,, terms common to Botany and Zoology, 
terms relating to position, etc. ; (B) The preparation of an authoritative 
Historical Glossary of Biological Terms ; (C) The systematic record of 
new terms in the various recording publications. 

8. That copies of these resolutions be transmitted to the British and 
American Associations and to the Anatomische GteseUschaft.** 

In response to the above, the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, at its Washington meeting (1891), appointed, on nom- 
ination by the Section of Biology, the undersigned committee. At the 
Bochester meeting of the Association the following report was submitted 
to th,e Section of Biology, the Executive Council of the Association, and 
to the Association in general session. It was unanimously adopted, and 



BIOLOOT. 231 

the Committee continued. The report is therefore the preliminary con- 
tribution of the American branch of the International Committee on 
Biological Nomenclature. 

Secammendations submUted by the Committee and unanimously adopted by 

the Association^ Aug, 22-28, 1892 : 

1. The committee suggest that the French and Italian biologists each 
be Invited to appoint a branch committee to act with the others. 

2. It seems to the committee thiett, for the real betterment of nomen- 
clature, It is necessary first of all to arrive at some agreement as to the 
underlying principles that should govern biological terminology. 

(See notes following concerning these principles.) 

3. It is necessary, under (A) of the second resolution, first of all, to 
make some kind of a selection of terms that are to be so carefully defined. 
And in this selection the guide should be the underlying principles that are 
agreed upon concerning the character of the Improved biological nomen- 
clature. CSee p. 232) 

4. The carrying out of (B) of the second resolution would logically 
follow from (A). 

In this ^'authoritative glossary'' it Is recommended that the Latin form 
be given as the major heading, the headings being given in alphabetical 
order as In an ordinary dictionary. 

It would be of very great advantage to have the etymology of the word, 
the gender of the Latin form, if a substantive, and also the adjective and in 
some cases the adverbial form. 

Following the Latin form should appear the Italian, French, Grerman 
and English forms of the word, i, e.. Paronyms^ with the gender, nomina- 
tive singular and plural and the adjective form exactly as for the Latin. 

If the principle of Paronymy were thus carried out, the glossary would 
be as easily usable by any one familiar with biology as would a general 
dictionary of his own language. If one takes the word Biology^ for ex- 
ample, it would be seen how easily the steps given above could be carried 
out : 

BiOLOOiA, Lat. s. f. pi. biologiae, adj. biologicus. 

Ital. La Biologia, pi. le biologe, adj. biologico. 

Fr. La Biologic, pi. les biologies, adj. biologique. 

Ger. Die Biologic, pi. die Biologien, adj. biologlsch. 

Eng. Biology, pi. biologies, adj. biological. 

(Used in its most general sense this word would have no plural, but 
the plural form might be used as is that of Philosophy. ' The plural was 
added to illustrate the plan with this particular word in which the com- 
mittee is especially interested. The word Nomenclature is nearly as good 
an example). 

Following the Latin form with its Italian, French, German and 
English paronyms, it would be of great advantage to have exactly the same 



282 SECTION F. 

definition appear in the dUTerent langaages, then each conld assimilate the 
idea through the medium of his own langruage. 

It might be well also to include in this glossary the more caramon 
Teriiflcular equivalents for ease in discovering the proper technical words. 
In this case the vernacular equivalents should be given in alphabetical 
order with the Latin words and a reference made to the Latin form. 
(This method of a single vocabulary in alphabetical order is that of 
Foster's Medical Dictionary.) 

5. (C). The committee urgently recommend that whenever a techni- 
cal word is used for the first time, the author should give in a special 
note, (a), the Latin form, (b) the etymology, (c) the proper adopted form 
or paronym for his own language, with adjective, etc., when applicable, 
(d) as concise and precise a definition of the term'as possible. 

If a teim is used in a new sense, attention should be called to it in a 
special note and the new setise carefully defined. 

Finally the * 'recording publications" should, in giving the new words, 
give the Latin form as a major heading, and add the adjective, etc., and 
the various paronyms formed on established philological principles, an 
expert in biology as well as in philology in each language performing the 
wor.k for that language. The definition should also be given in all the 
languages. In this way the compilation of future authoritative glossaries 
would be greatly simplified. 

6. With reference to the unification of terms in botanical and zoo- 
logical n^orphoiogy it (second resolution (A) ) is certainly worthy the 
best eflTorts of the committee. The way was really opened by Schleiden 
and Schwann, and by calling the same substance in animals and plants by 
the same name, viz.. Protoplasm (Sarcode of Dujardin, Protoplasm of 
Purkinje, von Mohl and Max Schultze). See the accompanying list of 
works on nomenclature. 



Underlying Principles to gttide in the Selection of a Biological Terminology : 

The following are submitted by the committee for consideration and 
adoption : 

1. That the names of organs and parts, and the terms indicating 
position and direction should be single, designatory words (Mononyms) 
so far as possible, rather than descriptive phrases. All who have con- 
sidered the subject of Nomenclature have advocated this as one of the 
guiding principles. This would exclude the use of the names of men as 
applied to parts of the body, as, for example, Malpighian corpuscles for the 
renal glomeruli and the lymph follicles of the spleen. 

2. That morphological terms should be etymologically correct, and so 
far as postsible derived from Greek or Latin, and that each term should 
have a Latin form. 

That all terms should have a Latin form, regardless of their derivation, 
has been almost universally advocated. From the nature of the language, 
Greek has been the great storehouse from which science has drawn its 



BIOLOGY. 233 

technical terms; it is by far the most satisfactory source for precise 
terms. 

3. That terms relating to position and direction in an organism should 
be INTRINSIC and not bxtrinsic, that is, should refer to the organism it- 
self rather than to the external world. 

The desirability of using an intrinsic terminology for direction and po- 
sition in an organism, was very clearly pointed out by Chaussier (1789) 
by Barclay (1803), and by numerous writers since. The actual employ- 
ment of an intrinsic terminology, to a greater or less extent is illustrated 
in all the great anatomical and morphological works as one may see by 
consulting the Anatomic of Bichat (1801); that of Henle (1873); the 
\rorks of Owen, 1846, 1868, that of Key and Retzius, and the Monographs 
on Embryological, Morphological or Physiological subjects appearing in 
the Philosophical and other Transactions and in the great scientific peri- 
odicals. 

The suggestion of the committee is then that this most desirable ten- 
dency in the direction of the use of intrinsic terms be encouraged, and the 
systematic use of such terms be urged. 

4. It is further recommended that each of the technical words have, 
in addition to its proper Latin form, a form which shall make it conform 
to the genius of the various languages, i. 6., that a paronym be made for 
each technical word. In many cases the Latin form is adopted without 
change in some of the languages, or one or more languages might make 
some slight change in spelling or termination to make it more readily 
conform to the language adopting it. The word Biology is a good ex- 
ample. The point is simply that the technical word:) of Biology shall 
have in addition to the Latin form one making them a part of the language 
adopting them and so slightly changed that any one familiar with the 
classical form would recognize^the word instantly in either Italian, French, 
German, or English. If this principle of Paronymization were carried 
out systematically the Intelligibility of scientific writing would be greatly 
increased. Naturally the Bomance languages affbrd the best examples, 
but numerous examples are found in English and also in German. 

The committee recommend that^iologists in the future consciously and 
systematically adopt a plan of terminology which has been practised un- 
consciously and unsystematically, but with great help in intelligibility, in 
all the arts and sciences. 

5. Perhaps no stronger plea could be made for this principle of 
paronymy, this making the technical language of science also tlie language 
of the people, than the following quotation from Asa Gray : — "Greatly to 
its advantage, English botanical terminology has adopted and incorporated 
terms from the Latin and Greek, with slight changes, not obscuring the 
identity, thus securing all their precision and rendering the simple botan- 
ical Latin of descriptions easy of acquisition by the English student." 
Structural Botany, § 788, p. 860. 

6. The committee consider it both proper and wise to recognize the 
labors of the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature of this Association, 
as given in their report for 1889 and 1890. (See following page.) 



284 SECTION F. 

277. American AsModoHon for the Advancement of Science. Extract from 

the Proceedings, 1890, Vol, xxxix, p, 20. 

**Fourth Preliminarif Report of the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature^ 

with special referenet to the Brain.^ 

'*The committee recommend : 

1. That the adjectives dorsal and ventral be employed in place of pos- 
terior and anterior as commonly nsed in haman anatomy, and in place of 
upper and lower as sometimes used in comparative anatomy. 

2. That the comna of the spinal cord, and the spinal nerve-roots, be 
designated as dorsal and ventral rather than as posterior and anterior. 

8. Tliat the costif erous vertebne be called thoracic rather than dorsal. 

4. That the hippocampus minor be called calcar ; the hippocampus 
major, hippocampus; the pons Varolii, pons; the insula Beilii, insula; pia 
mater and dura mater, respectively pia and dura" 

In the report of 1889 (Proceedings, Vol. zzxviii), p. 26, the point 
agreed upon by the committee was : **The advantages, other things being 
equal, of mononifms (single word terms) over polyonyms (terms consisting 
of two or more words**). See p. 232. 

List of the Most Important Works on Nomenclature. 

1789. Chaussier, Fr. : Exposition sommaire des muscles du corps humain, 
suivant de la classification et de la nomenclature methodiqne 
adopt6e au cours public d'anatomie de Dijon. 

Chaussier makes some most excellent remarks on the funda- 
mental principles of terminology ; his application of the principles 
was not particularly happy, however. 

1808. Barclay, John : A new Anatomical Nomenclature, relating to terms 
which are expressive of position and aspect in the animal system. 
The work of Barclay is one of the great landmarks in Anatomical 
Nomenclature. 

1846. Owen, Richard : Archetype and Homoloiries of the Vertebrate 
Skeleton; also the Anatomy of Vertebrates, 1861-1868. 

1877. Fye-Smith: Suggestions on some points of Anatomical Nomen- 
clature. Journal of Anat. and Physiol., 1877, pp. 154-175. 

General suggestions excellent; the specific recommendations 
on histological nomenclature not so acceptable at present. 

1889. Leidy, Joseph : Human Anatomy. See B. G. Wilder *s paper in the 
Phila. Medical News, Dec. 19, 1891. 

1871-1891. Wilder, Burt G. ; Various papers on Anatomical Nomenclature. 

The latest in the Medical News and the preceding one in the 

Reference Hand-Book of the Medical Sciences, may be submitted 

as representing an epitome of the whole subject, with suggestions 

for future progress. 

1891. Parker, T. J. : On Nomenclature. Nature, Nov. 19, 1891, pp. 68-69. 
The subject is discussed somewhat with reference to the work 
of the International Committee. 



BIOLOGY. 235 

1 889. Congr^s International de Zo5logie ; Compte-Rendu des Stances. 

A paper by Voldemar Wagner of Moscow, discusses whether 
or not scientific names should be literally translated into the mod- 
ern languages, p. 481. On page 425 the same author discusses his- 
tological nomenclature. 

This Vol. contains a very extended discussion of the Nomen- 
clature of Zodlogy and Botany, i. e., the names of species, etc. 
See also the leaflet by the Anatomische Gresellschaft, giving the prin- 
ciples on which that society thinks improvement can be made. See also 
the remarks by Eolliker as President of the Anat. Gesellschaft, at the 
last meeting, in Verhandlungen der Anat. Gesellschaft auf der ftinfte Ver- 
sammelung, pp. 8, 4 and 5 ; also in Biologisches Centralblatt, 1892, pp. 
84-36. 

W. Erause also read a paper upon the subject at the meeting of the 
British Association last year. See IntematL Monatschrift f iir Anat. und 
Physiol., Feb. 1892. 

G. L. Goodale : Terminology. 

See also list at the end of article, Anatomical Terminology, in the Refer- 
ence Hand-Book of the Medical Sciences, Vol. viii, p. 586. 

Geobgr L. Goodale, 

Harvard UniTerBlty, Cambridge, Mass. 
John M. Coultbr, 

Indiana State University, Bloomington, Indiana. 
Theodore Gill, 

SmitlisoniRn Institation, Waaliington, D. C. 
Charles S. Mikot, 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Simon H. Gage, 

Cornell Uniyersity, Ithaca, N. Y. 



SECTION H. 



ANTHEOPOLOGY. 



OFFICERS OF SECTION H. 



Vice President. 
W. H. HoLBfES of Washington, D. C. 

Secretary, 
W. M. BsAUCHAMP, Baldwinsville, N. Y. 

Member of Council, 
D. G. Brinton, Philadelphia, Fa. 

Members of Sectional Committee, 

W. H. HoLMRS, Washington, D. C. W. M. Beauchamf, BaldwlnSTille, 
N. Y. Joseph Jastrow, Madison, Wis. Otis T. Mason, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Warren K. Moorrhead, Xenia, O. 
Edward S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 

Member of Nominating Committee. 
Charles P. Hart, Wyoming, O. 

Members of Sub- committee on Nominations, 

W. H. Holmes, Washington, D. C. W. M. BEAucHAifP, Baldwinsville, 

N. Y. Matilda C. Stbtenson, Washington, D. C. A. F. Hunter, 

Barrle, Ontario. Thomas Dowung, Jr., Washington, D. 0. 



1 



■^ 



ADDRESS 

BY 

W. H. HOLMES, 

VICE-PRESIDENT, SECTION H. 



EVOLUTION OP THE jESTHETIC, 



The anthropological field is a wide and most diversified one, 
offering countless themes well fitted for presentation before this 
annual gathering of section H. Prehistoric anthropology in Amer- 
ica, the department in which I with many others have chosen to 
labor, is an especially fascinating branch of the work, a field which 
opens out to the right and left into most enchanting and seemingly 
endless vistas of the unknown, tempting the investigator to ever- 
renewed effort. So numerous and so attractive are the pathways 
into unexplored regions that the mind of the enthusiast — and we 
are all enthusiasts — is fairly dazed with the allurements, and the 
desire to dp and to accomplish fairly outruns the capacity to exe- 
cute. Each day as we hasten on, thinking to have reached the end 
of some particular by-way of investigation, new fields open to view 
of which we have not even dreamed. 

To-day I shall turn aside from the well-trodden ground — the study ' 
of the ordinary arts, industries, habits, customs and institutions of 
mankind — to take a hasty glance into a comparatively new field, 
the study of the non-essential arts of man ; from the substantial 
phases of energy and thought I turn to the flowers of thought, to 
the realm of the aesthetic, to that strange land of the imagination 
where nothing is seen but for the pleasui*e of seeing, where nothing 
is heard but for the pleasure of hearing, and where nothing is 
thought but for the pleasure of thinking. But it is not a pleasure 
voyage upon which I propose to embark. You will not be asked 

(239) 



240 SECTION H. 

to Inxtiriate in the colors and fragrance of the aesthetic kingdom 
or in the seductive observation of form and motion, but to study 
the phenomena of the beautiful as the botanist studies the real 
flowers of the fields by plucking them and picking them to pieces, 
striving thus to lay open the secrets of their existence. 

The science of the beautiful must deal with actual phenomena, 
with facts as hard, with principles as fixed and laws as inflexible 
as do the sciences of biology and physics. But in the past, on 
account of the obscurity and the complexity of the phenomena, 
the subject has been left gi*eatly in the hands of the metaphysician 
who has woven about it a dense and very subtle web of transcen- 
dental fancy. It has been sought to determine the precise nature 
of beauty as an abstract quality, to discover those particular attri- 
butes of objects, of works of art, of faces and of figures, that 
make them beautiful and distinguish them from other things thought 
to be ugly. It was conceived that this quality was fixed and uni- 
form and was the only source of those subtle pleasures of the mind 
called aesthetic. The war of words has been kept up for genera- 
tions and the battle still goes on being neither lost nor won. 

There are also very intricate questions arising in the discussion 
of the subjective side of aesthetics as to the exact nature of the 
sensations and perceptions that take part in the recognition of beau- 
ty as well as of the related and little studied fields of the sublime 
and the ridiculous. For the present I shall pass over these more 
obscure and involved subjects, relying on the hope that when the 
simple observable phenomena of the aesthetic, subjective and ob- 
jective, have been fully observed, studied and classified, as the 
naturalist deals with the phenomena of biology, the more obscure 
questions so often asked, may, in a great measure, solve themselves. 

But how shall we arrive at a definite and adequate idea of the 
nature and extent of the field covered by the aesthetic ? We have 
seldom paused in our busy careers to dwell on a subject so obscure. 
Although exercising the faculty of taste upon all sorts of subjects 
from day to day throughout life the functions are so necessary and 
habitual that they are hardly more noticed than the facts that we 
breathe or see or think. We therefore totally fail to realise how 
much time and thought are given to aesthetic considerations and what 
a very large place they really fill in the thoughts and activities of 
the world. This would come home to us if by some sudden change 
in the constitution of things aU that is aesthetic should be rudely 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 241 

torn from us and banished from the world. The utter desolation 
of such a situation is, however, quite inconceivable until we are 
brought to fully realize the vast extent of the field occupied by the 
aesthetic. To make this clear, let us suppose that some dire disease 
should dull and destroy our perceptions of the beautiful. Imagi- 
nation can hardly picture the i-esult. A world of useless and utterly 
nonsensical things would be found encumbering our existence, and 
these would necessarily be cast away. First, and perhaps most 
striking of all, the fine arts would fall into disuse. Painting, sculp- 
ture, architecture, poetry, music, romance, the drama, and landscape 
gardening, would disappear utterly, leaving blanks of inconceivable 
magnitude. No picture would grace the wall of gallery or dwelling. 
Temples and halls of history would be without statuary, and books 
would be without illustrations save of diagramaticor recording kinds. 
Architecture would degenerate into the merest house building, into 
the construction of boxes for dwelling and business and storage, 
without such features as unnecessary projections, mouldings, carv- 
ing, painting, frescoing, hangings, carpeting and other elements 
serving to give pleasure, other than of the purely creature kind. 
Churches would be but the plainest barns without archways, and 
columns, and steeples, and towers, and stained glass ; and the or- 
gan, and the choir, and the singing of songs, would be as though 
they had never been. All artists, sculptors, architects, poets, au- 
thors, composers, and dramatists, and all the multitude that depend 
upon them, decorators, engravers, carvers, musicians, actors, book 
makers, etc., manufacturers of all that pertain to the polite arts, 
and all merchants who deal in sesthetic things would turn to other 
callings ; and the ships and the railways that transport the products 
of sesthetic industry, silks, and rugs, and laces, and all ornamental 
goods, and furniture, and tUes, and paints, and dyes, and porce- 
lains, and brasses, and sesthetic things without end, would cease 
to plow the sea or girdle the land. The range of human livelihood 
would be reduced to a dangerous degree, and existence, a burden 
without art, would be overwhelmed with poverty and distress. 

And what would be the effect upon men and women and society ? 
Extract from dress every element of designed beauty and from the 
person take away every ornament. Imagine the loss of every per- 
ception of delicacy of form and grace of movement, all apprecia- 
tion of proportion, and texture, and complexion of skin ; the most 
perfect woman would not be more attractive than the haggard du- 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 16 



242 8KCTI0N B. 

enna, and society without physical graces and without music and 
poetry and the charm of aesthetic speech would be a barren for- 
mality indeed. Still more, nature would cease to exercise its va- 
ried charms. The sea and the sky, the glory of sunrise and sunset, 
the freshness of spring, the fullness of sunmier and the glories of 
the whole kingdom of bloom would cease to be thought of save as the 
merest commonplaces. Religion would be divested of the charms 
of the imagination and the shining wings of angels, the glistening of 
the jewelled gates and eventhe effulgenceof the face of the Almighty 
itself would be a mockery. Take away the aesthetic sense from 
life and all the pleasure supplied by it, and existence, as viewed 
from our present point of view would be ineffably stupid. Take 
away that which is the mainstay and the essence of culture and 
civilization would hardly stand the shock. 

It may possibly appear that in thus attempting to convey a vivid 
notion of the nature and extent of the aesthetic field, that the pic- 
ture has been overdrawn, that too much has been included under 
the term aesthetic. In its origin the term covered a field wider than 
is here indicated, but even if this were not the case the mere name 
should not stand in the way of a proper assemblage of the phenom^ 
ena concerned. The scientific discussion of the subject requires 
that everything pertaining to the existence of the aesthetic sense, 
to the exercise of taste, and all that pertains to its genesis and his- 
tory should receive consideration. The phenomena of taste are 
not the accidents of a particular period of culture ; they did not 
spring into existence full fledged and without ancestry, thus defy- 
ing the laws of nature. They had their inception in the experiences 
of the infant race. Certain powers and capacities of the mind 
and certain groups of elements and features of nature and art, act- 
ing and reacting one upon the other, gradually led to the develop- 
ment of a group of results represented in their most typical phases 
by what are known as the fine arts ; these are but the ripened re- 
sults, the fruits of countless ages of experience. The scientific 
examination of a group of plants is not complete when the flowers 
and fruit have alone been studied. There are the leaves and branch- 
es and roots and trunk and their structure and functions. More 
than this, we are not satisfied until the history of the group and 
the family is examined and we have traced the course of evolution 
back beyond the limits of the botanic field. The scientific study 
of a nation consists not in the examination of that nation as a per- 



ADDRESS- BT W. H. HOLMES. 243 

fected unit of society but involves its remotest ancestry, extending 
beyond the human boundaries to creatures and to organisms not 
yet freely and fully recognized as related to the human family. 

The creations of art ai*e grovrths as are the products of nature, 
and are subject to the same inexorable laws of genesis and evolu- 
tion. Tlie great painting of to-day, gracing the wall of dwelling or 
galler}^, had its prototype in the tattoo marks of some primeval man 
or in the scrawls that embellished his simple utensils. Tbe master- 
piece of the sculptor's chisel, now occupying a niche in some temple 
or monumental structure was represented in ages past by the mis<- 
shapen image of clay attached as a charm to his person or to some 
article of use. The great poem of to-day bound in vellum and bur« 
nished gold is but an elaboration of the weird story of the unlets 
tered savage, and the symphony that now casts its spell over the 
world was in that long ago the song of the savage who howled in 
imitation of the wi;id or the wild beast or kept time to his fantastic 
a.nd never-ending dances. This relationship in genesis between 
the high and the low, the simple and the complex, implies a rela- 
tionship between the lowest and the highest expressions of the arts 
of taste existing side by side at any given period. All represent 
feelings, emotions, thoughts lifted above the plane of the essential, 
and expressed by energies not necessarily expended in the mere 
struggle for existence. We may therefore include in the scientific 
discussion of the subject the widest possible range of phenomena. 
The field is thus a vast one, and it is important in this brief sketch 
to settle upon a method of procedure that will be extremely simple 
and at the same time give a comprehensive notion of the place of 
sesthetics in science and in human history. 

It is plain from the nature of the field as just outlined, that the 
question is one of evolution. The examination of the present phe- 
nomena is but a glance at the surface of a subject, the history of 
•which is interwoven with the history of man from beginnings so 
small and times so remote that our sight grows dim in the attempt 
to trace them. Let us then endeavor first to place the aesthetic 
field with reference to the whole field of human life and achieve- 
ment. Let us begin with some simple unit of the subject as for 
example the history of the individual. Physically, man begins at 
4Eero and develops through the foetal stage to birth and thence to 
full maturity and the climax of vigor and power. Mentally, there 
is a like advance from the initiatory step at birth to the prime of 



244 



8BCTI0M B. 



life. At first the thread of thought is exceedingly slender, bat 
little by little it is strengthened by experience and observation 
supplemented by instruction. In youth it grows strong and in 
maturity acquires enormous expansion. Now if we take any one of 
the departments of life depending upon the physical or mental oon* 
etitution and capacities of man, the same initiatory and prc^ressive 
stages will necessarily be observed. The aesthetic idea first mani- 
fests itself in early childhood, at exactly what period no one can 
say, and advances with a rapidity ;irarying with the conditions of 
existence to which the individual is subjected. The physical evo- 
lution of the individual may be illustrated by the space included 
between two diverging lines as in diagram A, Fig. 1. The mental 
evolution associated with it may be expressed by similar lines, B, 
representing narrow or wide expansion as the case may be. The 
opening of these lines at the right represents the full mentality-^ 
the whole range of feelings, emotions and thoughts at the prime of 
life. The esthetic department of these mentalities will be in- 
cluded within the space allotted to mind, as indicated by the dotted 
lines. It begins later and cannot at any period occupy the whole 
space, but may occupy a large percentage of the mental range in 
highly cultured individuals or remain almost a simple line through- 
4>ut life in the unlettered or sordid. 



J^hcn^iacZ 



6. 




Fio. 1. Diagram Ulastrating physical and mental eyolation of the indiyldnal. 

A brief outline of the aesthetics of the individnal may be given. 
The child is powerless to express conceptions of an aesthetic kind 
before the acquirement of speech and before be is taught the terms 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 245 

necessary to expression, but there can be little doubt that the emo- 
tions of very young children partake of aesthetic qualities and that 
pleasure taken in a face, a bright object or a toy is closely akin to 
the pleasure derived by their elders from faces and pictures and 
poetic thoughts. With respect to these things we can hardly 
assume to do more than to surmise that out of the plexus of apprecia- 
tions and likes of childhood, and the half-formed aesthetic concep- 
tions of youth come the more highly specialized mentations of 
maturity, resulting in special aesthetic pursuits and in the produc** 
tion of various super-utilitarian works of art. 

If we accept the theory that play — the aimless activities of child- 
hood— is a form of the aesthetic, then the diagram of individual 
aesthetic progress will need to be changed ; for the play of youth 
is more absorbing and all-prevading than the aesthetic activities of 
manhood. Although the relation of play to aesthetic art pointed 
out by Schiller and elaborated by Spencer certainly exists, and 
therefore deserves careful consideration, it is apparent that many 
of our aesthetic perceptions pass back naturally and completely 
into the sensual pleasures and gratifications of past ages, into the 
loving consideration of things pleasurable and constantly enjoyable 
throughout long periods of development. 

But passing over these and many other i)oints of great interest 
let us turn from the aesthetic history of the individual to that of 
the nation, hoping thus to arrive at some conception of that of the 
race. The evolutioa of a nation physically and mentally may be 
expressed by the same expanding lines as with the individual. The 
highest aesthetic stage of a nation is reached through a long series 
of lower stages beginning at the initial point and advancing with 
a movement more or less gradual as the conditions of existence 
favor or interfere with the normal progressive tendencies. In 
studying the individual we may resort to the combining of obser- 
vations upon several individuals at different stages of development, 
one serving to teach us of youth, another of maturity and another 
of old age. The periods of nations are longer and the composite 
method of study becomes thus a measure of necessity. There is 
every reason for believing that the expanding lines express cor- 
rectly the physical and mental growth of nations as fully as they 
do that of individuals, so that I will not dwell upon the matter 
further than to show that in a measure the composite study of na- 
tional histories brings out the history of the race. 



246 



sicriOM H. 



Here is a nation, a European one we will say, standing at the 
very top of the scale of cultare, whose history is known for a 
thousand years. When first known to tkie historian this nation 
was in a barbarous stage and the reconls show a gradual advance 
to its present state. The diagram of its pn^ress would be ex- 
pressed as in A, Fig. 2. 

Here is another nation, say an Asiatic one, now passing the 
confines of barbarism and entering the realm of civilisation. Its his- 
tory is known for a thousand years as diagramed in B. Still an- 
other nation has, in the short period of its recorded history, passed 




OAiMriwt'A^iriuiaan. 



FiQ, S. Diagram iUnstratlnff national and race coltnre evolution. 

from the savage into the barbarous period, and diagram C ex- 
presses its observed development. Take again the most primi- 
tive people known to science and its diagram is confined to the 
earliest-known stages of savagery, as in D. This series represents 
all that is known of the history of man, and the diagrams combined 
as in E express connectedly this history and at the same time 
record the known history of the race, F. 

Now the various activities of man fall within the limitations of 
this scheme. Singling out the aesthetic we see, as indicated by 
the dotted lines, that it has developed as have the rest from small 
beginnings and that we can take up the threads of evolution at the 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 247 

'base of the ladder and follow them up through their development 
and differentiation to the highest points reached ; or that, reversing 
this order, we may begin with the fully-developed phenomena of to- 
day, represented by tlie fine arts, and pass back step by step through 
the ages to the lowest-observed savage state. We find, however, 
when we examine the stage of progress represented by our lowest 
tribes, that we are not yet at the true base of the ladder, that the 
beginning of things is still far beyond. There must have been a 
pre-savage state of society and. we are compelled to prolong the 
converging lines of the diagram indefinitely and to conclude that 
the pre-savage state was in the beginning a pre-human state. It 
is within these initial stages of progi*ess that we must look for the 
roots, the inceptive stages of the great groups of phenomena per- 
taining to advanced humanity. Our notions of these initial stages 
must be derived from inferences as to the natural order of things 
and from analogies furnislied by the living lower order of creatures. 
It is conceded by most biologists that traces of appreciation, bor- 
dering closely on what we designate the aesthetic, arc observed in 
many species of animals, and pre-human man, furnished with all the 
senses with which we are endowed, must have had keen impressions 
of pleasure of like quality through the exercise of sight and hear- 
ing and smell and taste and touch. In this period the foundations 
must have been laid for all the higher subjective phenomena of to- 
day; and even tlie shaping arts, afterwards the stems upon which 
the Aesthetic vine grew and developed, had here their remotest be- 
ginnings. We cannot permit it to be assumed that the pre-human 
man was inferior at all stages of his existence to the birds and ants, 
the squirrels and the apes, who construct dwellings and invent 
devices to secure food and to escape danger. If it be allowed that 
the bower bird bedecks her dwelling with bright objects from an 
appreciation of their decorative effect, it may be fairl}' assumed 
that other creatures may have developed like tastes in low stages of 
intellectual development. At any rate it seems highly probable 
that when the mile-post of progress, separating the pre-human from 
the human stages, x x^ of the diagram, was reached by the race, 
many strands of aesthetic thought were already spun. They were 
as yet no doubt exceedingly attenuated and completely involved 
with other purely practical threads of progress from which, long 
afterwards, they were destined to be differentiated and divorced. 
At the baseofour historical ladder we encounter the most primi- 



248 SBcnoN h. 

tive human culture known, the most lowly races coming within 
the range of modern observation ; but we find that these lowly 
savages are already far advanced upon the highway of culture and 
are exercising taste u|M)n a multitude of subjects. So fully have 
the threads of the sasthetic enlarged and differentiated that we re- 
cognize the separate strands of painting, sculpture, music, and 
poetry. We may well pause in astonishment when we first come 
to observe this fact and to realize the brevity of the period, the 
shortness of the step, that separates our culture of to-day from that 
of the lowest tribes of which we have knowledge, and recognize the 
vastness of that perioil of culture progress that precedes the sav- 
age state extending indefinitely beyond our ken. Prolong therefore 
the initial periods of existence and trace the threads of culture 
back and still back into the unknown. 

The student of evolution has the privilege of observing two 
great periods of progress and development in sentient creatures, 
one beginning with the lowest living forms and ending with the 
highest apes, say at t in the diagram, the interspace being filled 
to a greater or less degree by very numerous creatures of varying 
grades of capacities and acquirements ; the other beginning with 
the lowest known human being, say at z, and ending with the high- 
est t3'pe of man. Between these two great groups there is an 
enormous gap, t to z, across which the human race alone, so far 
as we know, has passed, and the history of that passing is only to 
be inferred from what we know of what went before and what fol- 
lowed and from such meager and unsatisfactory evidence as geol- 
ogy furnishes to the archaeologist. Within this unobserved period, 
one step of progress was made that, according to many thinkers, 
is the most important step known to the science of man. That 
step was across the so-called chasm that separates man from beast, 
that separates the realm of instinct from the realm of reason, the 
age of nature from the age of art (x x'). All that was done an- 
terior to that step was the work of nature ; all that was done after 
that step is attributed to art. This distinction is no doubt an im- 
portant one, but its employment is open to the objection that there 
can really be no line of demarkation separating the phenomena of 
one stage of evolution from those of another and there is danger 
of the change being thought of as a definite and comparatively re- 
stricted episode, as marking a complete ending of one phase of ex- 
istence, and as being a datum point from which to begin the study 



ADDRESS. BT W. H. HOLMES. 



249 



of the succeeding pbase. The fact is that the change from the do- 
main of instinct to that of reason, from unconscious to conscious 
activity is a most gradual one, covering a long period of evolution, 
and it may be safely maintained that our race is not yet fully above 
the mere animal stage of art, for men still execute much that goes 
to make up art and especially aesthetic art, with a spontaneity 






Sayttffe. 



£arJ)arous(Xnlized^tlb^hteh^ 



DfOTTCBt 




Jlrc7iitc«tar«' 



AMstKetLa 
Art. 



Anesthetic Art. 



Pr^-Art. 

Fio. 3. Diagram giving tentative order of assthetic groups. 



resembling closely that of the instinctive period. The period of 
transition from the instinctive to the purely intellectual status of 
human mentations and activities may therefore be indicated in the 
diagram as beginning at x x' and continuing to the present time. 
On crossing the frontier line the first steps taken in conscious art 



250 SBcrioN H. 

would be itt-defined and restricted to the narrowest bonnda. As 
age after age passed new groups of art woakd ootne into existence 
and present conditions would finally be reached. The first step to 
aesthetic art might not be taken until long after the passage of the 
line separating unconscious from conscious art; but as in osefal art 
the aesthetic groups would follow each other in a slowly moving 
procession covering the whole range of periods down to the pres- 
ent. These featuras of aesthetic growth are indicated in the dia- 
gram. Fig. 8. 

There appears for my present purpose no more effective way of 
conveying a notion of the course followed by aesthetic develop- 
ment from the earliest to the latest stages of human history than 
that of taking up and considering separately the several branches 
of aesthetic art. The order in which they should be considered is 
not fully determined. That order should agree if possible with the 
order of their genesis, since they are in a measure interdependent 
and arise by differentiation, but this order is as yet somewhat a 
matter of conjecture. It would seem that since man's progress 
has been marked by a succession of social conditions and that the 
arts are deeply concerned in the evolution of these conditions, that 
they should be placed in an order based upon their relations with 
social conditions. The social group begins in the lowest state with 
the individual or includes the man and his family and extends 
finally in civilization to include large portions of the human family. 
The earliest arts would be the most completely egotistic, that is to 
say those most nearly concerned with the individual, and more es- 
pecially with the person of the individual. First, among these 
would be painting. The latest arts would be those arising from ad- 
vanced social conditions, as romance and landscape gardening. 
Tentatively, therefore, I will place the commonly recognized aes- 
thetic arts in the following order : painting, sculpture, architecture, 
music, poetry,the drama, romance and landscape gardening. 

In the pre-human and early savage ages, color must have been an 
important element of man's environment and the color sense was 
probably developed at an early day with all creatures gifted with 
sight. Darwin points out the extraordinary changes in color 
brought about in the hair and skins of animals and in the plumage 
of birds apparently by desires to attract, and as a means of at- 
tracting the opposite sex. In perceiving and distinguishing things 
in nature, the recognition of which was important to the preserva- 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 251 

lion of life, the color sense was of the greatest consequence, and 
J am inclined to believe that the earliest efforts made by man to 
modify anything, to create anything not intended to serve directly 
the ordinary purposes of life, would be in the direction of making, 
by means of color, changes in personal appearance to effect men, 
women or animals by attracting, repelling, or deceiving them. If 
first employed to attract the opposite sex, as may readily have been 
the case, then these initial steps were in the direct line of the 
sesthetic, serving to effect pleasurably the emotions of men. Among 
the lower tribes there are no more universal arts than those of 
painting and tattooing the skin and these are always associated 
with the appending of ornaments and with a great variety of per- 
sonal mutilations, all closely akin to painting in effect, and all in 
the main intended to increase attractiveness. 

The term painting includes a very wide range of art phenomena. 
As ordinarily employed it refers to the various forms of expression 
in color in which the brush is the means of execution, but as an 
aesthetic species it includes all expression by means of color, whether 
in outline, in solid color, in stains and d3'es, in weaving and in mo- 
saic, no matter whether executed by means of brushes, dyes, com- 
bination of parts, or by means of chemical processes. I prefer to 
present this art first for the reason that, as already indicated, it 
appears to be more closely associated with the person of man in the 
initial stages of culture than any other of the arts expressive of 
aesthetic notions. 

Personal embellishment was so much a part of the life of the 
savage that the practice of applying decorations would readily be 
transferred from the person to objects and articles of use near the 
person, as to his gtensils, weapons and dwellings. These were col- 
ored to match his personal colors, or were marked in imitation of 
his tattoo marks ; the}' were beautified to heighten his own claims 
to attractiveness. Graphic materials were everywhere obtainable, 
blood, juices of plants and fruits, charcoal, ochres, and colored clays 
needed hardly to be sought. The fingers were the first brush, and 
the human skin the first canvas. These practices undoubtedly long 
preceded the pictographic stages of painting and constituted the 
earliest objective phenomena of the graphic arts. Colorations and 
markings of the skin were not necessarily graphic in the sense that 
pictures are graphic but they may still have been representative of 
creatures or things and hence significant or symbolic. Picture mak- 



252 SBCTION H. 

ing woald imply very considerable art ability and a comparatively 
higii Bocial con<lition, and pictography and mythologic painting are 
far removed from the base of the aesthetic ladder. Pictography 
needed to do no more in the way of delineation than to make itself 
understood, and its presentations no sooner became intelligible 
by virtue of their truth to nature than they began to depart again 
fW>m truth and under a number of conventionalizing agencies, to 
assume formal or simplified shapes which became hieroglyphics and 
letters retaining a minimum of sesthetic qualities and possibilities. 

In all his arts man sought the assistance of the personified creat- 
ures of mythology, and delineations of the gods were applied to 
his person, to utensils, implements, weapons, and dwellings. These 
delineations were subjected to strong conventionalizing influences 
and assumed forms imposed by the arts in which they were em- 
ployed. Thus in pottery the delineations were limited to the small 
and often narrow spaces of the vessel. In the narrow spaces the 
forms descended to complete formality, uniting with the plain geo- 
metric figures otherwise derived. In the wider spaces they were 
considerably elaborated, depicting in bright colors and with much 
vigor, personages and scenes derived from mythology. Greek cer- 
amics afford a fine example of this class of work, and the Japanese 
art of to-day illustrates the widest scope of painting within the 
limits of this art. 

From painting upon the human skin, on robes and bark, the tex- 
tile art acquired a heritage of delineation which took remarkable 
forms of convention due to the geometric combinations of the web 
and woof. By the use of dyes, rich and varied effects of color were 
obtained, and embroidery and tapestry produced magnificent re- 
sults, the subjects being derived at first from mythology, and later 
among cultured nations, from history, romance and real life. 

House building developing into architecture adopted the painter's 
art and sheltered, encouraged and developed it, not only making 
the existence of ceramics and woven fabrics possible, but offering 
the choice spaces upon its walls, and columns, and cornices, and 
ceilings to the brush of the painter. In the decoration of temples, 
cathedrals and palaces, painting had its greatest opportunity and 
has freed itself from the fetters of utilitarian art, achieving approx* 
imately the goal of purely aesthetic or ideal art. 

It is thus seen tJiat several of the arts, useful and aesthetic, have 
nurtured and developed threads of the painter's art. These threads 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 258 

« 

contributed each its share to the total result ; rising out of their 
"various genetic channels, they have combined to make up the ses- 
thetic species painting. A much simplified diagram illustrating 
the inception of this sesthetic group and its progress upward through 
the ages is placed at the base of the series given in fig. 3. The 
aesthetic portion of the art of painting is exceptionally large, cov- 
ering indeed nearly the entire field and its inception reaches back 
very far toward the art frontier or limit, x x'. 

Next to painting I place sculpturej the arrangement being only 
tentative, however, and subject to change as evidence accrues to 
warrant it. In its initial stages this art group is closely associated 
with painting and later is much involved with architecture. The 
latter association has been kept up to a large extent throughout 
its history. "With the first use of an implement by the creature 
man entering gradually upon the human stage, sculpture was brought 
into the circle of the arts. Man cannot use any utensil, implement, 
or weapon without subjecting it in its use to sculptural action, and 
these changes of form in use must in time have suggested and led 
to intentional changes, to shaping by abrasion, beating, scraping, 
cutting and grinding, and these are all acts of sculpture. As an 
sesthetic art, sculpture probably followed painting somewhat close- 
ly through the use of articles appended to the person for purposes 
of embellishment, these articles being subjected to modification of 
sculptural kind to increase their beauty or convenience of use. 
When man advanced to the stage in w];Lich he symbolized men, ani« 
mals and the unknown powers of nature and selected representa- 
tives of these after the nature of fetiches and charms, there opened 
a new field for the shaping art and mythology came very largely 
to furnish the subjects for this art. 

Sculpture includes a wide range of phenomena taking a leading 
place in architecture, in ceramics and in many branches of indus- 
try employing decorative variations of solid materials. It must 
indeed even go beyond solid materials, so as to cover aU of those 
art forms included under the term draping, as in costume and house 
furnishing, unless that department of the phenomena of taste be 
allowed to occupy an independent, coordinate place among the aes- 
thetic arts. Its root must run far back into the pre-human period. 
As an art it may be assumed to begin in the earliest savagery and 
as an sesthetic art only a little farther on. 

Aixhitecture is made to follow sculpture, not that it is necessarily 



254 SBCTIOH H. 

younger in its inception, for the root of the builder's art, the primal 
Biem of architecture goes indefinitely back as does that of sculpture 
into the pre-human darkness, but because it was probably later in 
taking its place as a human art, Iteing less egoistic and hence await- 
ing the development of somewhat advanced social stages to begin 
its career as an aesthetic art. It is placed third in the diagram. 

Architecture deals essentially with construction ; the germ is in 
house building, and as its scope widens it differentiates into sacred 
architecture, secular architecture and their subdivisions. 

Music would at first glance seem to be one of tlie most primal of 
the arts, since nature is so full of musical sounds, and man, fur- 
nished with a voice and possessing decided imitative tendencies 
would apparently become a musical animal before he became man, 
but vocalization is not reckoned music, and the voice may be em- 
ployed constantly and in a wide range of uses without producing 
what we call music. The essence of music is said to consist not 
in sweet sound, but in rhythm, melody, harmony, and symphony as 
pointed out by Major Powell, and is thus not a human art until men 
have advanced to the social stage where play and dance give birth 
to rhythm, sweet sounds not being essential until still greater ad- 
vance is made and melody is understood. It would seem, however, 
that if we consider this group to comprise the aesthetics of sound 
rather than of that portion of acoustic phenomena included under 
the term music that its position in the diagram might have to be 
changed, for the use of vooalization to influence and charm men 
and creatures, and the recognition by men and creatures of aesthetic 
qualities in these vocalizations must have begun at an early date. 

Following music come poetry^ drama and romance^ and, lastly, 
unless we introduce such groups as dancing^ draping^ taxidermy^ 
pyrotechnics, etc., comes landscape gardening. These are placed 
upon the diagram to indicate approximately their places in the 
scheme of aesthetic evolution, the later pertaining only to the civ- 
ilized and enlightened stages and having no well marked inceptive 
stage in the earlier phases of culture. But I will not attempt the 
further elaboration of details since my desire was only to map out 
the subject and to give a somewhat comprehensive idea of the na- 
ture and extent of the aesthetic. The diagrams will serve this pur- 
pose more effectually than words. Together, or one after another 
in genetic sequence, the several branches of aesthetic art sprang 
into existence. By passing up through the scale of cultural stages 



ADDRESS BT W. H. HOLMES. 255 

from savagery to enlightenment we see that each succeeding period 
lias a larger share of art and a correspondingly larger share of the 
aesthetic, each stage being prophetic of the sacceeding stage. It 
Tvill be observed that the last stage — ^that upon which the foremost 
nations of the world are now entering — the enlightened — is also 
necessarily prophetic of a still more advanced stage ; and by adding 
to the number of aesthetic groups those yet to be conceived and 
prolonging the expanding lines of each group indefinitely, we are 
led to comprehend the true relations of the striking present to the 
marvelous future and to form some notion of the magnificent sum 
total of the aesthetic that future generations will be privileged to 
enjoy. 



PAPERS READ. 



Pkoposbd classification and international nomknclature of thb 
ANTHROPOLOGIC 8CIKNCBS. By Dr. D. G. Brinton, Media, Pa. 

Thb author proposes the following classification and nomenclature of 
the anthropologic sciences : — 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

I SOMATOIjO0Y.— Physical and Experimental Anthropology. 

n. ETHNOIjOGY. — Historic and Analytic Anthropology. 

HI. BTHNOGBAPHY.— Geographic and Descriptive Anthropology. 

IV. AKOHJBOIiOGY.— Prehistoric and Reconstructive Anthropology. 

I. SOMATOLOGY. 

1. Internal Somatology:— Osteology, craniology, prosopology, my- 
ology, splanchnology. 

2. External Somatology:— Anthropometry, color, hair, canons of 
proportion, physical beauty. 

3. Fsychologyr—Bzperimental and practical, sensation, rates of ner*> 
vous impulse, brain and nerve action. 

4. Developmental and Comparative Somatology:— Embry- 
ology, heredity, teratology, human biology, evolution, anatomy of anthro- 
poids, ethnic anatomy and physiology, comparative nosolojry and medical 
geography, fertility and sterility, racial pathology, criminal anthropology, 
vital statistics, anatomical classification of races. 

II, ETHNOLOGY. 

1. Sociology: — Systems of government and the social contract, laws 
and ethical standards, the marriage relations and rules of consanguinity 
and descent, social classes and institutions, international relations (war, 
commerce and colonization). 

2. Technology: — The Utilitarian Arts, as tool -making, ceramics, 
architecture, agriculture, means of transportation, clothing, weights and 
measures, media of exchange; the Esthetic Arts-^music, drawing, paint- 
ing, sculpture, decoration, games, cookery, perfumery. 

3. Religion: — Psychological origin and development; personal, family, 
tribal and world religions; animism, fetlchism, polytheism, monotheism, 
atheism; mythology and mythogeny; symbolism and religious art; sacred 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLI. 17 (257) 



258 8ECTI0H H. 

places and objects; rites, ceremonies and mortaary customs; religions 
teachers, classes, and doctrines ; theocracies ; analyses of si^ecial relig- 
ions ; philosophy and natural history of religions. 

4. Iii]lgai8ti08:-*Gestare and sign lanffange ; spoken language, parts of 
speech, logic of grammar, origin, growth, and claKsiflcatlon of languages, 
relation to ethnography ; written language, plctographic, symbolic, ideo- 
graphic, and phonetic writing, evolution of alphabets, phonetic systems; 
forms of expression, poetic (metrical, rhythmical), dramatic, prosaic. 

6. Folk-lore: 'Traditional customs and narratives, folk-sayings, sa- 
perstltlons beliefs and practices. 

III. STHNOGBAPHY. 

1 • General Bthnography:— Origin, characteristics, and subdivisions 
of races and peoples. The '^geographical provinces*' or **areas of charac- 
terization." Authropo-geography. Lines of migrations and national in- 
tercourse. 

2. Special Sthnography:— The EarafHcan or White race (North 
Mediterranean and South Mediterranean branches), the Austafyican or 
Black race, the Asian race (SInitic and Slbirlc branches), the American 
race. Insular and Littoral peoples (Nig ri tic, Malaylc, and Australic stocks). 

IV. ABCHJEOLOGY. 

1. General ArchflBOlogy: —Geology of the epoch of man. Olacial phe- 
nomena. Diluvial and alluvial deposits. Physical geography of the qua- 
ternary. Prehistoric botany and zodlogy. Prehistoric Ages. — ^The Age of 
Stone (palieolithic period, neolithic period) ; the Age of Bronze; the Age 
of Iron ; prehistoric commerce ; palethnology ; proto-historic epoch. 

2. Special Archflsology:— Egyptian, Assyrian, Pheniciau, Classical, 
Medieval aud American Arcbssology. 

The urgent need of a uniform classification and nomenclature for the 
various sciences connected with the study of man must be apparent to all 
who are familiar with the current literature of anthropology. 

The plan proposed above Is based upon the works and suggestions of 
well-known English, French, German, Italian and American writers. 
The proposer claims no other credit than that of selection. He offers no 
neologisms. The leading terms, those printed in black type and capita^ls, 
are substantially the same* In all the languages named ; they are already 
domesticated In the anthropological writings of every country ; and all 
fhat is needed is a general agreement as to their connotation. 



TUSAYAN LEGENDS OF THE SNAKE AND PLUTE PEOPLE. By MaTILDA CoXB 

Stevenson, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

Mt present subject was suggested by the very interesting article of 
Doctor Fewkes on the flute ceremonial at Shu-pow-o-la-vi one of the 
Tusayan pueblos. (A Journal of American Ethnology and Archseology). 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 259 

I was never so fortunate as to be at Tusayan at the time of the snake 
ceremonial, a celebration which equals the most Incredible representations 
of the snake charmers of the Orient. The matter published in 1885 on 
the Moqul snake dance was gathered from Messrs. Keam and Hubbell of 
that country, and several members of the snake society. Having thus 
called some of the fruit, I sought the tree which bore the fruit I was 
so fortunate as to discover the tree in the two legends given below as 
nearly as possible in the words of the theurgists of the snake and flute 
societies. 

THE SNAKE DRAMA. 

The weird and curious snake drama will be described only so far as to 
make clear the character of the organization whose duty It Is to furnish 
actors for this remarkable histrionic performance. 

The following account, which is presented as an introductloa to the leg- 
ends was given hurriedly at odd times by a member of the snake order 
now residing in Zufii. My f aniiliarity with the secret cult-societies of the 
Pueblo Indians enables me to see that the statement in general is correct, 
though in detail It may be subject to criticism. My rule is never to regard 
such material of real value until it has been verified from the tongue of 
more than one intelligent Indian, no religious or social secret being held 
by any one man. 

The snake society is a cult organization admitting both males and fe- 
males, regardless of clans; the officers of the society, however, must be 
of certain clans, including those of the snake and the antelope, as will ap- 
pear further on in the legends. The society has three divisions or orders : 
(1) the O'wl-yu-to-tl-ni, medicine; (2) Chur-wim-tka, rattlesnake; and 
T^6-lur-kang-a, a snake of a yellowish color, spotted with black. The 
following description relates entirely to the rattlesnake division or order. 

A woman chosen from the order looks after the cooking of the ** root 
medicine" ; she has an assistant whom she insti*ucts with a view to filling 
her place upon her death. The Ch&-a-ka-miing-wl (maker of medicine 
water) powders and prepares this root medicine, when the woman takes 
it In charge and bolls It In the kiva, or assembly chamber. This medicine 
is an emetic, and is drunk morning and evening the first four days of the 
ceremony, for mental and physical purlficsitlon. Tlie root held In the mouth 
while one expectorates over himself to prevent the anger of the snakes 
is quite different. When one is bitten by a snake this root is chewed by 
the theurgist, who, after sucking the wound four times, expectorates upon 
the lesion four times wMle the root is in his mouth ; a wad of raw cotton 
is then bound upon the wound. 

The Tusayan hold the same superstition as the Zu8l, that one suffering 
from a snake bite must not look upon a woman furnishing nourishment to 
an infant. 

After the morning meal, the first day of the ceremonial, the male mem- 
bers go to tlie north to gather snakes ; on the second morning they go to the 
west, the third to the south, the fourth to the east ; and on the fifth and 



260 SECTION H. 

sixth mornings they look abont generally for the zenith and nadir. The 
snakes are deposited in four vases 'which stand in line at the western end 
of the room, and on the northern side. 

On the fifth morning a sand painting is made on the floor of the kiva, 
and fetiches of the cougar and bear, so conspicuous in the snake legend, 
are deposited by it. The male novitiates sit in line north of the painting. 
The men of the society sit on tlie southern side of the kiva and the women 
on the northern side. The snakes are deposited on the painting, where 
they are frequently sprinl^led with meal. They are kept there by the no- 
vitiates who are busy with wands composed of two eagle plumes attached 
to a slender stick held in the right hand. The Indians declare that the 
eagle possesses the power of charming the snalce by flying about him and 
gently caressing him wiih his wings, and these children of nature have 
adopted the eaglets plan, using the wand. 

The male novitiate has the snake placed in his mouth by his chosen 
father who has first held it In his mouth and danced while an attendant 
caressed the serpent with the eagle plumes; before the snake is put into 
the novitiate's mouth the chosen father grasps it with both hands, the span 
of the tip of the middle finger to the tip of the thumb from the head, and, 
moving It before the face of the novitiate, prays, while the novitiate inhales, 
taking in a breath from the snake. After the snake is put into his mouth 
the novitiate datices while the attendant waves the plumes over the snake. 
With a female novitiate the snake is only waved before her mouth (the 
women of the order never handle the snakes) ; and a similar cere«nony is 
observed with both sexes when entering the L64ur-kang-a. Many men 
and women belong to more than one of these divisions, yet it is only those 
holding membership in the rattlesnake order who participate in the snake 
-drama. It is the ambition of the men to join the rattlesnake division, 
not only to prove their skill in handling the snakes, but because the people 
of this oi*der are considered the greatest jugglers in the Province of 
Tusayan, 

At sunset the snakes are removed from the sand painting and returned 
to the vases. In the morning a fresh painting is made and the snakes 
deposited upon it. This is repeated four days in succession. 

After the out-of-door ceremony in which each dancer has an attendant 
whose duty it is to control, with a feather wand, the one or more snakes 
held in the dancer's mouth, an all-night ceremonial occurs in the kiva, 
principally for the final initiation of the novitiates, when their power of 
endurance is taxed to the extreme. 

At sunrise the novitiates form in line in the kiva facing eastward, when 
the head of each is bathed in yucca suds by the wife of the chosen father, 
and a pair of moccasins, some calico, and four plume ofi'erings are pre- 
sented to him by the father. These plumes are afterwards offfered by the 
novitiates to the rattlesnake. 

I have given but the faintest glimpse of a most elaborate ceremonial of 
initiation into the snake order. The medicine order is usually the first 
joined. When one has been cured by the theurgist, either the patient or 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 261 

Us parents notify the theurgist of his wish to join the O'wi-yu-to-ti-ni 
the theurgist becoming the father of the novitiate. When either of the 
other two orders are joined the novitiate may or may not choose the first 
father. In every Instance the father presents a pair of moccasins and 
some minor gifts, usually calico, and the washing of the novitiate's head 
ill yucca suds by the wife or daughter of the father at sunrise invariably 
closes the ceremonial. 

Why the snake cremonial is biennial is a question often asked. It is 
answered in the legend of the flute people which is embodied in the drama 
so vividly portrayed by Dr. Fewkes as performed by the members of the 
flute society. But the legend of the snake people must precede that of the 
flute people. It is as follows : 

ORIGIN OF THK 6NAKK CEREMONIAL. 

When our people lived in the cliff in Canon de Chelly much water fell 
through the cafion into the San .Juan river. The son of the high shaman 
of the Ho-pi-tu (Tusayan) said to his father, "Father, I have long desired 
to launch a boat upon these waters and see where the great river flows." 
The father replied, '*My son, I fear you v^ll never return to your people, 
but if you desire to go I will aid you all that I can. Surely you have a 
brave heart and I am proud of you." When the mother and sisters were 
told of the boy's ambition and that the father had consented to his wish 
they were sorely grieved and wept and be^rged him to desist from so haz- 
ardous an enterprise. Four days were consumed by the father in making 
plume wancls for his son, and the mother and sisters were busy prepar- 
ing food for the journey. A log of cotton-wood was hollowed out for the 
boat and a paddle made of the same wood. The only opening in this hol- 
lowed log was a small aperture in the stern, which strved two purposes ; 
when it became necessary to use the paddle to shove the boat from the 
shore it was projected through this hole, and water was collected through 
the same opening to drink, and to make pi-ka-mi (mush) of sprouted wheat. 
This opening was closed with a small pottery vase, the same vase being 
used to dip water when required. At the end of four days all was ready, 
and the youth launched his boat upon the stream and departed amid the 
tears of his people who feared they would never again see the dauntless 
boy. 

He floated many days, he could not tell how long, for he knew not days 
from nights as all was darkness in the boat. Finally running against 
the shore he determined to land. After landing he selected from his many 
wands one which was very large, made of beautiful white feathers of the 
eagle and he planted it in the ground and asl^ed his sun father to lead him 
over the right road, begging him that the wand might direct his steps. 
He was led by the wand a long distance, and finding no one, he again 
planted it in the ground and asked the sun father that he might be directed 
by the wand ; and the third and the fouEth time the wand was planted and 
the supplication repeated, until finally he reached the house of the spider 
woman, the little grandmother. The old woman said, **My child, what 



262 SECTION H. 

brings yon here? Toa are near a very l>ad people. Come into my bouse and 
I will talk with you.** It must be remembered that the little old grand- 
mother coald not be seen, but nhe was all the time close to the youth's ear. 
After entering; her house he said to her, ** I am not afraid and I would 
like to go and see the people of whom you speak." The spider woman 
said, **I must first giye you medicine which you will take into your montli 
and eject upon the bad people and they will at once become friendly." And 
he Tisited these people accompanied by the grandmother who traveled 
close to his ear. He had to pass four sentinels, equidistant from one 
another. Each sentin^ was a huge serpent who held his head erect and 
hissed at the youth as he approached, but upon spitting the medicine upon 
him he became docile and allowed the youth to pass. The road led into a 
rocky cavern of great beauty and upon entering the first kiva in this cav- 
ern he saw many youths and maidens. The youths wore only breech cloths 
which were white. The maidens were clad in pure white blankets and 
they wore earrings and necidaces of tnrkis and kohaqus. The youths were 
on one side of the kiva and the maidens on the other, and the miingwi or 
director was passing between the two, distributing plume wands ; he had 
a bald head, as bare as the rest of the body. When the youth entered the 
kiva the m&ngwi exclaimed, ** Who are you that you dare come to my 
house?" The youth told him where he lived and how, desiring to see the 
world, he had made him a boat and floated down the great river. *'Tou 
are surely brave to venture here. Come, I will take you to the house of 
my brother." And he led him into an adjoining kiva, where many youths 
and beautiful maidens were dressed like those in the first kiva. The miing- 
wi of the first kiva told the story of the stranger to the mtkngwi of the 
second kiva who welcomed the youth, telling him he was a noble fellow 
with a brave heart to come so far t<> a strange land. The miingwl of the 
first kiva was the director of the snake people, and the mungwi of the 
second kiva, the director of the antelope people. The director of the an- 
telope people said to the youth, **Do you not wish one of my beautiful 
maidens for a wife?" The spider woman who all the while traveled close 
to the youth's ear, whispered, '*Wait; wait awhile." And the youth with- 
out replying bade farewell to the miingwi saying in a little while he would 
return. 

Again the youth went to the house of the spider woman, and she said to 
him, "I will now lead you to the house of the sun ; the mother of the sun 
lives under the great waters." And when they had reached the shore the 
youth separated the waters with his large wand, making a dry road be- 
tween the waters, over which he passed to the house of the mother of the 
sun. This house was very beautiful and here he saw all the plume offerings 
of his people, those of the good of heart were on one side of the house and 
those of the bad of heart on the other side. He was welcomed by the mother 
of the sun who told him in a little while the sun would return. Presently 
the youth was startled by a great noise caused by the sun returning through 
the waters to his home. The descent was through a huge reed ; putting a 
foot on either side of the reed he descended head Toremost. The spider 



▲VTHROPOLOQT. 268 

"womaa whispered to the yoath, "We will go with the snii to his father's 
lioose in the east/' the mother's house being in the west ; and they In com- 
pany with the sun passed under the earth and visited the father's house in 
the east, and from the father's house they ascended through the reed that 
penetrates the eastern waters and passed over the wprld. On this journey 
the youth saw all his people in Cafion de Chelly and could read their hearts, 
and he knew the good of heart from the bad of heart, and he returned with 
the sun to the mother's house and saw the sun deposit the plumes he had 
gathered while passing over the world, placing the plumes deposited by 
the good of heart on the one side and those by the bad of heart on the other. 

Returning to the earth the youth again visited the cavern of the snake and 
antelope peoples. The spider woman continued to remain close to his ear. 
Upon entering the kiva of the snake people the miingwi asked him if he did 
not want one of his beautiful daughters for a wife. He had two daughters. 
The spider woman whispered to him to take both, so he said to the mung- 
wi, '*! wish 'for both of your daughters as wives;" and the m&ngwi an- 
swered, **It is well, they are yours." The youth accompanied by the two 
maidens bade farewell to the snake and antelope peoples and was led by 
the spider woman to her house. On reaching home she said to the youth, 
'*Here you and the maidens will remain four days. The maidens will be 
my cooks and I will teach them all that I know." Then she directed the 
youth to gather young cottonwoods and build a house for the maidens to 
live in during their stay with her. After the fourth day the youth, in 
company with the maidens, started for his home. He was accompanied 
on his journey not only by the spider woman but by the cougar and bear 
who acted as his warriors or protectors ; but they, like the spider woman, 
could not be seen. I'he spider woman led the way, and upon reaching the 
cation she said to the youth, **You cannot climb down; the road is too 
steep ; prepare a box of cottonwood and you and the maidens get into it 
and I will let you down with a rope of cotton which I will draw from my 
own body." And in this way they were safely landed in the caiion of his 
fathers and he hastened to his home where he was received amid great 
rejoicing of all the people. The maidens were welcomed by the father of 
the youth who said to them, **Four days you will remain apart from my 
son and grind meal and make bread." On the morning of the fifth day 
the mother and sisters of the youth bathed the two maidens in suds of 
yucca, after which they for the first time were seen by the Ho-pi-tii. 

The eighth day and night after the return of the youth was consumed 
In smoking and talking with his father. The father talked to the youth 
and the youth gave his father an account of his journey down the river 
and the strange people he visited. All day and night they talked, and the 
father said, <*My son, at sunrise you will go and tell all .the people of the 
Tillage that in sixteen days we will have a great feast to the snake and an- 
telope peoples. Tell the men, women and children that in eight days from 
this time they must run to the north, to the west, to the south and to the 
east. 

The same day that the men and women ran, the two maidens and the 



264 8S0T10H H. 

youth and his brother entered kiras. The yonth accompanied one of the 
maidens to the kiva dedicated to the ant«'lope people, and the brother ac- 
companied the other maiden to the Idva dedicated to the snake people. 
These con pies remained alone in the kivas three days. The maidens 
taught their companions the antelope and snake songs. The third night 
the congar and the bear descended into the antelope kiva. The next morn- 
ing the congar invited the antelope people to come to the ceremonial and 
the bear invited, the snake people. The snake people came in showers. 
There were f onr delicate showers, each shower bringing the people. These 
showers were, however, invisible to the Ho-pi-t{i. Certain of the Ho-pi-t4 
were also invited. The yonth did not invite all of his people, only those 
of the good of heart ; he having in liis travels with the sun, been able to 
know the good of heart from the bad of heart. The morning after their 
arrival the antelope and snake peoples began, at snnrise, to sing; and they 
sang for three days. The seventh morning the brother in the snake kiva 
accompanied by the Ho-pi-tti in that kiva spent the day with the people in the 
antelope kiva. The same day a man from the antelope kiva and one from 
the snake kiva, both of the com clan, were selected by the youth and his 
brother to gather green cornstalks which were held in the mouths of the 
Ho-pi-t{i when they danced on the eighth morning in the plaza. Upon the 
return of the yonth and his people to the snake kiva in the evening they 
were horrified to find that the snake people had been transformed into 
snakes. The spider woman whispered in the ear of the youth, '^Do not 
be afraid, I will give you medicine which will make the snakes friendly ; 
to you alone I will intrust the secret of this medicine, and to the maiden 
the care of cooking it. You will take it into your mouth and spit it upon 
the snakes. I will also give you a medicine of which you will drink much 
and should you be bitten by an angry snake you will not suffer because 
your heart will be pure."* 

At midnight, the youth and his brother directed the Ho-pi-t{i in the two 
kivas to go out and plant plume offerings, saying, ''You of the antelope 
kiva and you of the snake kiva must plant your plumes apart, but your 
prayers said over the plumes will meet as In one straight tongue." The 
following morning the bear went from the antelope kiva to the snake kiva 
and holding each snake the length of the tip of the middle finger to the 
tip of the thumb from the head bathed it in yucca suds and rubbed it with 
sacred meal and deposited it in a large vase. The same morning the youth 
of the antelope kiva selected two young men, good of heart, and directed 
them to cut young cottonwoods and build a house for the snakes, instruct- 
ing them how it should be built. Upon its completion the snakes were 
deposited in the house ; the remainder of the day was consumed in out 
door dancing, the cornstalks being held in the mouth. After the plant- 
ing of the plumes by the Ho-pi-tii neither food nor drink was taken until 
after the dance. At the close of the dance the medicine of the spider 

iThis has reference to the decoction taken in the morning and evening which accord- 
ing to the Ho-pi-ta belief bo thoroughly purifies the man mentally and physically that 
he is, for the time being, impervious to evil. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 265 

'Woman was freely dmnk which induced vomiting, after which a feast was 
liidolged in. When the dancing ceased, the spider woman whispered to 
the brother, ''Catch the maiden who was transformed into a snake (the 
sister who was in the antelope klya escaped tlii^t transformation), and 
carry her back to the kiva ; bnt the other snakes must be deposited to the 
north, the west, the south, and the east so tliat they may retnm to their 
homes/' This was the natal festival of the snake society of the Ho-pi-t(i. 
The brother had no sooner placed the snake in the kiva than it was again 
metamorphosed into the beautiful maiden. The youth with the two maid- 
ens returned to his father's house and they became his wives and he was 
enamored of them. In four days the maidens had every appearance of 
approaching ptirturition. On the eighth day after their marriage the 
maidens deposited many eggs which they covered with mounds of sand, 
and in four days tiny snakes were hatched. All the children of the vil- 
lage were delighted with the little snakes and played with them ; but in 
four days the snakes grew to be very large and became angry and bit the 
children, and aU the children bitten died. Every four days new snakes 
"were hatched and these grew like the others to be large and angry in four 
days. Finally the youth's father said to him, "Your children are no good. 
I am in despair for all of our little ones have been destroyed by your chil- 
dren. All of my people's hearts are sad. Where shall I go with my peo- 
ple to avoid your destroying children?" And he called two chapparal 
cocks to him and said, "Go hunt a good road where we wilt have water. 
I wish to leave these people and seek another country.** The birds trav- 
eled apart and on their return they told their story and a road was selected. 
The high shaman traveled only as far as the birds had gone, they having 
taken different routes and meeting at a certain point. Again the birds 
were dispatched to And a good road, and in this way the shaman traveled 
until he reached the present country of the Tusayan. He camped at the 
base of the mesa upon which stands the present village of W&lpl. When 
some distance from this point the shaman, discovering a man at the foot 
of the mesa, said to his people, "Get your arrows ready ; I will go ahead 
and see who this man is ;'* and he advanced to meet the stranger who was 
approaching. When a ditch only separated them the stranger, who was a 
giant, exclaimed, "You are a brave man to come here ; I thought you would 
be afraid ; we will have a smoke ;** and he drew a huge pipe from his belt. 
The shaman smoked the pipe, and the giant said, "You are surely a good 
man ; you have smoked the pipeful of tobacco ; I will give you more ;** and 
the shaman smoked four pipes of tobacco. Then the giant said, "I am 
much pleased that you are not afraid. I will give you land for your people, 
and you will make this your home." 

This legend furnishes the plot for the snake drama which occturs bien- 
nially at Tusayan. 

ORIGIN OF THE FLTJTE CEREMONIAL. 

LMang-Ah was the original director of the flute people. The music of 
his flute drives away the winter, and brings the summer rains. He had 



266 BECTIOH H. 

many necklaces of tarUs and kohaqna, and he wore earrings of tnrkis, 
and parrot plumes upon his head. He was the director of many people 
and his insignia of office was the P&-a-ya, a crook, symbolic of longevity, 
to which were attached fonr rattles ornamented with the flaflTy breast 
feathers of the eagle. The rattles were used by him when he sang for 
rain, to water the lands of the snake people upon his advent into this 
worid from the lower world. 

li^langikh erected an elaborate p6-fiai, a portable altar constructed of 
wood siats, and in front of it he placed his mother ti-po-ni (a fetich of an 
ear of com, with eagle and parrot plumes arranged at the top in pyrami- 
dal form ; the corn is closely wrapped with native cotton cord, at the top 
of the wrapping bits of abalone shell, turkis and other beads are sus- 
pended) . The songs for rain were sung to the accompaniment of the flute 
and the rattle. The songs were sung to the rain people of the north, of 
the west, the south, the east, the zenith and the nadir. The six songs 
brought the rain, and L^langAh blew his whistle into the water which fell 
upon the earth, making it bubble, at the same time praying for more rain ; 
and the earth whs well watered. After long prayers and songs tothep6- 
fiai that it would lead them over the right road, L^langAh was informed 
of the path he was to f oUow. The p6ilai was taken apart and carefully 
packed and the tfponi placed in a box which was wrapped in a white cot- 
ton blanket and carried over the shoulders of L^langillh. Two of his 
shamans carried the p6iiai on their backs. L61angi)ih directed by the p6nai 
and mother tfponi traveled from the northwest and crossing the Colorado 
river camped on the banks of the Rio San Juan near its Junction with the 
Kio de Chelly. The flute people lived at their camp on the Rio San Juan 
four years (years referring to periods of time). L^lang^h thought mnch 
of where he would go with his people ; he finally called the mountain sheep 
and the antelope and told them he wished them to hunt for a good land 
and to return and inform him when they found such. The mountain sheep 
traveled on the west side and the antelope on the east side of the Colo- 
rado river, and after running one day they both returned to the camp, 
li^langikh tht^n erected the p6fiai and placed the tfponi before it and prayers 
were sung to the music of the flute and the rattle. The prayers brought 
the rain which watered the earth. The p6ilai was removed and the tfponi 
replaced in the box and wrapped with a cotton blanket, and L61an^h 
followed the course indicated by the p6fiai and the tfponi. He with his 
people advanced to^the Colorado river. Upon reaching its b:inks they 
traveled one day down the river and made camp and afterward built houses. 
They lived at this village one year or time period ; he then moved on and 
built another village where they lived one year ; here there was much good 
water and the people drank and quenched their thirst. Again the p6fial 
was erected and the tfponi placed before it and the antelope and mountain 
sheep were sent to hunt a place where a village might be built. In the 
evening they returned declaring they had found a good country. In four 
days the flute people started on their journey and after four days' travel 
reached the country selected by the antelope and mountain sheep. The 



ANTHEOPOLOGT. 267 

p6nai was again placed with the tfponi in front of it and songs were sung 
to the music of the flute and the rattle that they might be informed what 
route to take to find a good country. The p6fiai fell in the direction the 
people were to go. Instead of proceeding they were directed back to 
the village last vacated. They remained at this village one year after 
their return, when the p6nai was again erected and the ttponi placed in 
front of it that they might be directed to a good country. They followed 
the course indicated by the p6fiai and the tiponi and reached a point some 
six miles from the present pueblo of Wal-pi. Here they built the village 
Quash- ta-pa. In the distance a bright light was visible, it burned con- 
tinually in the day and in the night. L61angi^h said <4 would like to know 
"what people live there," pointing to the light, "perhaps they are good, per- 
haps bad." I will send the antelope and the mountain sheep to learn what 
they can of these people. Upon the near approach of the antelope and 
sheep to the village they discovered the people were red all over and when 
still nearer found them to be snake people. The antelope and mountain 
sheep had drawn near to a spring when the snake people attempted to 
seize them. They were too tired to run fast and were captured. The di- 
rector of the snake people inquired "Who are you? Where did you come 
from? Where are you going?" The antelope and sheep replied "our camp 
is not far off, and seeing a light burning here we came to learn what 
people live here." The captives were then released and allowed to 
go to their village. Upon their return they smoked the pipe with 
their director and informed him of their adventure. They told L61angAh 
how they had discovered the people passing in and out among the rocks 
near a spring at the base of a mesa, and how they feared they would be 
killed by them when they were captured, and after they were caught 
how the strange people inquired who they were and whence they came. 
L^langiih said "I will go and see these people and tell them we are poor." 
But he wished first to have the words of the p6Sai and tfponi, and in 
four days he erected the p6fiai and placed the tfponi and sang to the 
music of the fiute and the rattle. He first sang for rain, which came, and 
in conjunction with the ponai the rain told him it would be well for him 
to go and see the strange people. After packing the tfponi in the box and 
wrapping the box with a white cotton blanket and separating the p6nai 
so it could be carried by the two shamans, he placed wands on the road 
they were to take, and he, followed by his people, proceeded to the home 
of the snake people. He carried much meal and sprinkled it making a 
road all the way for his people to pass over. L61angAh thought much of 
the people he was to meet. He said to himself, "Perhaps they are bad." 
At sundown they were not far the snake people whom he discovered 
to be advancing towards him. The director of the snakes was in front 
followed by his people many abreast. Upon reaching the flute people the 
director of the snake people cut the road of meal saying "We do not wish 
you in our country, we do not know you, and you may be bad people." 
L^langiih replied, "No, we are not bad people, but we are very poor and 
have traveled far, we wish to live upon your land." Again the director of 



268 SECTION H. 

the snake people objected. And thns they argued until they had had four 
talks. In the last talk L61angi!kh told the director of the snake people that 
he knew the secret of the rains and could water his land for him. "Well,* 
said the director," if you can command the rain people your heart most be 
good, and we will be glad to have you with us if you know the secret of 
the rains. If you know this secret then you and your people must be 
first and I nnd my people second ; you will be to us father and mother, 
you will always be our great father." The flute people camped with the 
snake people four days, then the director of the snake people being im- 
patient for rain said to L61angi!ih, ''If you indeed know this secret, hasten 
the rain that onr land may be watered.*' "Wait," said L^lang^h, "in eight 
days I will return to your village and we will go into the kiva." The di- 
rector of the snake people thought, "I guess this man has lied to me." 
L61angiih returned with his people to Quash-ta-pa, but in eight days he, 
accompanied by his people, again Tisited the snake people, he with all of 
his men, two youni; vlrgln^^, and a youth not having reached maturity 
went into the kira of the snake people. The director was the only one of 
his people to accompany L^lanariih into the kiva. The two virgins Tvore 
white blankets. The lower portion of the face was painted black ; a white 
line across the mouth and extending from ear to ear bordered the black; 
their feet and hands were colored black, their arms and legs on the outer 
sides were zigzagged in black, — this decoration being symbolic of rain 
and lightning. Each wore a white fluffy eagle plume attached to the fore- 
lock. The youth wore a white breech cloth and an eagle plume in his 
hair, his person being decorated similar to the yirgins. Tiiey wore 
elaborate necklaces of turkis and kohaqna. The director of the snake 
people flrst placed his tfponl before the p6fial, which L^langiih had erected, 
then L61angiih deposited his tfponl. They renaainedin the kiva four days, 
during which time they ate no animal food nor salt and practised continency. 
They Hub8i>«ted on pl-kl, a wafer-like bread, and pi-ka-mi. 

On the flrth morning all the flute people returned to Quashtapa except- 
ing the youth and the two virgins; these remained in the kiva. They 
traveled by the music of the flute and the rattle and were led by Ave large 
beautiful feather wands. After reaching their village they had a feast and 
ate much meat and salt, and after the feast they sang all night. At mid- 
night they had sung four songs when the rain slowly approached. It 
came not In showers from the heavens, but walked over the earth. As 
yet, before It was day, the waters were invisible to all but L^langrih. Be- 
fore daylight the women attired themselves In white blankets and the men 
in white breech cloths having painted their bodies and limbs white, and 
ascended the mesa before their village. L6langiih carried the flve large 
wands and was accompanied by the twin war heroes. (These little fellows 
figure extensively in the mythology of all the Pueblos.) Again songs for 
rain were sung; and the wands planted. Then L61angrih accompanied by 
his people advanced to the land of the snake people. All his men had 
sunflowers on their heads and they carried corn and many seeds of melons, 
beans and peppers. As they neared the village the rain began falling 



ANTHBOPOLOGT. 269 

aronnd the land of the snake people but not upon it. They were met by 
the snake director and his people; and the two virgins and the youth who 
had remained alone in the kiva of the snake people abstaining from animal 
food and salt since the day they tlrst entered with L61anguh/ soon ap- 
peared, accompanied by the two war heroes who upon entering the kiva 
heard the prayers of the youth and the maidens and then led them to 
where the people were congregated, but they did not join in the dance. 
After the fourth song the rain began falling upon the land of the snake 
people and in a little while the land was well watered and the snake peo- 
ple wept for joy. Lelanguh gave to the snake director all the cereals his 
people had brought and the snake director was greatly pleased and said : 
**You are indeed my father, you have brought us rain, you know the secrets 
of the rains, you are therefore before me." The rain was so heavy that in 
places it washed the earth into globules and L61angi^h gave to each of the 
virgins four of these balls and to the youth four eagle plumes. '1 he virgins 
and the youth preceded the others to the kiva of the snake people ; as they 
advanced a line of meal and four rain symbols equidistant were outlined 
in meal. The youth planted an eagle plume at the center arch of each 
design and the maidens placed the mud balls in the arches either side of 
the line. 

After all were seated L^langiih placed some mountain sheep's chips up- 
on the floor and on these a beautifully decorated pottery bowl. He then 
placed a yellow ear of corn to the north of the bowl, a blue ear to the 
wc'st, a red to the south, and a white to the east; a black for the zenith 
was placed by the side of the yellow ear and the all-color for the nadir by 
the side of the red ear. He then held a small vase of water which he 
brought from Quashtapa, extending it to the north, he sang for rain and 
sprinkled the yellow ear of corn ; then extending to the west he sang for 
rain and sprinkled the blue ear, and so the songs to the south and the east 
and the zenith and the nadir were sung, and the ears of corn sprinkled; 
he then emptied the water into the bowl. Six pebble fetiches for the 
cardinal points were dropped into the bowl with invocations to the cougar 
of the north, the bear of the west and badger of the south, the wliite wolf 
of the east, the eagle of the heavens and the shrew of the earth to inter- 
cede for rain. L61angilh then blew his whistle in the water, producing 
bubbles, and much rain fell, and again the snake people rejoiced. L^lan- 
gAh, taking the six fetiches from the water, blew smoke over each one and 
prayed that his people might be preserved from evil and have good health. 
The flute people sang all the time, but the snake director did nut sing for 
he did not know the songs for rain. L^lang^h directed his people to make 
plume offerings to be deposited to the north, the west, the south, the east, 
the zenith and the nadir. The oflTerings were planted by one man for the 
snake and flute people. The plumes carried prayers for all things good. 
Upon leaving the kiva the flute people saw their women sitting on hills out- 
side of the village watching for them. The women wore white blankets and 
the children had white plume from the breast of the eagle fastened to the 
forelock. The men still wore the sunflowers upon their heads. In a little 



270 SECTION H. 

ifrhile the land was abnndant with melons, beans and peppers and other 
Tegetation, though nothing had been planted. At sunrise the following 
morning all the men and boys of the Ante people painted their bodies 
white. The white plume from the breast of the eagle and parrot plumes 
were attached to the scalp lock of each boy's head; the men wore sun- 
flowers on their heads; all had many flne necklaces of turki^i and kohoqnft 
beads. L6lang{lh played and sang and the women and youths ran about for 
all Wf re now contented. At midday L6laiiguh wiih his men, and the snake 
director, went into the kiva, and L^Iangiih repeated the making of the 
medicine water and again much rain fell. At the close of the ceremonies 
L^lautf^h said to the director of the snnke people, "Tou have seen my 
people dance; you have heard my songs and prayers, you know that I 
speak with one tongue and have a good heart.'* "Yes," replied the dnake 
director, **you know much, we must live together; you have made my 
land rich with food, you are great. Tou must be at the head and I will 
follow. The land will be yours for one year during which time all my 
people will be after you, then I will be at the head, and the land will be 
mine, and thus we will i*ule over the land. You have taughtme the secrets 
of the rains and the land will be yours as it is now mine." 

The flute ceremonial is the dramatization of the migrations of the flute 
people, their encounter with the snake people, and the grand flnale when 
the director of the flute people brings the rains, and in return the director 
of the snake people declares that he shall be master over the land every 
alternate year. With a knowledge of the Inngoage, infinite details could 
be introduced into the legends which exhibit such striking analogy to the 
ceremouiaht of the snake and flute societies. 

While the snake and flute people are allied, the snake drama bears no 
relation to the flute drama except in so far as they are both rain ceremoni- 
als ; but in the flute drama, both the flute people and the snake people 
appear. Without positive knowledge, I should say that those personating 
the snake people in the drama of the flute society are members uf that body. 

Ethnologic investigations are extremely fascinating ; but exultation and 
enthusiasm often engender mistakes, and m.^ thologic queKtions are fre- 
quently shrouded in mystery. In some respects they are like the acts of 
the prestidigitator which at flrst appear to be impossible of solution, yet 
at last when the secret of the process Is revealed, its very simplicity dulls 
the glory of discovery. Such is often the experience of the ethnologist in 
studying my thol ogic and sociologic phenomena. Each particular question, 
without careful comparison with others, confronts us with strange con-* 
fusion, but upon further research a solution may often be found. 



Primitive number systems. By Prof. Levi L. Conant, Polytechnic In- 
stitute, Worcester, Mass., 

fABSTRACT.] 

The number sense is never wholly lacking, no matter how limited may 
be the mental development of a tribe. Even the higher orders of the 



ANTHBOPOLOGT. 271 

brute creation seem able to distinguinh between one and two. Investiga- 
tion mnst then begin with modes of expression of namber, and not, as 
many philosophers have argued, with number itself. Different primitlye 
methods of notation. Counting with the assistance of the Angers the 
universal starting point for number systems. It Is the method of child- 
hood, and is common among eastern nations to-day. Extent of various 
primitive number systems. Examples of tribes unable to count beyond 
2 ; beyond 3 ; beyond 4 ; beyond 5 ; beyond 10. Formulation of a general 
law for the method of counting in vogue among savage tribes. Only the 
vaguest notions possessed by savages of the numbers they use. Even 
though they count as hi}:h as 100 or 1000, they are often nnable to dis- 
tinguish between very small numbers. The systems of the modern civil- 
ized world, now unlimited, were once as limited as those of the savage 
races now in existence. 1 he testimony of language decisive on this point. 
Until comparatively recently it has been snp posed that all the number 
systems of the world were decimal. The decimal a natural 8cale, because 
of the ten fingers. Bnt the quinary and vigesimal are equally natural. 
The best of all possible bases is 12. Reasons therefor. Reckoning by 
12*s very common in business transactions, but no people has ever used 
12 as its exclusive number base. Examples of tribes that have used as 
their base two, three, or four. Brief mention of a similar use of six, 
seven, eight, nine, eleven and sixty. Consideration at length of the 
quinary system. Examples of its use. When extended, the quinary 
always passes into the decimal or the vigesimal system. Consideration 
of the vigesimal system. Examples of its use. Traces of its former use. 
Consideration of the decimal system. Its widely extended use. It seems 
destined to supplant all other systems, as it already has done in very many 
cases. 

[This paper will be printed in greatly expanded form as the first chapter 
of a book.] 



The Pbabody Museum Honduras kxpedition. By Prof. F. W. Putnam, 
Curator Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

[abstract.] 
A BBiEF account of the Expedition to Honduras during the past winter, 
with a statement of the plans of the Museum for future work in that 
country. 



Explorations on the main structure of Copan, Honduras. By 

Marshall H. Savillk, Asst. Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

[abstract.] 

The Main Structure of Copan is one of the most marvelous and in- 
structive in the New World. It was not understood by Stephens, who 



272 SECTION H. 

could see no evidence of any buildings in connection with it, and the 
forest still covered it when the Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition 
reached Copan in December last. 

This great ruin is of irregular shape, the length alon^ the river front 
being about 780 feet while the western side is about 560 feet. The height 
at the highest point above the river is about 120 feet. 

Among the numerjus mounds of this Structure is mound 21 in the ex- 
treme northeastern part, overhanging the river. It is on the upper level, 
above the western and eastern courts. The steps on the northern side of 
the Main Structure lead up directly to this level, which runs along the 
top of the northern part of the Structure, and southerly to pyramid 16, 
thus separating the two courts. 

This mound was much destroyed and the space between mounds 20 and 
21 was filled with debris from both mounds, to a depth of ten feet. At 
the southern side of the mound could be traced a flight of steps nearly de- 
stroyed, leading up to the top, which is flfty-one feet above the eastern 
court. The debris filled the space between mounds 21 and 22, and the 
general appearance of the mounds was that of a mass of stones and earth 
upon which large forest trees were growing. 

After clearing away the forest from the whole eastern part of the 
Main Structure, excavations were begun at the southern end of the debris 
between mounds 21 and 22. Working north to clear the supposed passage 
between the two mounds, a fiight of steps, four in number were discovered, 
which on being cleared were found to lead to a platform five feet above. 
At the base of the lower step, on each Hide, are the remains of a wall 
which faced the terrace, but the debris falling from the corners of the 
two mounds has left only the lower course of stones in place. The plat- 
form or terrace is 27 ft. feet long, extends between the lower terraces of 
both mounds, and is cemented. Working north from the top of these 
steps, about eight feet, the front wall of a building was found, running 
from east to west with a doorway in the center 6 ft. 10 in. wide. This 
wall had fallen outward, and was nearly destroyed. It is three feet in 
thickness and is built on the floor of the room and set in from the southern 
edge about four inches, a custom observed in the construction of other 
buildings In Copan. The floor of the room is one foot and a half above 
the platform and on the steps are several discs cut in the stone. This 
chamber was found to be 26 ft. long and 7 ft. wide. In the eastern end, 
the second terrace of mound 21 makes a platform 2 ft. 9 in. high and 4 
wide, covered with cement 2i in. thick. The two upper courses of stone 
project about three inches. The roof stones still in place in the northeast 
corner show the room to have been 8 ft. 2 in. high to beginning of roof. 
The end walls also have roof stones. These roofs were made by the 
overlapping of the stories on each side until they approached within about 
two feet, then the two walls were covered by a capstone. In the western 
wall is a niche nearly four feet from the floor, 1 ft. 9 in. long, 1 ft. 10 in. 
high, the bottom cemented, and having a flat roof above. This wall has 
been thrown inward by the fall of the eastern wall of mound 22. 



ANTHROPOLOOT. 273 

In the center of the northern wall of this room, which is 3 ft. 6 in. 
in thickness, is a doorway 8 ft. 8 in. wide, leading to a rear chamber. 
The floor of chamber 2 is more than two feet above chamber 1, the cement 
being from four to six inches deep. The step is of three courses of 
stone, the upper course projecting about three inches and has an hiero- 
glyphic inscription cut upon its face consisting of sixteen glyphs. The 
first glyph reseipbles the heading which is usually found at the beginning 
of inscriptions on the stelae of Copan and Quirigua and on the inscrip- 
tions of Palenque. The divisions of this inscription are unique, the char- 
acter being two discs, joined together near the lower part by a loop. They 
are placed, one after the flrst three glyphs, the next in the middle and the 
third before the last three glyphs. Below the central part of this inscrip- 
tion, on the lower courses of stone, is a large square cut in the stone. 
On each side near the top is a small square at right angles with it. About 
one foot away on each side a circular piece has been cut out. The char- 
acters resemble those cut in the stones of the roof of the ** House of the 
Difvarfs" in Uxmal, Yucatan. 

The room into which this step leads is 25 ft. 9 in. long and 6^ ft. wide. 
The terrace of mound 21, as seen in chamber 1, rises but eleven inches 
above the floor. The roof stones begin about six feet above the floor, and 
in the western wall was formerly a niche, now destroyed. The back wall 
of the room and building is five feet in thickness and has fallen outward. 

The cement on the floor of chamber 1 is rather broken, but that of 
chamber 2 is cracked and raised. This line of rupture runs from east to 
west, and continues through the western wall of the room, and the east- 
em wall of mound 22. 

There is another long crack in the Main Structure runnihg from north 
to south parallel with the river front. The walls in nearly all the build- 
ings explored in Copan have fallen outward presenting a different appear- 
ance from those of the ruined ediflces in Yucatan. While the buildings 
in Yucatan were probably destroyed by vegetation aided perhaps by the 
hand of man, in Copan we have evidence of a stronger force, probably 
an earthquake, producing the long cracks seen in the Main Structure, 
breaking off several idols just above the base, and wrenching others from 
their foundations. 

In the outer back wall is a carved stone probably taken from some de- 
stroyed building, and used in the construction of this ediflce. The ter- 
races of the Main Structure lead up to this wall, but are now fllled with 
debris. The northeast comer of this building was formerly ornamented, 
but with this exception no sculptures were found in a position indicating 
that they formed part of the wall. The sculptures found in excavating 
were in all probability from the buildings on mounds 21 and 22. 

Continuing our work eastward we found that mound 21 was composed 
of five terraces rising one above the other, forming a rectangular struct- 
ure. The^e terraces on the northern side are destroyed and on the eastern 
side have fallen into the river, but the western and southern sides are in 
a good state of preservation. They average a little over four feet high and 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XLL 18 



274 SBGTIOV H. 

are about three feet wide. The two npper conrses of stone project in all 
with the exception of the lower terrace, in which the three npper courses 
form a projecting coping. The corners seem to have been literally swept 
down by the mass of debris falling from above. 

Bnilt against the southern side of the mound is a steep flight of steps, 
made of small stones, which once led up to a low platform one foot in 
height, on the upper terrace. Above the fourth terrace these steps were 
of larger stones, but they are now destroyed. They average about one 
foot high, one foot broad, and nineteen are now in place. The base of 
the steps is about thirteen feet from the base of the lower terrace, and 
on each side of them are small terraces or platforms, formerly eight in 
number, rising to the top of the mound. The roots of trees have done 
much to destroy the upper part of these massive steps, but the lower part 
are in an excellent state of preservation, and it seems very probable that 
the building which once stood above, fell before any vegetation grew 
upon the structure. 

The building, which once crowned these terraces, is now almost com- 
pletely demolished, simply two parallel walls remaining, running north 
and south, about 6 ft. high and 7 ft. 9 in. apart. Between these walls 
about six feet north of the front of the building, a flight of steps, of 
which only five remain, led up to some platform or room, which is now 
totally demolished. From the amount of masonry which had fallen it 
seems probable that this edifice was two stories in height, and perhaps 
was a tower elaborately ornamented. 

About ten feet east of the fiight of steps is a terrace between the lower 
terraces of mounds 20 and 21. This is about four feet high, with four 
steps leading to the platform above. Three feet east is the front wall of 
a building with a doorway in the center opposite the steps. This building 
has fallen into the river and only about two feet of the room remains 
along the river front. The chamber extended from north to south, and 
had a raised platform at each end. Through this terrace on the level of 
the floor at the base of the steps, are two small passages about ten inches 
in height and the same in width. They are located one on each side of 
the steps and the eastern ends appear on the river front a little lower 
than the floor of this court, and a little larger than at the western ends. 
They were probably sewers for draining the space between the two 
mounds. 

Between this terrace and the steps of mound 21 is a small chamber built 
in front of the first terrace of the mound. The eastern wall of the room 
is built in front of the northern canal and closes it up. The top of the 
roof of this chamber is only four feet high and is cemented over. The 
floor is on the level of the court, and there are two doorways two feet high 
and about two feet wide, over which are stone lintels. This chambeT has 
the same style of roof as the Yucatan buildings, and extends from east 
to west. The walls are but two feet high to where the roof begins, and 
from floor to capstone is three feet three inches. It is 3 ft. 8 in. wide at 
the floor, 1 ft. 4 in. wide at the roof, and is 6 ft. long. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 275 

Over the roof of this chamber and the first terrace, and in front of the 
second terrace, another small chamber was built. Only the first two 
courses of the front wall, and portions of the end walls are now standing, 
the weight of the debris falling from the building above, having com- 
pletely destroyed the roof, the stones of which were found on the fioor. 
This room was about 14i ft. long and 4 ft. wide, had three doorways, 
and in the end walls about two feet from the floor were niches one foot 
wide and deep. In the outside of the front walls, on each side of the 
doorways, are small holes like those found in several buildings in Copan 
and quite common in Yucatan. These are supposed to have been for 
passing ropes through for curtains or doors. The roof of this chamber 
could not have been higher than that of the chamber below. The use 
of these small rooms is a mystery. 

In the rooms explored in our excavations nothing was found except 
the rubbish from the fallen walls. At the base of the steps leading to 
the top of mound were found seven obsidian discs, from three to three 
and a half inches in diameter and about one-fourth of an inch thick. One 
of these has considerable cement on one side and it may have been set 
into the facade of the building. Three stucco faces and other fragments 
of the same material were found at the base of the steps showing that 
the use of stucco, in the ornamentation of buildings, was not unknown in 
Copan. 

At the northern end of the steps; near the first terrace was a large ash- 
bed on the cement fioor, in which were a quantity of potsherds of a rough 
character, probably of cooking utensils, and several fragments of a human 
skull. Obsidian flake knives, and other implements, were found in the 
general digging of this mound. Many fine pieces of sculpture were found 
at the southeast corner of mound 22 and all along the front of mound 21. 
Faces, busts, conventional pieces, and many representing feather work 
were found in the space between mounds 20 and 21. Many of these show 
that they were covered with cement and the steps and walls were like- 
wise covered in the same manner. Traces of painting on the cement were 
not observed. 

Ko lintels were found in the debris of the doorways, and as these are 
too wide to have had lintels of stone, judging from the size of the stones 
found, wood must have been used. In Yucatan wooden lintels in a per- 
fect state of preservation are still to be seen, fallen or in place in the 
buildings, but in all of our excavations in Copan we did not flnd a trace 
of lintels of any tsind, except the two small ones mentioned above. 

In Yucatan the sapote was used for lintels and it is found there abun- 
dantly at the present time. Mahogany and cedar, which are as durable 
as sapote, are to be found near Copan ; the climate is fully as favorable 
for the preservation of wood as in Yucatan, and the vegetation not quite 
as dense. 

It seems highly probable that many centuries have elapsed since the 
destruction of the buildings during which period the wood has entirely 
disappeared. 



276 8BCTI0N H. 



VAKDAUSM among THB ANTIQUmBS OF TUCATAN AND CENTRAL AbCBBTCA. 

By M. H. Savillb, Assistant tn Peabody Museum, Haryard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

[ ABSTRACT.] 

Ths ancient buildings and scnlptares of Yucatan and Central America 
have wiiliin a few years been much damaged and disfigured by the indif- 
ference of the natives of those countries, and by the vanity of travellers, 
some of them unfortunately American, who paint their names in large 
characters on the sides of the buildings and carve them on the sculptures. 

Briefly, I will enumerate a few instances that have come under my 
personal observation. 

The magnificent ** House of the (Governor** in Uzmal, probably the 
grandest building now standing in Yucatan, is almost covered with names 
on the front and on the cemented walls inside. These names are painted 
in black, blue and red, and the letters BXfi iu some cases twelve inches high, 
and here are to be seen the names of men who are vddely known in the 
scientific world. The "House of the Dwarfs" in the same city has suf- 
fered in a like manner. Many of the sculptures which have fallen from 
the buildings in Uzmal have been wilfully broken, and I noticed particu- 
larly that two of the beautifully carved turtles, from the '*House of the 
Turtles," had been broken apparently by a machete. 

The large face figured by Stephens in '* Incidents of Travel in Yucatan," 
Tol. 2, page 484, is in a mound in the back yard of a shop in Izamal. 
This h^s been almost destroyed. The whole of the face between the eyes 
:and the lower part of the chin is gone, and I was told that the stones thus 
obtained were used in repairing a fence. On the other side of this mound 
^is the bas-relief in stucco discovered by Charney, and this is 'slowly 
icrumbling away. The steps leading up to the top of the Great Pyramid 
are being thrown down ; and many mounds in Yucatan are being destroyed 
■at the present time, to furnish building material. In fact, if a bee*s nest 
should be found in one of the old buildings, the Indians would tear down 
part of the structure to get at the honey. 

In Copan, when the Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition compared 
the condition of the ** Idols" to-day with the photographs taken by Mr. 
A. P. Maudslay seven years ago, it was found that, during that time, some 
of the very finest sculptures had been disfigured by blows from machetes 
and other instruments. The Stela given as a frontispiece in Stephens' 
"Incidents of Travel in Central America" Vol. I, has been much marred 
by some one who has broken off several ornaments, and a beautiful me- 
dallion face from the northern side. One of the faces and several noses 
have been broken off from the sitting figures on the altar, figured in 
Stephens in the same Vol. opposite page 142. On some of the idols and 
altars names have been carved, notably on the back of the Stela figured 
opposite page 158 In Stephens, and a large fragment has been broken from 
the same Stela. While excavating In one of the chambers of the main 
structure we uncovered a beautiful hieroglyphic step, but before we had 



ANTBROPOLOOT. 277 

time to secure a photograph of It, some visitor improved the opportaiiity 
while no one was about, to break off one of the glyphs. 

In Quirigua a small statue, discovered by Maudslay and removed by 
him to a small house near the rancho of Quirigua, had the head and one 
of the arms broken from It during the interval between two visits. This 
statue was of the higliest iraporttince, as It very much resembled the 
celebrated *'Chaac-mor* now In the Mexican Museum, but discovered by 
Le Plongeon at Chichen-itza. One of the Stelee at Quirigua has had a 
name carved on It quite recently ; but the sculptures of this place are in a 
much better state of preservation than those of Copan owing to their be- 
ing at some distance from the road, and being covered with a dense trop- 
ical growth ; while those of Copan are within a mile of the village, and 
there was formerly a road over the Plaza Grande and among the idols. 
The borning of the bush, to clear the land for mllphas, has also Injured 
many of the sculptures owing to the cracking of the stones by the heat. 

While in Nicaragua I learned that the sculptures on the Island of Zap- 
atero in Lake Nicaragua have within a few years been much broken and 
disfigured. These were described by Squler in * 'Nicaragua, Its People, 
Scenery, Monuments, etc.," Vol. 2. 

As the governments of Mexico and the Central American Republics are 
making little or no effort to preserve or care for the antiquities within 
their boundaries. It remains for the United States to do something to pre- 
serve these vanishing memorials of the past. The initiative has been 
taken by the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, which has been granted, for 
ten years, the care of the antiquities of Honduras. A wall is now being 
built to enclose the principal remains in Copan, and a keeper has been 
placed in charge with strict orders to allow nothing to be destroyed or 
carried away. Thus a strong effort Is being made by the Peabody Mu- 
seum to protect the wonderful carvings in stone of the ancient city of 
Copan. 



Sacred pipestone quarries of Minnesota and ancient copper mines 
OF Lake Superior. By W. H. Holmes, Bureau of Ethnology, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

[abstract.j 

The Bed Pipestone Quarry from which material was obtained by the 
aborigines for the manufacture of ceremonial pipes is situated in south- 
western Minnesota near the town of Pipestone. It consists mainly of a 
single line of pits and trenches nearly a mile in length extending across 
a wide shallow valley scooped out of the prairie by glacial Ice. This valley 
is drained by Pipestone creek which descends from the east over an es- 
carpment of reddish quartzite and passes to the westward across the 
valley through a chain of small lakes, finding its way finally into the Big 
Sioux river, In South Dakota. The stratum of pipestone is about twelve 
inches thick, hardly two Inches of this being of a quality well suited for 



278 SBcnoif h. 

earring. The material la a fine grained indarated clay of rarying and 
Tarlejeated huea of red. It Ilea between beds of massive quartz! te dipping 
gently to the east and la obtained at great expense of time and labor. 
The first discovery of the material was no donbt made in the banks of the 
creek where the annnal floods nncover the ontcropping edges of the rocks. 
Prom the creek the layer of plpestone was followed to the north and sooth 
across the prairie nntU it disappeared beneath the rising ground inclosing 
the valley. The ancient pits formed an almost continuous chain upwards 
of three-fourths of a mile In length. They were originally not above six 
or eight feet deep in any place and are now marked by wide shallow de- 
pressions In the surface of the prairie along the sides of which are low 
ridges of the excavated earth and stones. In these pits a number of broken 
stone sledges and hand hammers were found and the prairie is strewn 
with flragments of the red plpestone. There can be little donbt that the 
work was begun in pre-Columbian times and It appears to liave continued 
without serious Interruption down to the present. The more recent work 
has been confined to limited portions of the outcrop, the ancient pits be- 
ing in such places partially or wholly obliterated by the more vigorous 
and effective operations of men employing the tools of the whites. The 
quarries are visited each year by about thirty families of Sioux Indians 
who travel some 200 miles from their reservation, spending a mouth or 
six weeks In camp about the quarries. 

The stone is removed in small pieces and distributed among the families 
who proceed to make it up Into pipes and trinkets of various kinds, or 
sell it to the whites who, with lathes and other mechanical contrivances, 
produce an endless variety of objects. The collections made include a 
large assortment of the ancient stone implements and of the refuse A*om 
the lodge-shop sites which cover the prairie for miles around. A section 
of the plpestone stratum was secured including the full thickness of plpe- 
stone and several inches of the massive quartzite above and below. This 
section will be clamped together and cut and polished upon one side for 
exhibition at the World's Fair at Chicago. 

The Copper Mines of Lake Superior yielded native or mass copper which 
was extracted from the rocks by the ancient aborigines and distributed 
over a large part of the continent. On Isle Royale, situated near the 
northern shore of the lake, thousands of the nearly obliterated pits are 
still to be found although many have been worked over by the whites who 
carried on extensive operations on the ancient site, finally abandoning the 
work about ten years ago. In cleaning out the old pits several masses 
of copper were encountered which had been uncovered by the aborigines 
who had striven in vain to break them up and remove them. The largest 
mass discovered weighed 12,000 pounds. The ancient mines were not 
deep, but consisted mainly of pittings, made in prospecting for masses of 
copper, exposed or partly exposed by glacial ice and afterwards covered 
by till and drift. Trenching discloses the fact that the old pits are filled 
with crushed rock, charcoal, bits of oxidized copper and innumerable stone 
hammers and sledges, the latter having been used in freeing the masses 



ANTHR0P0L06T. 279 

of copper from the inclosing rock. There are no indications of the work- 
ing of copper upon the site although a few shaped pieces have been re- 
ported. It is highly probable that the masses of metal were for the most 
part ti*anspr)rted to distant points to be worked up according to demand. 
The examination of these mines as well as of the pipestone quarries was 
made in June, 1892, and extensive collections were obtained for exhibition 
at the World's Fair at Chicago. 



Aboriginal quarries of flakable stonk and their bearing upon the 
QUESTION OF PALEOLITHIC MAN. By W. H. HoLMES, Bureau of 
Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

[AB8TBACT.] 

The quarrying of stone for the manufacture of flaked implements was 
carried on extensively by the American aborigines and the study of the 
quarry phenomena recently made Is found to throw much light upon the 
nature of many rudely shaped stones heretofore classed as implements 
and placed in evidence as such upon mo.st important quest ons. The 
partly worked implements rejected at various stages of the shaping pro- 
cesses because of defects in texture and fracture are found to correspond 
perfectly to forms that have usually been classed as palseo tthic because 
of their assumed close resemblance to European palse jlithic forms. It 
is shown that in America the conditions are such that no specimen can be 
safely assigned to palaeolithic culture by its form alone. It further ap- 
pears that nearly all the rudely flaked stones reported ftrom the glacial 
gravels are Identical with the failures left in roughing out implements in 
the quarries and shops and do not present those evidences of specializa- 
tion that characterize the well established types of European palffioliths, 
the probabilities belnsr, therefore, that they, also, are failures produced 
in the manufacture of more highly specialized forms and that they are not 
really completed implements. Tliis view is further supported by the fact 
that the culture of the gravel-forming period of western America appears 
to have been neolithic and that the rude forms found so sparingly In the 
eastern gravels representing the same period may be the scattered refuse 
of neolithic implement makers who ventured down to the banks of glacial 
torrents to secure the raw material. Before this class of evidence can be 
safely employed in affirming the existence of a paleolithic period of culture, 
the observations must be multiplied until it is settled satisfactorily, first, 
that the objects found are bona fide implements and not mere refuse, and 
second, that they are the exclusive art product of the period they represent. 
Behind this is the question as to the reliability of the observations already 
made upon the occurrence of works of art of any kind in the gravels. The 
phenomena being geological and observed in the main by persons inex- 
perienced in this science and that too before proper stress had been laid 
upon the need of absolute accuracy in every detail, the probability is that 



280 SECTIOlf H. 

a very large percentage of these observations Is defective or erroneous. 
Talking the most favorable view of the existing evidence it Im apparent 
tbat the existence of a palsBolitbtc culture in America In glacial times is 
far from being establislied, and it Is evident that until geologists unite 
with archaeologists in obHervin^ the phenomena and by carefdl and long 
continued observations accumulate a large body of unimpeachable evidence, 
the question will remain unsettled. 



On the so-called PALJGOLITHIC IMPLRMEin'S OF THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI. 

By W. U. HoLBiES, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

fABSTRACT.] 

The discovery in Little Fulls, Minnesota, of numerous objects of flaked 
quartz supposed to be of palieollthic age was reported by Miss F. E. 
Babbitt in the year 1880. In visiting the locality in 1892 I had the good 
fortune to be accompanied by Prof. N. H. Winchell, State Geologist 
of Minnesota, who had been over the ground with Miss Babbitt some 
years before. The site was, therefore, properly identified and Professor 
Winchell was present during the examinations made by me and freely ex- 
pressed his approval of the conclusions reached. 

The quartz-bearing bed occurs about midway in the gentle slope of a 
glacial terrace facing the Mississippi river and Just above the present 
level of the water which has been raised about ten feet by a dam recently 
constructed at the falls l)elow. I found numerous fragments of quartz 
projecting from the surface of the ground near the water level and at 
higher levels in the sides of a shallow roadway that led from the upper 
terrace to the modern flood plain below. 

A trench was begun at the water level on the north side of the roadway 
and carried in on a horizontal floor nt^arly at right angles with the terrace 
front which here sloped back so gently that an advance of forty feet was 
made before the full height of the section, twelve feet, was exposed. 
The quartzes were very numerous on the level from which Miss Babbitt 
obtained her specimens but decreased as advance was made. They were 
found to occur, however, not only at this level but scattered throughout 
the full thickness of the deposits until an advance of twenty feet had been 
made and a depth of six feet had been reached. Beyond this the first 
traces of the normal glacial deposits were encountered and in these no 
quartz fragments were found. The quartz containing deposits are of 
recent formation being composed of materials derived from the edges of 
the crumbling beds above and are filled with the refuse of arrow making 
left upon the slopes and margin of the terrace. 

The face of the undisturbed gravel beds encountered at about the twen- 
tieth foot rises more abruptly than the outer surface of the talus, and 
the latter deposit, as a consequence, thins out very considerably toward 
the top. The trench was carried about forty feet into the terrace and the 
examination was continued one hundred feet further across the upper 



AVTHROPOLOGT. 281 

surface by means of pltttngs at intervals of abont t^^elve feet. Worked 
quartz was found upon the surface everywhere within a radius of upwards 
of a hundred feet from the initial point of the trench and also distributed 
tlirough the surface loam to a depth of from two to three feet. This lat- 
ter distribution is uniform from the surface to the full depth and could only 
liave been brought about by disturbances of the surface by such agencies 
as the growth and decay, and the uprooting of trees, causes still operating 
in the region. 

It appears as a result of these examinations that the worked quartzes 
are confined to the surface loams and to the heterogeneous talus gravels 
of the terrace, and that the shaped pieces are nothing more than the fail- 
ures left by arrow-makers who may have occupied the spot at any period 
f I'om glacial times down to within fifty years ago. The raw material was 
T'ein quartz obtained from the Pre-Cambrian slates exposed in the river 
bed. 

The explanation of the unfortunate errors fallen into by the original 
observers is that the archaeologist identified the works of art and the 
geologist the geologic formations, neither thinking it necessary to deter- 
mine the vital point as to whether or not the works of art were really 
associated with the undisturbed gravels. 



Bkirf remakes upon the alphabet of Land a. By Dr. Hilbokne T. 
Crrsson, 224 South Broad street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

The Maya script, both in Its hieratic and demotic forms, is the same 
as the higher grade of ikonomatic writing described by Aubira. The word 
hieratic applies to sculptured Maya glyphs, demotic to more cursive forms 
used by the ancient Maya scribes. 

A Maya hieroglyph may be a single character, the meaning of which is 
expressed by the sound of the name of the thing represented; or it may 
have a number of components that convey by a similar method a series of 
ideas. 

Suggestions : — The Maya scribe gave glyphs, whether simple or com- 
bined that carried out Landa's pronunciation of the Spanish alphabet by 
means of characters which stood for the sounds of the names of these 
letters. 

For example : If Landa asked for H which he pronounced dtchay, he 
would have been given the IT or hd glyph and the Cha glyph. 

The alphabet being prepared by the author of this abstract, suggests 
that this method of procedure was followed out by the Maya scribes whom 
Landa employed. The alphabet will not be made public until It has been 
thoroughly tested ; if it is correct it will stand— if not It will fall. Tests 
made with it place the Maya signs of orientation as follows : — Chikin, 
west (the sun bitten), Lakin, east, Tchaman, north, Nohoi, south; this 
agrees with the new arrangement of Professor Thomas and the assign- 
ment of de Rosny. 



282 BBCnoN H. 

It Is ftirtber soggested that the decorations of the ancient Maya palaces 
are ikonomatic, as many of these designs are in form similar to the alpha- 
bet used by Cresson or variants of Its arrangement. 

The Ikonomatic decorations of the palaces In question, if we may Jadge 
ftrom pbotographfl, are quite simple and some of them probably are derived 
fh>m forms which have had their origin In the textile art, which, to use 
the words of William Henry Holmes, of the Bareaa of Ethnology, ''dates 
back to the very inception of cnltare." 

The Cayman, ixbdau (Maya), appears on the bead dresses of some of 
the divinities represented in the Codex Troano and In the sculptures of 
Chichen-itza, and the work of the scribe scalptore suj^gests that he may 
have been an important divinity. The Maya C and K may have been ob> 
talned from the graceful lines of this reptile*s body. The outline derived 
from the delineation of the life- form suggested by the Cayman (Ixb^u, 
legarto de la mer), was probably used for the Kan glyph, for It suggests 
the graceful curves of the serpent's body. These glyphs having the phonetic 
value of C and K, so far as we have determined. Other forms derived 
from the Cayman are also to be noted, among the ikonomatic decorations 
of Chichen-ltza. The eye and scales of the reptile also have a phonetic 
value as in the scroll glyph having the I or vich determinative — ix or Itz. 

The phonetic value of the representation of the scales of the Cayman 
Is also ix or sA, and they are recalled by cross lines in a small glyph near the 
reptile's head in the example to which we refer in the Codex Troano and they 
are also shown In sculptured representations on the ixbdu head shown in 
the ^*Portique de la Jeu de Paume, k Chichen-itzat** p^ge 314, Charnay's 
Les Aneienne Villen du Nouveau Monde. 

The eh or x glyph in the author's arrangement may in f net be traced to 
certain animal characters, and so may the chi glyph (from chi, to pinch, 
bite) be traced to animal characters such as the pinching hand (of man), 
the tarantula and centipede claw, the cayman's mouth and its teeth — all of 
these glyphs being derived fh>m the life-line In art in various stages of 
simpliflcation and adapted to the limestone material in which the scribe 
sculptor carved his work on the vases on which he incised more demotic 
forms of script. From tlie chi hieroglyph has been derived Chh, CJiS, or 
ChCt ChOi Chu — it was the Chi glyph that suggested one of the compound 
characters in the Codex Troano to be CWifcin— the west — *'the sun bitten.'* 

The figures of the Codex Troano seem to be composed of ikonomatic 
designs and the glyphs themselves flrequently have a number of phonetic 
components to express their meaning. The same suggestion we think ap- 
plies to the hieratic sculptures and glyphs. 

Repeated allusions seem to be made in the Ikonomatic decorations of the 
palaces of certain ancient Maya cities to Zamna or Itzamna the son of 
MunakbUj and to Cauac who seems to have been the JEk-Xibchac or "the 
Male Leopard of the evening." Sculptured representntions of this leopard- 
god are given in the illustrations, page 809, Charnay's **Les Anciennes 
Yilles du Nouveau Monde," Chichen-itza. Cauac the Cuch-haah also ap- 
pears in the upper division of the bas-relief at the left hand side of page 
294 of Charnay's work, and also in the lower division, while Kukvlcan 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 283 

occupies the centre, holdtng in his hand the hohok or noose, which in some 
cases is found around the feet of this divinity. Cauac (Caa-elc) again 
appears on page 293 of Cliarnay's work ; the Antennae sign of the bee, 
characteristic of the Caunc glyph, is to be seen in front of the figure while 
the maize sign is attached to his head, the action of the hands susrgest* 
ing the chief year bearer or Cuchhaab and the bacab who supports the fir- 
mament; below in the column are Ikonomatic decorative glyphs suggesting 
Cab the earth, H& or water and the maize leaf— -emblems of fertility, in 
"Which Ikilcab the bee assisted by mixing the pollen of Ixim* The large 
plate in Charnay's worts to the right hand side of page 286 shows the left 
wing of the Temple at Chkhen-Uza and from its cornices project the ikono- 
matic representation of the so-called *' Long nosed God" who figures re- 
peatedly, even in demotic script. The Chi glyph and ich and h& glyphs 
form his mouth, the K or kan glyph is the trunic, the large centre glyph 
at the same time repeats the suggestion, and the Z glyph and two medal- 
lions recall Kukultz and Itzamna, while other components of this ilcono- 
matic decoration suggest Chi-Chen. 

Other suggestions in this respect might be made. What have been given 
are simply intended to indicate a new line of research to those interested 
in the subject — for whether the decorations of the ancient Maya palaces, 
their glyphs and other sculptures, eventually prove to be ikonomatic, which 
the writer of this abstract firmly believes they will, they have certainly 
never received the careful study which they merit, and to which the Bu- 
reau of Ethnology at Washington is now devoting especial attention by a 
study of the Maya language and of its graphic system both hieratic and 
demotic. 



Comparative chronology. By W J McGee, U. S. Geol. Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

Certain so-called '^natural time units*' are recognized by primitive peo- 
ples and civilized men alike. These are derived from the motions of earth, 
moon and sun, and are commonly limited by means of conjunctions. They 
form the bases of calendars and chronology. History borrows these units 
and groups them Into eras marlced by events of real or imaginary import, 
such as the birth of nations, the beginning of dynasties, or more commonly 
the origin of religions. The study of living things shows that the life of 
the earth has not flowed as a steady stream In a constant direction, but 
has followed divergent lines and repeatedly risen into waves each culmi- 
nating in a dominant type which afterward became subordinate or died 
out; and in this way a series of blotic ages has been recognized In biology 
and paleontology. Tliese ages cannot directly be reduced to eras or cos- 
mic time units. Geology teaches that the rocks of the earth are made up 
of formations each deposited during a more or less definite period, and 
these periods are combined in a system of chronology characterized by vast 



284 8BCTI0N H. 

len^h of the onlto or time elements. The cosmic units, the b!oUc ages, 
and the geologic periods are iocommeasarable, bat are approximately re- 
daclble to a common standard by means of certain coincidences or con- 
junctions. This redaction is greatly facilitated by certain recent American 
Investigations ; and It is now practicable to express geologic time in terms 
of the historical chronology more accurately than ever before. The reduc- 
tion Is stated In tabular form and Illustrated graphically by means of dia- 
grams. The estimate of the duration of diiferent geologic periods thus 
determined has an important bearing on the question of the antlqaity of 
man. 

The paper was Illustrated by several large charts. [The paper is printed 
in full and the charts reproduced in the American Anthropologist for Oc- 
tober, 1892, Vol. V, pp. 827-344]. 



Thr karlt relioiok of the Iroquois. By Bev. W. M. Bbauchamf, 
Baldwinsville, N. T. 

fABBTHAGT.I 

While primitive American beliefs are of interest, we are not sure how 
early they were affected by civilized influences, but the Iroquois religloa 
has greatly changed. It is included in three periods : primitive, that af- 
fected by the missionaries, and that of the Peace Prophet. It is doabtftil 
whether they had a definite idea of one Great Spirit when first known, and 
the account of the creation is confused. The Okkis, in their estimation, 
were good, rather than evil spirits. All men had two souls, and this 
affected their burial rites. Sacrifice was an occasional act, but there was 
liltle system in their worship. Dreams were of the most importance in 
this, and are still prominent. Witches were feared and abhorred, and an- 
imals were venerated. The Peace Prophet gave them a definite system a 
century since. 

[This paper is published in full in the American Antiquarian, Nov., 
1892.] 



Eably Indian forts in New York. By Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, Bald- 
winsville, N. Y. 

[ABBTRAOT.] 

The dlflaculty is great In getting a ftill list. All villages were not forti- 
fied, and were frequently removed. There are several large groups, be- 
sides smaller ones. The form and construction of earthworks varied, and 
these generally preceded stockades, which were of four kinds : single, 
double, triple, and quadruple. The ditch was less defensive than inci- 
dental, and In stockades post- holes were not always used. Many examples 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 285 

of both modes of defence still remain, and Squier's estimate of their nam- 
l>ers was a fair one. According to the catalogue of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology defensive works belong mainly to the northern U. S., especially 
near the great lakes. 



I*KBHISTORIC EARTHWORKS OF HeNRY COUNTY, INDIANA. By T. B. RED- 
DING, New Castle, Ind. 

[ABSTRACT.] 

There are, in the county, ten mounds surrounded by enclosures ; there 
are eleven mounds that do not seem to be surrounded by enclosures, though 
some of them may have been ; there are six enclosures in which mounds 
do not appear, or have been obliterated ; there are twelve, or more, doubt- 
ful mounds which have not been sufficiently explored to determine their 
real character; there are three doubtful enclosures. The mounds range 
from 20 to 150 in diameter; the enclosures from 100 to 250 feet in diame- 
ter. There are also numerous burial grounds in gravel and sand banks of 
the county where skeletons of an unknown race have been found. Many 
of these crumble on being exposed ; others are in good preservation. 



On some prehistoric objects from the Whitewater valley. By 
Amos W. Butler, Brookville, Ind. 

[abstract.] 

In a small collection of specimens are several of considerable interest. 
One a hematite hemisphere from near Mt. Carmel, Franklin County, Ind., 
is one of very few hematites from the county. A pestle from Wayne Co. ( ?) 
is of soft hematite and evidently has been deposited for some time in water 
so that the iron has been extracted and deposited about the implement as 
**bog iron ore." 

An ornament of galena, found near ** Twin Locks," four miles from 
Brookville in a plowed field, appears to be encrusted with carbonate of 
lead. 

An arrow head from Brookville seems to have been worked over cut- 
ting down the original size of the implement and having peculiar flanges 
at the barbs. 



Some Indian camping sites near Brookvillb, Indiana. By Amos W. 
Butler, Brookville, Ind. 

fABSTRACT.l 

In the vicinity of Brookville, Ind., on the Whitewater river, there are many 
Indian sites. Some were doubtless nothing more than camps, others were 
occupied for a longer time, several in all probability mark the location of 
Tillages. Within historic times some of these sites have been occupied 



286 , BEcnoM H. 

and near some of them agricnltnre was carried on to a limited extent. Of 
historic sites the following are noted : One near Templeton's Ford, three 
miles north from Brookvllle In the valley of the East Fork of Whitewater. 
One two miles west of Brookvllle, jnst beyond the **BoQndary Hill, in the 
valley of the West Fork of Whitewater. One In the northwestern edge 
of the town of Brookvllle. One In the southern part of that town upon 
the highest alluvial terrace between the two rivers and overlooking their 
junction, and one four miles south of Brookvllle, where Little Cedar Creek 
empties, Into the Whitewater. 

Of prehistoric sites there are many but It Is only proposed to caU atten- 
tion to a few situated near Brookvllle. 

On the east side of Boundary Hill, on a little bench, which has been for 
years occupied as an orchard there Is one which shows evidences of long 
occupation. 

Jnst south of this, across the river, Is another on the land of B. M. 
Stoops. 

In the northwestern part of Brookvllle, upon the highest terrace in the 
town, is another site which also shows evidence of considerable occupa- 
tion. North of Brookvllle In the same section upon the land of my father 
Is a bench of glacial clays and gravels where are the sites of two camps. 
Southeast of Brookvllle In Section 33, near the group of mounds in that 
section is a site that Is quite noticeable. 

East of this, over a half mile, on Little Cedar Creek Is a site which 
seeins to have been occupied extensively and with It appears to have been 
a workshop. Across the Whitewater river, from section 33, upon the 
land of 0. M. Meyncke, another site is noticeable. 

One thing of interest Is that the most extensive sites were located near 
some of the finest springs In the valley. 

Drawings and specimens were used to Illustrate the paper. 



On thr rarthworks near Anderson, Indiana. By Amos W. Butler, 

Brookvllle, Ind. 

[abstract.] 

A notice of the works with a statement of the plans proposed for their 

preservation. Illustrated by a map and photographs. 



Anvil- SHAPED stones from Pennsylvania. By Dr. D. G. Brinton, 

Media, Pa. 

[abstract.] 

NuMKROUs Stones about the size and shape of a blacksmith's anvil have 
been found in eastern Pennsylvania, In localities and relations which have 
led many to believe they are aboriginal relics. Some of them appear to 
show signs of chipping, others do not. Even if natural forms, they may 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 287 

liaye been collected and employed in utilitarian or ceremonial customs. A 
specimen is exhibited, and itjs possible application in these directions dis- 
cussed. 

The first who brought these stones to the attention of scientists was 
IMr. Charles Laubach, and their investigation has been chiefly due to Mr. 
H. C. Mercer, who furnished the example shown. 



Pebbles chipped by modern Indlins as an aid to the study of the 
Trenton gravel implements. By H. C. Merger, Doylestown, Pa. 

[abstract.] 

I wish to call the attention of the Section to these sandstone flakes with 
a pebble surface, and these chipped river pebbles, the smaller of which 
belong to the type generally referred to as '^paleolithic" in the United 
States. 

With one exception (the large one from Fry's Run on the Delaware,) tliey 
represent that region of the Upper Susquelianna lying between the glacial 
moraine at Beach Haven on the eastern branch and the mouth of the 
Juniata, the gravel beaches and hard clay banlvs with relic-bearing strata 
on shore and island, at Saw-mill creek, Mahoning, Pulaski, Johnson's 
creek and Hall's island. 

[A drawing showing the geological structure of the river bank and the 
position of the specimen was exhibited.] 

That these chipped stones all fell from the discolored implement-bear- 
ing stratum in the upper part of the bank we need not positively assert, 
nor go into the question of the comparative absence of Indian remains on 
the surface of the fields above or the age of the loam stratum that over- 
lies the relic belt, whether it is the slow growth of vegetable mould, or the 
alluvium of comparatively modern freshets. Suffice it to state the impor- 
tant fact, that liere lie the stones in question strewn about in every case with 
potsherds, arrowheads, net sinkers and pitted stone hammers. 

When we find these conditions repeated six times at the places I have 
named, there is no guesswork in the inference that the chipped pebbles 
were the work of men who, knowing the use of wild hemp and rope- 
spinning, caught fish in nets ; who had quarried jasper in situ, for it is 
hardly possible that all the black arrowheads and chips on the beaches 
came from river pebbles of that material ; who understood the potters' 
art and who made polished celts, spear heads of finished workmanship, 
and banner stones. 

Let us look at the specimens and let us class with them this pebble 
from which we believe a **Tesh-o-a" has been skilfully chipped, found lying 
amongst them. And here is the ^'Tesh-o*a" itself. We know that it is a 
knife, for the Shoshonees, who fashion and use knives like this, have told 
ns so — a cutting implement with fine sharp edge all around it, knocked at 
one blow from a pebble. So useful, so easily made, so ready to hand 
wherever pebbles lie together on the earth, that the modem Indian, 
equipped with gun, iron knife and government blanket still uses it, as he 



288 6KCTION H. 

would use the fire drill at a pinch, m a thlni; elemental, common to the life 
In nature, as one of those ancient secrets not to be forgotten save by the 
artlflclallzlng of all the conditions of his life. 

But it Is of these other flake knives that I wish particularly to speak, 
because though made like the te^hoa, at a single blow, they are obviously 
simpler, because having been knocked from the edge rather than the mid- 
dle of a pebble, they have required less skill and force in the concussion 
that produced them. 

Scattered about among the '^teshoas" and stone hammers, with their 
cutting edges similarly dulled by well weathered marks of usage, is it 
easy to help believing that they were made for the same purpose? And 
that these large chipped masses, lying with hammerstones hard by, some- 
times showing no signs of use on their cutting edge and often weighing 
fifteen to twenty pounds, were anything but the nuclei from which these 
knives were flaked? Yet, while allowing this, that the chips and not the 
nuclei were, in some cases, the real implements sought after, we realize at 
the same time that the first few blows of stone upon stone, pebble upon 
pebble, whatever the end aimed at, must have produced strikingly similar 
results, that many of the chips were not knives, and many of the nuclei 
were not knife-material. 

ArgilUte and sandstone blades were made on the Delaware and Susque- 
hanna from river pebbles at work sites like Puint Pleasant, where the 
flakes and cores though resembling these, had a dllTerent meaning. There 
were Jasper quarries at Durham and Saucon creek where the chief story of 
the refuse may be that of blade making. Indeed the savage probably chipped 
stones for many purposes as yet undreamed of. 

Let us only Insist that here were six cases where the stone chippers' 
object was to make flake-knives, and that at these sites one distinct pro- 
cess has been added to those already studied and classifled as illustrative 
of prehistoric life In America, a process, which like the art of making "te- 
shoas," that seems but a refinement of it, may well have been too useful, 
too handy, too adequate to the needs of savage life ever to have been dis- 
carded by the North American in his stone age. 

On the other hand we may ask the Important question, whether the 
process was not too simple and rudimentary ever to have been preceded 
by any other process. 

If there was a time when man first chipped one stone with another 
— ^and who can deny it?— how shall we imagine him proceeding straight- 
way to make an Implement at ten blows, when he got one at one, making 
a * 'paleolith" before he knew that the first chip therefrom would cut? And 
can we easily help regarding this chip-knife next only to the hammer- 
stone that made It, as the type of the most venerable of all stone imple- 
ments, the first cutting tool of stone fashioned by the hand of man to arm 
himself for his early confiict with the forces of nature. 

In a word supposing the first comer to the shores of the Delaware to 
have been paleolithic man, it is not easy to see how he could have avoided 
making specimens like these. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 289 

But these flake-knives, we may infer, were not always ehipped from 
large boulders any of which is a heavy burden for a man. 

Take a smaller pebble and knock a few chips from it, for the same 
purpose. Have you not in the act hit upon another way of accounting for 
certain of the forms from Trenton? And are yon not driven to seek 
for some clew outside the shape of your specimen, in attempting to assign 
for it a relative age? 

Now we know that these particular flake-knives and cores are as mod-* 
ern as pottery and net-sinkers, in the sense that the specimens from the 
Durham and Flint Ridge quarries are modern, and that those from Fluey 
Branch, which they resemble, are modern, and let us find, as I have found, 
**paleoliths" or **turtlebacks" of argilUte, sandstone, quartzlte and jasper, 
which may be classed as modern ^'failures," "blocked out blades" or knife 
material as the case may be, on the Delaware at Point Pleasant, Ridges 
Islan^, Gilmer's Island, Hickory Run, Gallows Run, and Upper Blacks 
Eddy, but by no means, let us push the inference too far; for what proof 
or even probability is there that precisely similar objects are not to be 
found in a deeper geological horizon in the same valleys where, disasso- 
ciated with tokens of the later Indian, they represent the work of men 
preceding him by thousands of years ? 

What if the so-called "paleolithic" form must be finally given up as a 
type? What if it represents no particular period whatever in the past of 
the American stone age? 

Once forced, as we are, to admit that a man inhabiting the valley in gla. 
cial times could hardly have avoided chipping stones like these, we realize 
that there are years of careful search ahead of us, that there are scores of 
sand pits, railroad cuts, wells and falling banks to be closely examined, 
that there are thousands of dollars to be spent in the days' wages of 
laborers digging trenches on the shores of the rivers that drained the great 
glacier, before we venture to conclude and be positive.. Since the one 
thing which can finally identify such stones as the handiwork of a River 
Drift man, whether " paleolithic" or '* neolithic," or settle their relative 
age beyond a doubt, is not their shape, or waterworn appearance, their 
association or disassociation with supposed later Indian remains, or their 
classification with flake-knife material or half finished blades, whether at 
Durham, Flint Ridge, or Piney Branch, but their stratographic position. 



Ancibnt eabthworks in Ontario. By C. A. Hirschfeldbb, XT. S. Con- 
sulate, Toronto, Canada. 

[abstbact.] 

Thb author described a number of forts which he has surveyed in the 
old Huron country, which was located in Simcoe County, Province of On- 
tario, Canada. With the exception of a peculiar hold in South Villia 
township, the various earthworks appear to have been made and used 
solely for defensive purposes. Some are on a large scale and most of them 
beax evidences of considerable age. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 19 



290 SBcnoN H. 

Nearly all the forts of the Huron district are similar in constrnctfon, 
but there are several in other parts of the Province which are unique; 
one in particular, situated in the county of Elgin, bearing a resemblance 
to works described by Squier and Davis. This fort is of peculiar interest 
from the fact that the author believes it to be a solitary monument of the 
farthest eastern point inhabited by the ancient mound builders. The fort 
measures 428 by ))25 feet, and as evidence of its age might be cited the 
fact that one tree growing on the embankment measures 11 feet 3 inches 
in circumference. 



EVIDKNCES OF PREHI8TORI0 TBADE IN ONTARIO. By C. A. HiBSCHFELDEB, 

U. S. Consulate, Toronto, Can. 

[abstract.] 

In connection with this paper the author showed specimens of shells 
CPyrula and other genera) as evidence of a traffic having been carried on 
between the Indians of the North and those of the South, extending over 
2000 miles These shells have been found in some of the oldest ossuaries 
discovered in Ontario. 



Obskrvations upon Fort Ancient, Ohio. By Selden S. Scoville, M.D., 

Lebanon, Ohio. 

[abstract.] 

The author gives the topography of the ground at the east part of the 
fort and that extending to the northeast, on which the guarded roadway 
formed by the two parallel walls is situated. This, it is believed, has not 
hitherto been satisfactorily done by writers on Fort Ancient. The adapt- 
ation of the works here, to the surface of the ground and the water courses 
shows good judgment, and the planning and execution of the work could 
not well be surpassed. TTie line of high embankments crossing the neck of 
the peninsula reveals the same wise calculation In all its features. Instead 
of taking a direct course, it forms two curves in order to secure the nat- 
ural protection from two small streams which arise near the middle of 
the neck of the peninsula, and run in opposite directions, one to the north 
the other to the south. The sections of wail that form this line are six 
in number and taken by themselves are perfectly straight. The changes 
in direction of the line occur at the openings or gateways. It will be seen 
that by adopting this plan time and labor were saved. These high sec- 
tions of wall had originally flat or level summits, and their elevation was 
never but a trifle greater than at present. The wear has been principally 
from the angles at or near the top. Their shape was that of an elongated 
truncated pyramid with a side slope of 50 or o5 degrees. 

Attention is directed to the large area of level ground inside the fort, 
which should be considered in connection with the crescent-shaped wall 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 291 

In this part of the fort. This crescent, it is claimed by the author, is bnt 
the remains of a complete circle that once existed here. The larger part 
of the earth circle was removed when the main works were constructed 
to extend the area of level ground referred to. The portion remaining is 
270 feet in length. The complete circle was about 280 feet In diameter, 
and had probably but one pass way which is plainly visible at the present 
time in the middle of the part remaining. 

The gateways in the walls of the fort are difficult of explanation, in 
view of the works having been constructed for defensive purposes. We 
find no evidence that they were provided with means of closure in times 
of danger. We may look at all the circumstances surrounding the people 
who inhabited the place and the object they had in view in fortifying their 
town or city, and we find no very satisfactory explanation for so many 
gateways. They jio doubt served as pass-ways for the citizens, and most 
likely were of some strategic value. 

Is there any evidence that all the earthworks at Fort Ancient were not 
constructed at the same period of time? This question the author believes 
has never been mooted. And he gives reasons for believing that the long 
enclosing walls were constructed at a much later date than the parallel 
walls and mounds. 



Singular copper implbmbnts and ornaments from the Hopewell 
GROUP, Ross COUNTY, Oxiio. By W. K. Moorkhbad, Xenla, Ohio. 

[ABSTBAOT.] 

A brief account of some of the axes, plates, sheets, stencil-like figures, 
ornaments, combs, bracelets, spool- shaped objects, headdress, and other 
objects made of copper found in a large tumulus in Ross Co., Ohio, during 
an exploration carried on for the Ethnological and Archaeological depart- 
ment of the World's Columbian Exposition. 



The ruins op southern Utah. By Warukn K. Moorbhead, Xenia, Ohio. 

The first of March, an expedition consisting of eleven men left Durango, 
Colorado, for the purpose of examining the ruins of southern Utah. The 
members of the party were aware that the more important ruins upon the 
San Juan River and its tributaries had been explored by Messrs. Jackson, 
Holmes and others. Hence, we desired to cover such territory as had not 
been entered by the government surveys and to examine such ruins as pri- 
vate individuals had hastily viewed. In this paper particular attention 
will be called to the work done along the Colorado river and its side 
cafions. 

In taking a general review of the San Juan country, one observes two 
classes of ruins, — ^the boulder dwellings, and houses of hewn stone. One 
might subdivide the hewn stone structures according to location and say 



292 SECTION H. 

that they occupied cares in the cation side, prominent points upon the edge 
of cations,— or, when located in fertile mesas, took the form of large com- 
partment houses,— commonly known as pueblos. The boulder ruins Invar 
riably occupy the mesa and are not found upon the cafion bluffis or in the 
cafions themselves. 

If we mistake not, these facts were noted by Messrs. Jackson and Holmes. 
One might go still further and say that all the hewn stone ruins repre- 
sented the same architecture, whether loca^d in the cares or upon the 
mesa, whether comprising one or two rooms or several hundred rooms. . 

Upon reaching southern Utah a survey finds very rich material for ex- 
ploration. Few individuals have ever visited the ruins of Bpsom Creek, 
Cottonwood Creek, or the McCombs Wash. 

Among the ruins in the main cailon of the Colorado, Mr. Chas. MacLoyd 
is the only person who has carried on extensive work. He has spent two 
winters in making photographs and drawings and in collecting objects 
buried in the ruined houses. Although he was accompanied by a num- 
ber of men, he found the ruins so extensive that he was able to visit but 
one-third of them. Many small cafions extending back from the Colorado 
two or three miles, ended In semi>circular amphitheatres, with sides rang- 
ing from two to five hundred feet in height. Such gorges are called box 
cafions. A small trail barely wide enough to allow a person to descend on 
foot, leads from the mesa into the cafion. Upon descending, one finds the 
caves literally filled vrith buildings of various sizes. In caverns having a 
dirt floor, there are seldom stone buildings, but instead, a most singular 
and unusual type of dwelling. Upon inspecting some of the caves, stone 
slabs four or five feet across were seen upon the surface. Perhaps the 
sands and dust, which the winds had swept within, half covered these 
stones. Upon removing them openings two or more feet in diameter 
were disclosed leading into dome-shaped cavities. It is not vfrithout diffi- 
culty that a person is able to lower his body into the dark uninviting 
depths of the cave. 

The chamber had the appearance of a bell, small at the top and large at 
the bottom. The rooms averaged six feet in depth and seven in width at 
the bottom. There are as many as twenty of these rooms in one cavern. 
Many of them penetrated through the clay and were excavated into the 
soft sandstone beneath. Small doors at the sides frequently led from one 
to another so that a whole series of ten or fifteen rooms would be con- 
nected. Some of the smaller underground rooms were used as granaries, 
and several were discovered filled with seeds and corn. Skeletons were 
frequently found in the rooms accompanied by textile fabrics, deer-skin 
garments, flint implements, etc. In no instance was pottery found in the 
underground rooms. The cafions are so dry that everything used by the 
inhabitants of both cave and cliff dwellings was preserved almost as per- 
fectly as the day it was buried. For instance, the f olJ owing were obtained : 
beautiful feather-cloth robes and head drosses of the smallest feathers, 
rendered mouse colored by age ; pieces of spindles and cotton fabric in va- 
rious processes of weaving ; cotton seeds and cotton cloth garments, many 



ANTHR0P0L06T. 293 

of which were painted in fanciful designs ; bncksldn robes, on the inner 
side of which were picture writings, similar in character to the winter 
coats of the Sionx. Bone, obsidian and flint cutting-implements, mounted 
in original handles, stone spears, with the shafts six or eight feet in length, 
basket work, blankets, pottery and many other objects and implements 
such as were used in the everyday life of the savage. The most interest- 
ing and valuable part of the collection were the mummies. They com- 
prised some twenty men, women and children wrapped in feather cloth, 
buckskin garments and cotton cloths, many of them with sandals still upon 
their f ^t. 

The atmospheric conditions for the preservation of these mummified bod- 
ies were exceedingly favorable. The skin remains dry upon the face and 
other parts of the body. The eyebrows remain intact, the lips seem 
rather full, the hair is still attached to the scalp, the larger muscles of 
the body are all preserved, the nails remain upon the fingers and toes, and 
the weight of the entire body is about twenty pounds. The mummies as 
found in the wrappings were three and a half feet in length. The limbs 
were doubled and the knees drawn nearly to the chest. The friends of 
the deceased removed the heart, lungs, bowels, and other internal organs 
before burial. This is plainly shown by an incision in the abdomen of 
each subject. Children have been occasionally found in the arms of 
adults, presumably their mothers. 

Small squashes, gourds, beans, corn, and cotton seed occasionally accom- 
panied the interment. Numbers of singular objects have also been found. 
ITor instance, bundles of feathers, small strands of cotton rope, raw-hide 
thongs, crutches, medicine wands or sticks two or three feet in length 
with the claws and teeth of animals, beaks of birds, pieces of obsidian, 
«tc., tied to one end. Baskets usually covered the head of the mummy. 
Frequently the door of the room in which the mummy was burled had 
been walled up. Occasionally a burial occurred in an ash-heap in the rear 
of a dwelling. 

During our journey we covered some sixteen hundred miles of territory, 
and in order to be more expeditious, split the party into two sections. 
Considerable excavating was done In the cemeteries in the valley and mesa 
ruins. The graves presented a uniform appearance. They could be divided 
into two classes, those skeletons found five or six feet deep occupying 
hollow stone vaults, those but two feet from the surface buried in the 
sand. Beautiful pottery, bone implements, minute arrowheads, bone 
spoons, beads, and shells accompanied the grave burials. 

We found every river and creek literally lined with boulder ruins and 
small pueblos. The ruins did not exist, as in the Ohio valley, every few 
miles : they actually were continuous. In our opinion, no section of the 
country can be found where an institution could make larger collections 
in a short time in southern Utah. For instance, up Cottonwood creek, 
fifty miles north from the Mormon settlement, there is a section about 
twenty miles square, containing a great many caves and valley ruins, which 
were practically unknown at the time of the government surveys from 



294 8BCTION H. 

1876 to 1880. The Iftrger of these cayes contain good springs. Seyeral 
large cemeteries and pneblos occupy the surrounding plain. 

Some very interesting facts are obtained from the explorations of 
the ruins. No copper or metal of any Icind has been found in the cliff 
houses or in the cares. All cliff houses and dwellings upon the edge of 
the clifl^ were built manifestly for defence. The cliff houses tbemselves, 
whether large or small, have but one main entrance. That entrance faces 
the caiion. Each room contains a number of port holes pointing in every 
direction. The larger fboms frequently contain as many as twenty or 
thirty of these port holes, all of which are neatly and smoothly plastered, 
so that an arrow may be conveniently discharged through them. 

In some of the stone buildings and in the caves, turkey dung covers the 
floor to a depth of two or three feet. Upon the walls in the rear of houses 
are usually hundreds of sculptures and rude paintings. Many, many times 
the turkey and the wild goat are shown in the pictographs. Hence, 
we conclude that aside from what was grown by means of irrigation, 
primitive man in the San Juan country lived largely upon the goat and the 
turkey. 

No metal has been found in any of the ruins, and such caverns and pueb- 
los as we saw bore no evidences that the builders were associated with 
the Spaniards. Our observations led to this conclusion. The region was 
Inhabited by two and possibly three tribes more or less alike in manner of 
living, in agriculture, in pottery mailing, in weaving, and in other arts. 
They differed in unimportant matters. For instance, the Cliff and Cave 
dwellers made mummies of their dead, the Valley dweller placed his in 
graves. One flattened the skull by artificial pressure, the other did not. 
One lived in inaccessible fortresses, the other dwelt upon the plain. It 
seems to us that these differences are not sufficient to warrant us in setting 
them apart from each other as distinct and separate peoples. 



A FEW P8TCHOLOGICAL INQUIRIES. By Laura Osboknb Talbott, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

[ABSTRAOT.] 

A DRBFER Insight Into the child's mind seems to be needed before much 
can be accomplished in the way of a true and satisfactory education. 

In studies in anthropology, observations upon the evolution of the hu- 
man mind and its results, are of the utmost importance. 

Great interest attaches to the different degrees of progress made by the 
human subject at different periods and in different countries during past 



a«:e8. 



It is the mental vision or that power popularly known as the imagination 
which has been roost active among the aborigines, and which has produced 
their quaint folk lore, and characteristic designs and beliefs. While strlv- 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 295 

Ing to unravel the mysteries of the savage mfDd, and consequently of the 
development of our race, may we not find it advisable to give more study 
and attention to the inner workings of the child mind of the present day? 

In our dally Intercourse with our fellow human beings, no more Impor- 
tant factor is to be noted in its actions and results upon the welfare of 
mankind, than that power of the mind which sees visions, or conceives 
new ideas from materials already existing in the mind. 

There are undoubtedly numerous points of view from which this subject 
can be discussed, the present object is far ftom philosophical, but simply 
to urge a few practical inquiries as to the manner of directing the awak- 
ening powers of the child mind that may save our youth from the mis- 
takes of a misguided imagination. 

The imagination, or the power of mental vision, Is the faculty, par ex- 
cellence, upon which religion, art and commerce depend for their exist- 
ence; banish the results of imagination from the world and what would 
be the condition of society? All the best things of our civilization would 
disappear and we should return to a state of barbarism. For unless the 
mental vision Is aroused to receive impressions, no more effect will result 
than when the bodily eye Is closed to Impressions from physical objects. 
This condition of the mind which we term imagination has a close com- 
panion in the reasoning faculty, and the question arises; Which is the 
superior? In the little child the power to see visions is as great, if not 
greater, comparatively, than in the grown man. A lonely child will fill 
the room and vacant chairs with pleasant companions and derive great 
enjoyment from their imaginary conversations. 

Thieves, knaves, magicians, juggling politicians, orators, and all classes 
of persons who desire to control the wills and energies of their fellow men 
understand in some degree the utility of diverting the imagination. 

Even various systems of religion have sought to attract their followers 
by working upon their imaginations through artistic rites and ceremonies. 
Physicians often depend upon affecting their cures through the imagina- 
tion. 

To educate this power of mental vision aright would be soon to explode 
many of the popular isms, and fashionable beliefs of the day, and establish 
society on a surer and firmer foundation. 

Certain teachers have acquired the power of awaking early in the youth- 
ftil mind the power of insight. Why was Dr. Hopkins such a famous 
teacher? Was it not his method by which he aroused the thinking pow- 
ers of the boy, and, by careful leading, opened his mental virion to a broad 
and expansive view of his fellowmen and of the universe? 

This is the need of all of our children of the present day, to be strength- 
ened in their mental powers, particularly in their imagination, and if the 
teacher has not a realization of this necessity, then public opinion or 
school overseers should see to it that freer exercise of the mind with refer- 
ences to practical affairs of life and a more generous culture should be 
given to the pupils. Investigations should be increasing, and at the same 
time unfelt by the child itself, in order to keep the imagination firm and 



296 racnov h. 

strong. Id Frftooe ezp«rU who do not Instraet are employed f n the schools 
to go aboat amoog the cblldrea and, by association and detection of Idio- 
sjrncrasjr, strlre to strengthen the power of each child's mental activitSes 
in such directions as shall make them most asefal in active life. 

Is it not more indlTidoai attention oor children need and more carefbl 
insight exercised over their mental development, at the same time per- 
mitting greatest freedom of mental growth, and not the herding of chil- 
dren with all their inherited tendencies, by the hondreds under the care 
of a few teachers, who hare no time, strength or thought to attend to the 
peculiarities of ludlTldnal derelopment? 

The mental powers seem to undergo as many changes in their growth 
f^om Infancy to maturity as do the physical powers. 

Those persons, In whom well-trained power of mental rislon has been 
attained, have been of inestimable benefit of mankind. Theodore Cnyler, 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Emerson and Macsulay, all peculiarly good think- 
ers, hsve understood veiy clearly the value of this mental vision^ and 
seemed to hold It weU In hand for the benefit of mankind. 

Oreater power of mental vision would soon bring men to understand 
each otheriB situation better, and sooner unite mankind into a perfect uni- 
versal brotherhood. 



Demonstration of a becentlt discovkbed cbreebal porta. By Chas. 
Porter Hart, M.D., Wyoming, O. 

[ABSTBAOT.) 

This paper consists of a few observations, accompanied by a series of 
photographic views, of a portion of the brain which has until recently 
escaped microscopic examination. 



Pueblo myths and ceremonial dances. By Frank H. Cushing, Bureau 
of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 



Av ancient hearth in the stratified gravels of the banks of the 

Whitewater river, Ind. By Amos W. Butler, Brookville, Ind, 



Exhibition of a skull of a pig, found in Ohio, having a funt arrow- 
HKAD imbedded IN THE BONE. By PTof. E. W. Clatpole, Akron, 
Ohio. 



Plan of the ruins of Tiahuanaco. By A. B. Douglass, Harvard Ob- 
servatory, Ariquipa, Peru. 



ANTHBOPOLOGT. 297 

Inyoluntart movbmbnts. By Prof. Jo0bph Jastrow, Madison, Wis. 
[To be printed in Popular Science Monthly.] 



]BxHiBrnoN OF pottery from a mound on thb banks of thb Ilunois 
BivER, NEAR Feoria, Iix. By Dr. J. Eost, Adrian, Mich. 



A definition of anthropology. By Prof. Otis T, Mason, Curator of 
Ethnology, National Museum, Washington, D. C. 



The department of ethnology of the World's Columbian Exposition. 
By Prof. F. W. Putnam, Chief of the Department, Cambridge, Mass. 



•^^p""*"i*^- 



Exhibition of a model of the serpent mound of Adams go., Ohio. 
By Prof. F. W. Putnam, Curator of the Peabody Museum, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 



Report of committee on international congress of anthropology. 

The committee appointed by Section H to consider and report upon the 
subject of an International Congress of Anthropology at Chicago during 
the World's Columbian Exposition report as follows : 

They believe that a Congress of Anthropology should be held and that 
the Congress should hold a session for one week, meetings occurring 
daily from Monday to Saturday inclusive; the meetings to be in the morn- 
ings, leaving the afternoons free for examination of the interesting ma- 
terial at the Exposition. 

The Congress to be divided into at least three sections, as follows : — a 
Section of Physical Anthropology, a Section of Ethnology and Ethnog- 
raphy, and a Section of Archaeology. 

The Executive Committee of the Congress to consist of the President 
and Secretary of the Congress, the President and Secretary of each sec- 
tion, and three members appointed by the Committee of Anthropology of 
the Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition. 

The time of the Congress to be the week beginning on the Monday fol- 
lowing the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science for 1893 (or Aug. 29 to Sept. 3 both dates inclusive) . 

A permanent committee of five persons from Section H of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science to be appointed to carry out 
the plan herein suggested. 



298 SBcnoN h. 

The endorsement and codperation of the American Folk Lore Society 
and of the American Psychological Society to be invited by the Commit- 
tee. 

For the Committee, 

Frederick Starr, Secretary. 

The Section accepted the report of Its committee and appointed the fol- 
lowing as a committee with fall powers to carry out the plan proposed 
and to fill vacancies and to add to their number if desirable : — 

D. G. Brlnton, F. W. Putnam, W. H. Holmes, Joseph Jastrow, Freder- 
ick Starr. 

Upon the Council of the Association requesting each section of the As- 
sociation to appoint a committee to cooperate with the World's Confess 
Auxiliary in the organization of such congresses as pertain to the sciences 
of the several sections, the above-named committee was again appointed 
as the committee requested by the Council. 

At the following General Session of the Association, on the recommend- 
ation of the Council, this Committee, with the committees of the eight 
other sections, was made a General Committee of the Association to co- 
operate with the World's Congress Auxiliary for the purpose named. 

Wm. M. Bbauchamp, 

Secretary of Section H. 



SECTION I. 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS . 



OFFICERS OF SECTION I. 



Vice PteHdent. 
Lkstbb F. Wabd, Washington, D. C. 

Secretary. 
HsNRT Fabquhab, Washington, D. C. 

Member q/* CouneC. 
Manlt Miles, Lansing, Mich. 

Members of Sectional Committee. 

Lestrr F. Ward, Washington, D. C. Hknrt Fabquhab, Washington, 
D. C. Edmund J. Jambs, Philadelphia, Pa. B. E. Fbrnow, 
Washington, D. G. E. T. Peters, Washington, D. C. I. P. 
Bobbbts, Ithaca, K. Y. Mbs. N. S. Ejedzib, Manhattan, Kan. 

Member of the NomUiating Committee. 
E. W. Bbmis, Chicago, 111. 

Members of Subcommittee on Nominations. 

Lestbb F. Ward, Washington, D. C. Hknbt Fabquhab, Washington, 
D. C. A. W. Habris, Washington, D. C. W. H. Hale, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. P. G. HoLDBN, Agricultural College, Mich. 



\ 



ADDRESS 

BY 

LESTER F. WARD, 

Vice Prbsidbkt, Skction I. 



THE PSYCHOLOGIC BASIS OF SOCIAL ECONOmCS. 



The object of my remarks this afternoon shall be to emphasize 
tbe distinction between that system of political economy which is 
based uix)n the actions of the human animal and that system which 
is based upon the actions of the rational man. The former is the 
prevailing system of the schools as taught under varying aspects 
by the physiocrats, Adam Smith, Ricardo and Malthus. Its under- 
lying principles are set forth in the writings of Herbert Spencer and 
constitute the warp of modern individualism. The latter has from 
time to time been dimly foreshadowed by certain writers but has 
never taken any scientific form except in a little known work by the 
present writer.' Although its distorted image is reflected in nu- 
merous more or less obnoxious forms from the mirror of public opin- 
ion, its real shape is quite unfamiliar to the greater number even of 
the best informed persons. 

Auguste Comte recognized the influence of mind in society and 
placed psychology where it belongs in his hierarchy of the sciences, 
but he refused to give it the rank of a science distinct from biology 
and classed it as a department of that science, calling it 'transcen- 
dental biology." Nevertheless, in his discussions he gave con- 
siderable weight to it, laying stress on the elements of prevision 
and the control of social phenomena. Spencer, on the contrary, 
while he treated psychology at length and assigned it the same 

^ Dynamio Sociology. D. Appleton ft Co., New York, 1883, 3 vols. 

(801) 



802 SECTION I. 

position that Comte did, failed to make it the basis of either his 
sociology or his ethics, both of which in his system rest directly 
upon biology. His psychology, therefore, which, indeed, was 
written before his biology and largely from the standpoint of 
metaphysics, stands isolated and useless in his system of synthetic 
philosophy. 

Tiie question is whether the phenomena of social, political, and 
industrial life rest primarily upon or grow chiefly out of the facts 
and laws of biology or those of psychology. It became early 
fashionable, in the name of science, to treat the uniformity and in- 
variability of natural phenomena displayed in the astronomical and 
physical world, as extending also to animal life including the oper- 
ations of economic forces in society. The correctness of this view, 
considered in the abstract, cannot be questioned, but the econo- 
mists of that time did not sufficiently understand the nature of 
such complicated phenomena to make them the basis of a political 
or industrial science. The time has scarcely come as yet when 
we can do more than carefully feel our way along this obscure path ; 
but the flood of light, which modern science since Darwin has 
shed upon the whole domain of biolog}', has not only pointed out 
the erroneous character of the prevailing mode of reasoning, but 
has shown at least one, and this the most fundamental source of 
the error which pervades it. This consists in practically ignoring 
the existence of a rational faculty in man, which, while it does not 
render his actions any less subject to true natural laws, so enor- 
mously complicates them that the}' can no longer be brought within 
the simple formulas that suffice in the calculus of mere animal 
motives. 

"While the subject, as thus outlined, is primarily a psychologic 
one, viz., that of determining the true r6Ie that mind has played in 
the industrial history of the race, the question at issue is essen- 
tially an economic one. There are two distinct kinds of economics, 
biological economics and psychological economics — the economics 
of life and the economics of mind. That is to say, there are two 
kinds of economy which it is of the first importance sharply to 
contrast, the econom}'^ that prevails in the animal world, in the 
domain of life, in organic nature generally, and the economy that 
prevails in the human sphere, in the realm of mind, in the domain 
of reason. 

Every one is now familiar with the general nature of animal 



ADDRESS BT LESTER F. WARD. 303 

economics. It is the survival of the fittest in the struggle for ex- 
istence. It is the mere physics of life. Just as in the physical 
world and the great clash of mechanical forces, the superior over- 
come the inferior and what we see is the resultant product of the 
struggle, so in the great struggle of life the forms that exist are 
such and only such as were able to survive the ordeal. But in 
biology the forces are the various tendencies to grow and develop 
including animal appetites, wants and desires. These are ever 
seeking satisfaction, and only their relative feebleness can prevent 
them from attaining it. 

It was formerly supposed that organic nature was economical 
of its energies. The facts early observed, that every organ is 
adapted to some function and that every creature is fitted for the 
place it inhabits and the life it le^ds, were supposed to indicate a 
state of perfect harmony in the entire machinery of nature involv- 
ing the maximum economy. Such misinterpretations were widely 
inculcated by optimistic writers and came at length to permeate 
tbe thought of mankind. The political economists seized upon 
them and made them the basis of their systems, and even the great 
philosophers were and continue to be affected by them. Still, 
nothing is now better known than that the great biologic law, in- 
stead of being economical, is extremely wasteful of energy. It is 
indeed true that everything that is made by nature is adapted to 
some function or use. This follows from the genetic method of 
evolution. Everything that exists is pushed into existence by a 
vis a tergo. Nature only works through efficient causes. The 
universal life force is perpetually creating new organs and new 
forms, and these must be adapted to their environment, otherwise 
tliey cannot even be brought into being. But this adaptation need 
only reach the minimum stage. If it is suffScient to insure continu- 
ance the end is attained, though higher degrees are always being 
aimed at. The means, however, through which the world is keot 
l>eopled with life are far from being the most economical conceiv- 
able. They often seem to be the least economical conceivable. 
They are just such as all the circumstances of each case combine 
to produce. The cost of accomplishing a given end is wholly im- 
material from a purely biological standpoint. The extravagance 
of nature has long been perceived even by political economists but 
they have failed to see that its admission was fatal to their physi- 
ocrac}'. Malthus showed that but for premature deaths, population 



804 SKcnoH r. 

woald increftse beyond all boanda, and be also foreshadowed Dar- 
win's law of natural selection by proving that this mortality was 
really caased by competition and the struggle for existence. We 
now know that in tlie animal and vegetable world, but for this 
wholesale destruction of those that have been bom, any one species 
would soon overrun the earth. But the cost of bringing forth one 
of these unfortunate beings that are destined to perish at some 
early period in its history is as great as that of bringing forth one 
that is to reach maturity and contribute to the perpetuation of the 
species. Consider then the enormous waste involved in this meth- 
od over a metliod which should only bring forth the number neces- 
sary to maintain the species at its maximum or desired limit and 
should preserve all that came into being until they had accomplished 
their mission. In oviparous creatures the destruction begins with 
the eggs, and to meet tliis these are often produced in prodigious 
numbers. The sturgeon Is not an abundant fish, and yet the fe- 
male spawns a hundred thousand ova. If all these con Id live one 
pair would stock all the rivers of America. The number of eggs 
spawned by a single eel sounds too fabulous to be believed, while 
in the lower Invertebrate world the figures grow still more astound- 
ing, as for example that a tape- worm should possess a billion ova. 
In the vegetable kingdom we encounter the same class of facts. 
Burst apuff'^ball and the -air is filled with smoke, but each element 
of that cloud consists of a minute spore ready to germinate if by 
the rarest chance it shall find a suitable habitat. Some one has 
been to the trouble to determine the number of spores yielded by 
a plant of the common mould, and reached the incredible figure of 
three billions two hundred millions. Buteven among higher plants 
the same prodigality is seen. A large chestnut tree in June prob- 
ably contains a ton of pollen, and many pines are equally laden 
with it, destined to be blown by tlie winds and floated hundreds of 
miles in the upper atmosphere. There are also many plants, like 
tlie orchid and tlie broororape which bear myriads of minute seeds, 
not one in many thousand of which ever has an opportunity to 
germinate. These are only a few examples. Everywhere in nature 
the vital energy is squandered in the most prodigal manner. The 
amount expended on any one species would, if economized, carry 
on half the activity of the animal or vegetable world. 

No one, so far as I am aware, has attempted to formulate the 
true law of biologic economics. Much has been said of the law of 



ADDRESS BY LESTER F. WARD. $05 

parsimony which is only a very subordinate one sometimes called 
into exercise, but of the great law of prodigality, which is univer- 
sal, no adequate definition has as yet been offered. As the law of 
life in organic nature does not essentially differ from the law of 
force in inorganic nature, it may, for the sake of brevity, be desig- 
nated as ihe law of nature^ with which it is important to contrast 
the psychologic method, or the law of mind. 

The complete law of nature is capable of being divided into two 
parts or members. We have seen that it is always directed toward' 
some useful end and that from its very nature as a genetic process 
it is incapable of producing any necessarily useless thing. Its 
products must therefore all possess a possible or po^en^toZ value. 
This part of the law may therefore be expressed by the formula 
that evei^ creation of organic nature has within it the possibility of 
success. Thus far the biologic law is economical. But, as we 
have seen, only the minutest fraction of that which is created be- 
comes an actual success. The second member of the definition 
must therefore be framed to express this truth. The principle that 
underlies it may be called the necessity for certainty^ or the para- 
mount importance of certainty^ It might also be called the multi' 
plication of chances. There seems to be no limit in nature to the 
degree of energy that may be put forth in the direction of securing 
certain t3\ The chances of survival will be multiplied a thousand 
times in order that certainty may be made a thousand times cer- 
tain. The second member of the law therefore is that in order to 
secure certainty the chances may be indefinitely mtdtiplied. The en- 
tire law may then be thus formulated : All energy expended by or^ 
ganic nature results in potential utility, and actual utility is secured 
through the multiplication of efforts. 

The first member of this law may be characterized by the term 
practical. The second member may in like manner be called prodi' 
gal. Nature is therefore at once the most practical and the most 
prodigal of all economists : practical in that she never makes any- 
thing which has not the elements of utility : prodigal in that she 
spares no expense in accomplishing even the smallest results. 
Again, nature may be said to be engaged in creating every con- 
ceivable form. Everyone is familiar with the wonderful variety 
in the actual forms of vegetable and aniibal life. But these, in- 
numerable as they are, only represent nature's successes. Inter- 
mediate between them there must be imagined an infinite number 

A. A. ▲. S. VOL. XLI. 20 



306 SEcnoK I. 

of failures — conceivable forms in the prodaction of which the or- 
ganic energy has expended itself in vain — a vastly greater expen- 
diture than that required to create all that exists. Moreover, among 
the successful forms there are all degrees of success. There are 
the vigorous and robust forms rejoicing in a full measure of vitality 
and marching forward toward the possession of the earth. Then 
there are the weak and languishing forms which the former class 
is gradually crowding out of existence. Between these there are 
all the intermediate grades. But the successful are only tempor- 
arily so. Like human empires they have their rise and fall, and 
the path of natural history,' like that of human history, is strewn 
with the remains of fallen dynasties and the ruins of extinct races. 
If the expenditure of energy be designated the cost^ then it may 
be said to be a characteristic of the law of nature to exaggerate the 
cost of any given result. The most pconomical way in which a 
river can flow is in a straight line from its source to its mouth. 
But even if one were to begin in this way it would, as a result of 
this principle, soon become crooked and then more and more crook- 
ed, until at length the actual distance traversed by every drop of 
water would be at least double that of a straight line. This physical 
law, which has been called the rhythm of motion, is carried into 
the organic world. The tendency is everywhere to exaggerate 
the irregularities of normal development. This goes on unj;il it 
frequently results in abnormalities so great that they bring about 
their own extinction. Such were doubtless the strange dragons 
that, as paleontology tells us, inhabited the world during a certain 
geologic period ; while the more recent mastodon and mammoth, 
and those wingless birds of the southern hemisphere, one of which, 
the moa, once known to man, is already extinct, furnish other il- 
lustrations. In the vegetable kingdom the coal flora is full of ex- 
amples. Many living plants, either through parasitism, as the 
BaflSesia, which consists almost exclusively of a gigantic flower, or 
through extreme specialization, as in the orchids and yuccas, many 
of which are dependent upon a single species of insect which alone 
has organs adapted to fertilize their flowers, further exemplify this 
law. Such monstrosities inevitably perish with the slightest alter- 
ation in their material surroundings. The progress of organic de- 
velopment has thus been to a large extent the successive creation 
of types that have contained within themselves the elements of 
their own extinction. New ones, of course, have succeeded them 



ADDRESS BY LESTER F. WARD. 307 

adapted for the time being to their environment, but destined in 
turn to outgrow their conditions and perish from the same cause. 

In this sketch of natural or biologic economics its genetic char- 
acter has thus far been chiefly left out of view, in virtue of which 
effects are alwa^^s just equal to causes and never greater. The or- 
ganic force is applied directly to the object to be transformed, and 
the forms to be created are molded into the required shape by an 
infinite number of minute impacts, the sum of which is represented 
by the transformation accomplished. No advantage is taken of 
any mechanical principle whereby the effect is made to exceed the 
energy expended. Natural selection has, indeed, evolved structures 
that embody to some extent such principles. Sharp teeth and 
claws like edged tools represent the inclined plane, and it may 
sometimes be carried so far as to imitate the screw, as in the ap- 
pliances which some seeds possess for boring spirally into the 
earth. Again, there is no doubt that the manner in which muscles 
are attached often affords a true leverage and greatly increases 
the effectiveness of muscular action. But aside from these curioua 
cases in which natural selection seems to imitate rational design,, 
effect throughout organic and inorganic nature is exactly equal to 
cause, and the result produced by living beings is proportioned to 
the effort put forth. No animal, for example, is ever seen to make 
use of any external appliance, not even to the extent of wielding a 
weapon, such as a club or a stone, which is not a part of its own 
organic structure. The beaver, indeed, builds dams by felling 
trees, but its tools are its teeth and no further advantage is taken 
than that which results from their sharpness and the way the mus- 
cles are attached to the jaws. All the warfare of animals is waged 
with tooth and nail, with horn and hoof, with beak and spur and 
fang and sting — always with organic, never with mechanical wea- 
pons. And whatever work is done by animals is always done with 
tools that nature has provided through a long course of develop- 
ment, none of which takes advantage of any principle of physics 
further than as already stated. 

Over against this method of nature, or biological economy, let us 
now set the method of rational man, or pschological economy. The 
most patent distinction which at once strikes the mind is that the 
latter is teleological instead of genetic and deals with final instead 
of efficient causes. This means that while organic forms are merely 
pushed into existence by the pelting of atoms from behind, and 



808 8ECTI05 I. 

thus become fortuitous or literally chance products, human creations 
are conceived in advance by the rational and foreseeing mind, de- 
signed with skill for definite ends and wrought with the aid of a 
variety of meclianical principles by which the energy expended is 
out of all proportion to, and always less than the result accom- 
plished. It is in rational man, therefore, that the first application 
of anything worthy of the name of economy is made. Nature has 
BO economy. Only through foresight and design can anything be 
done economically. If nature produces nothing that may not pos- 
sibly prove useful, man pro<Uices nothing that will not probably be 
useful. But nature creates many thousand actual failures to one 
actual success, while man, though he often fails through ignorance, 
is ever approaching a stage at which every effort shall succeed. 
His rivers (canals, millraces, irrigation trenches, etc.) are straight, 
or as nearly so as true econom}' of construction requires, and Pro- 
fessor Schinpparelli has based his belief that the planet Mars is 
inhabited by rational beings upon the supposed discovery of great 
water wa3's passing across its disk in right lines. 

Nature's wa}' of sowing seed is to leave it to the wind, the water, 
the birds and animals. The greater part falls in a mass close to 
the parent plant and is shaded out or crowded to death by its own 
abundance. Only the few seeds that chance to be transported by 
one agency or another to some favorable spot and have the further 
:good fortune to be covered up can sprout. The most of these even 
never attain maturity', and only the most highly favored live to 
continue the race. To meet this enormous waste, correspondingly 
enormous quantities of seed are produced. Such is nature's econ- 
omy. How different that of a rational being ! He prepares the 
ground, clearing it of vegetable competitors, then he carefully plants 
the seeds at the proper intervals, so that they shall not choke one 
another, and after they have sprouted he keeps off their enemies, 
whether vegetable or animal, supplies water if needed, even sup- 
plies the lacking chemical constituents of the soil if he knows 
what they are, and thus secures as nearly as possible the vigoroas 
growth and sure fruition of every seed planted. Such is the econ- 
omy of mind. * 

A closer analysis shows that the fundamental distinction be- 
tween the animal and the human method is that the environrrmi 
transforms the animal while man transforms the environment. Tbis 
proposition holds literally almost without exception from whatever 



ADDRESS BY LESTER P. WARD. 309 

Standpoint it be contemplated. It is, indeed, the full expression of 
the fact above stated that the touls of animals are organic while 
those of man are mechanical. But if we contrast these two methods 
from our present standpoint, which is that of economics, we see at 
once the immense superiority of the human over the animal method. 
First consider the economy of time. It has taken much longer 
to develop any one of the organic appliances of animals, whether 
for war or industry, than is represented by the entire period during 
wliich man has possessed any arts, even the simplest. Look next 
at the matter of efficiency. Not one of the organic appliances has 
sufficed to enable the species possessing it to migrate far from the 
region to which it was originally adapted. Man, on the other hand, 
without acquiring any new organic adaptations, but by the invention 
of tools, by providing himself clothing and shelter, by artificial de- 
vices for capturing prey, and by other ways of transforming his 
environment, has placed himself in position to occupy the whole 
earth fi*om the equator to the arctic circle, and to become the only 
animal that is not restricted in its habitat. 

Every implement of human design is calculated to take advan- 
tage of some mechanical principle through which tlie muscular force 
necessary to be exerted is less for any given result accomplished 
than it would be without such implement. In most cases it is 
many times less, but in the great majority of cases no result could 
be produced at all witliout tiie implement. Machines are simply 
more effective tools, and it is through tools and machinery that the 
arts have been established. The utter helplessness of man with- 
out the arts is well illustrated by De Foe in Robinson Crusoe, and 
yet in order to enable him to survive at all, even in a tropical cli- 
mate where nature's productions were exuberant, he must provide 
himself from the stores of the wrecked vessel with a considerable 
supply' of tools and other artificial appliances. What was true of 
Robinson Crusoe thus circumstanced, is much more true of the great 
majority of mankind who inhabit what we call temperate climates, 
i. e, climates in which the temperature sometimes falls ten or twenty 
degrees below the freezing point. One winter without art would 
suffice to sweep the whole population north or south of the thirtieth 
parallel of latitude out of existence. 

We are so much accustomed to the terms labor and production 
that we rarely stop to think what they really mean. Neither of 
these terms has any place in natural economics. All labor con- 



810 8ECTI0K I. 

8ist8 in an artificial transformation of man's environment. Nature 
produces nothing in tlie politico-economic sense of the word. Pro- 
duction consists in artificially altering the form of natural objects. 
The clothes we wear are chiefly derived from the sheep, the ox, the 
silkworm and a few other animals, the cotton plant, flax, hemp, 
and a few other plants ; but between the latest stage at which na- 
ture leaves these and the final form in which they are ready for 
use, the steps are many and the labor great. The dwellings man 
inhabits once consisted chiefly of trees, clay, and beds of solid rock. 
These have been transformed by labor performed with tools and 
machinery into houses. The same is true of temples and of all the 
other buildings that now cover the surface of the earth wherever 
man is found. And so the entire cycle of human achievement 
might be gone through. All these transformations are accomplished 
through the arts. 

The sum total of human arts constitutes man's material civiliza- 
tion, and it is this that chiefly distinguishes him from the rest of 
nature. But the arts are the exclusive product of mind. They are 
the means through which intelligence utilizes the materials and 
forces of nature. And as all economics rests primarily on pro- 
duction, it seems to follow that a science of economics must have 
a psychological basis. In fact the economics of mind and the 
economics of life are not merely different but the direct opposites 
of each other. The psychologic law strives to reverse the biologic 
law. The biologic law is that of the survival of structures best 
adapted to the environment. Those structures that yield most 
readily to changes in the environment persist. It has therefore 
been aptly called the ''survival of the plastic." The environment 
never changes to conform to the structures but always the reverse, 
and the only organic progress possible is that which accrues through 
improvements in structure tending to enable organic beings to cope 
with sterner and ever harder conditions. In any and every case 
it is the environment that works the changes and the organism that 
undergoes them. 

But the most important factor in the environment of any species 
is its organic environment. The hardest pressure that is brought 
to bear upon it comes from other living things in the midst of which 
it lives. Any slight advantage which one species may gain from 
a favorable change of structure causes it to multiply and expand, 
and unless strenuously resisted, ultimately to acquire a complete 



ADDRESS BT LESTER F. WARD. 811 

monopoly of all things that are needed for its support. Any other 
species that consumes the same elements must, unless equally vig- 
orous, soon be crowded out. This is the true meaning of the sur- 
vival of the fittest. It is essentially a -process of competition. 
The economics of nature consists therefore essentially in the opera- 
tion of the law of -competition in its purest form. The prevailing 
idea, however, that it is the fittest possible that survive in this 
struggle is wholly false. The effect of competition is to prevent 
any form from attaining its niaximum development, and to main- 
tain a certain comparatively low level for all forms that succeed in 
surviving. This is made clear by the fact that wherever competi- 
tion is wholly removed, as through the agency of man in the in- 
terest of any one form, that form immediately begins to make great 
strides and soon outstrips all those that depend upon competition. 
Such has been the case with all the cereals and fruit trees ; it is the 
case with domestic cattle and sheep, with horses, dogs and all the 
forms of life that man has excepted from the biologic law and sub- 
jected to the law of mind, and both the agricultural and the pas- 
toral stages of society rest upon the successful resistance which 
rational man has offered to the law of nature in these departments. 

ft 

So that we have now to add to the waste of competition its influence 
in preventing the really fittest from surviving. 

Hard as it seems to be for modern philosophers to understand 
this, it was one of the first truths that dawned upon the incipient 
mind of man. Consciously or unconsciously, it was felt from the 
very outset that the mission of mind was to grapple with the law 
of competition and, as far as possible, to overcome and destroy it. 
This iron law of nature, as it may be called, was everywhere found 
to lie athwart the path of human progress, and the whole upward 
struggle of rational man, whether physically, socially, or morallj^ 
has been with this tyrant of nature, the law of competition. And 
in so far as he has progressed at all he has done so by gaining, 
little by little, the mastery in this struggle. In the physical world 
he has accomplished this through invention from which have re- 
sulted the arts. Every utensil of labor, every mechanical device, 
every object of design, and every artificial form that serves a human 
purpose, is a triumph of mind over the physical forces of nature in 
ceaseless and aimless competition. In the social world it is human 
institutions — religion, government, law, marriage, customs — that 
Lave been thought out and adopted to restrain the unbridled in- 



312 SECTION I. 

dividaalfsm that has always menaced society. And finally, the 
etliical co<1e and the rooral law are simply the means employed bj 
reason, intelligence, and refined sensibility to suppress and crush 
out the animal nature of roan. 

One important fact has thus far been kept out of view for final 
treatment in this place. Man, it is true, is a rational being, but 
he IS also still an animal. Notwithstanding the important con- 
quests over nature that have been recounted, he is still very far from 
being master of the field. Tlie difficulty is that mind itself was 
developed under the influence of the purely egoistic law. That 
extraordinary brain development which so exclusively character- 
izes man was acquired through the primary principle of advantage. 
Brain does not difier in this respect from horns or teeth or claws. 
In the great struggle which the human animal went through to 
gain his supremacy it was brain that finally enabled him to succeed, 
and under the biologic law of selection, where superior sagacity 
meant fitness to survive, the human brain was gradually built up, 
cell upon cell, until the fully developed hemispheres w^e literally 
laid over the primary ganglia and the cranial walls enlarged to re- 
ceive them. The brain of man was thus originally an engine of 
competition. It was a mere servant of the will. It was only in 
virtue of its peculiar character by which it was capable of perceiv- 
ing that the direct animal method was not the most successful one, 
even in the bare .struggle for existence, that it so early began, in 
the interest of pure egoism, to antagonize that method and to 
adopt the opposite indirect method of design, foresight, calculation, 
and cooperation. 

The law of mind, as it operates in society as an aid to competi- 
tion and in the interest of the individual, is essentially immoral. It 
rests primarily on the principle of deception. It is an extension 
to other human beings of the method applied to the animal world 
by which the latter was subjected to man. This method was that 
of the ambush and the snare. Its ruling principle was cunning. 
Its object was to deceive, circumvent, ensnare, and capture. Low 
animal cunning was succeeded by more i^fined kinds of cunning. 
The most important of these go by the names business shrewdness, 
strategy, and diplomacy, none of which differ from ordinary cun- 
ning in anything but the degree of adroitness by which the victim 
is outwitted. In this way social life is completely honeyconibed 
with deception. 



ADDRESS BT LESTER F. WARD. 313 

The competition which we see in the social and industrial world 
— competition aided and modified by reason and intelligence — while 
it does not differ in either its principle or its purpose from the com- 
petition among animals and plants, differs considerably in its 
methods and in its effects. We see in it the same soulless struggle, 
the same intense egoism, the same tendency to exaggerate existing 
inequalities, the same sacrifice of the weaker to the stronger, and 
the same rage of the latter to possess and monopolize the earth. 
But, in addition to all this, the opposite principle is also in active 
operation. This is the law of mind making for a true* economy of 
energy. This economy, however, 1)3 a purely individual economy 
and not a social or political economy. That is, it only benefits the 
individual, not society nor the state. The effort in each case is 
solely to benefit self. No account is taken of the benefit or injury 
of others. Usually the individual knows that it will injure others, 
and therefore, in order to prevent them from checkmating him, he 
resorts to one or other of the methods of deception above enumer- 
ated. But oftentimes no thought is given to its effect on society, 
the state, or other individuals. 

It has been so strongly maintained that competition results in a 
real economy that it is worth while to consider this for a moment. 
The prevailing impression is that if permitted to operate freely it 
will necessarily keep down prices. There is no greater mistake 
made by economists. Jt tends to raise prices to their highest 
limit. 

It does this by the waste it occasions, and the price must be made 
to cover this waste. In the retail trade of all kinds of commodities 
the waste is enormous. The number engaged in it is many times 
greater than is necessary. This is because society has put a stigma 
upon productive labor and trade is one of the principal ways of 
living by one's wits. Each seller must devise some means to in- 
duce buyers to buy of him instead of his rivals. One of the prin- 
cipal ways of doing this is that of making his goods knoWn to those 
likely to want them. From pure inertia they will buy what is 
brought to them before they will go after it, or they will go to a 
place they know of rather than hunt another. Hence, every pos- 
sible means is resorted to by each dealer to advertise his business. 
Newspaper advertising is the most familiar way, but it is by no 
means the only one. Costly as it is, it probably costs less than 
other modes. Among these, display takes a high rank — ^large 
French glass show windows illuminated at night even after the 



814 SECTION I. 

hours of closing, with gas or electric lights; add to this the 
necessity for locating on principal streets and paying high rentals. 
Posters and running agents, delivery wagons emblazoned with 
great letters, ''opening*' invitations sent to thousands, and a variety 
of other devices, all very expensive, are well known to all. For 
houses that can afford it all this is supplemented by the traveling 
salesman or drummer whose ubiquitous presence greets us on every 
railroad car and at every country hotel. Think of the enormous 
expense involved in this ! There is a latent impression that it is 
in some way necessary. Yet such is not the case. All these varied 
modes of making known particular firms and particular goods are 
wholly unnecessary to society at large. Only so much is wanted 
and only so much will be bought. If it tends to cause more to be 
bought than is wanted it does harm. It is only a supposed neces- 
sity to each dealer to cause bis goods to be bought instead of those 
of another dealer. But the consumer must pay for all this expensive 
rivalry. Pass by any first-class restaurant even at the customary 
hour for meals and you will see perhaps two or three persons eat- 
ing in a hall that would comfortably seat fifty, in rear of which 
there will be ten to twenty waiters in dress coats and white gloves 
waiting for another guest to drop in, if perchance one should. No 
wonder that at such a place one must pay a dollar for a beefsteak 
that costs fifteen or twenty cents in the market. It is because the 
business is so greatly overdone, each competing to attract more 
than the others. It is the same with the drug business, the cigar 
business, the confectionery business, and a great number of other 
businesses. 

All these are illustrations of competition under the law of mind. 
They are the devices of cunning persons to live without work or 
by some agreeable form of work, and society is regularly called 
upon to support them by paying in the added prices of all com- 
modities all that the business will bear. This quality of business 
shrewdness, the modified form of animal cunning, resting primarily 
upon the principle of deception, is manifest in all forms of adver- 
tising. The chief object of an advertisement is to deceive the public 
and cause the belief that things are better or cheaper than they 
are. So well is this understood that there is no law to punish the 
most flagrant falsehood expressed in the form of an advertisement, 
and if the dupes and victims of this form of lying remonstrate, that 
great principle of the common law of England, caveat emptor^ is 
laughingly brought forward as the all-sufficient answer. 



ADDRESS BY LESTER F. WARD. 315 

These illustrations are drawn from one of the few departments 
in which permanent or at all prolonged competition is possible in 
society. In nearly all other departments the effect of intelligence 
is very different. It is mind alone that perceives that competition 
is wasteful, and therefore, in the interest of the very success that 
competition seeks, it proceeds to antagonize it and to substitute 
art, science, and cooperation. By the aid of these the success of 
those who use them is increased many hundred fold. Competition 
in society, therefore, tends to defeat itself. It cannot endure. It 
is at best only a transition stage. On the one hand, the competi- 
tion between individuals soon takes the form of competition between 
machines. On the other hand it takes the form of competition be- 
tween corporations. The former tendency is temporarily injurious 
but permanently beneficial. The latter is permanently injurious 
and becomes a serious menace to society. Still it is not an un- 
mixed evil since it prevents the waste of competition. Even the 
retail industries above referred to are conJing within this law. The 
small houses are being swallowed up by large ones and great uni- 
versal stores are growing up in all large cities. They result in 
monopoly but they do not increase prices, and the quality of the 
goods sold is far more reliable. 

The social phenomenon which conforms most nearly to the pat- 
tern set in the animal world, and which is most under the influence 
of the law of nature and least under that of the law of mind, is 
human labor. Wholly unskilled labor has rarely gone beyond the 
stage of pure competition. In the olden time skilled labor made 
a step forward in the formation of guilds, but the era of machinery 
swept these away. At the time when the founders of the present 
system of political economy were writing, labor of nearly every 
kind was almost exclusively competitive. It is only within a few 
decades that it has begun to fall under the influence of intelligence 
and to employ the simplest of all rational devices that of coopera- 
tion. Capital, on the other hand, being naturally in the hands of 
the most sagacious members of society, has always combined and 
cooperated and used all the other arts of overcoming competition. 
The chief difference between the employers and the employed, until 
recently, has been that the former have used the rational method, 
while the latter have used the natural method. But such is the 
power of the rational method and its superiority over the method 
of nature that competing labor stood no chance in the struggle 



816 SECTION I. 

with combining capital, and it was possible, to a great extent, to 
enforce the Iron law of wages as formulated by Rieardo. And 
when, in recent times, labor at last began in a small way to call to 
its aid the psychologic economy of cooperation, the step was so un- 
expected and seemed so strange that it was looked upon as a crime 
against society, and many still so regard it. Indeed, all the laws 
of modem nations are framed on the assumption that capital nat- 
urally combines, while labor naturally competes, and attempts on 
the part of labor to combine against capital are usually suppressed 
by the armed force of the state, while capital is protected by the 
military and civil authority of the state against such assumed un- 
lawful attempts. This enormous odds against which labor struggles 
in its efforts to adopt and apply the economics of .mind will greatly 
retard the progress of industrial reform, which aims to place labor 
on an equal footing with capital in this respect. 

The evil that results from the competition of corporations lies in 
the fact that, as in most competition among rational beings, it is 
only a brief transition stage to be quickly followed by further com- 
bination. Just as competition among individuals results in cor- 
porations, so competition between corporations results in combi- 
nations of corporations, A common form of these compound 
corporations is that which is known as a trust. This process of 
compound cooperation does not stop until all engaged in a given 
industry are embraced in a single combination and the whole prod- 
uct of that industry is controlled by it. This gives it absolute 
control over the price of the commodity produced, limited only by 
the maximum that can be charged without diminishing the profits. 
Thus, for example, all the petroleum produced by a country may 
fall under the control of a single trust, and in order to secure for 
the members of that trust the maximum return for the petroleum, 
its price will be placed at the highest figures that consumers of 
petroleum will pay rather than return to candles or resort to gas 
or electricity. It must not be put so high as to produce a great 
falling off in the consumption, otherwise there will be a diminution 
of profits, and this is all that regulates the price. There is no 
necessary relation between price and cost of production. The price 
may be twenty or it may be a hundred times the cost. The same is 
true of coal or iron or sugar or cotton, and even in the case of 
breadstuffs something analogous can occur through the device which 
is known as ' 'cornering." All monopolies rest on the same prin- 



ADDRESS BY LESTER F. WARD. 317' 

ciple and they are as common in the industries of transportation 
and exchange as in those of production. The railroad, telegraph, 
and express systems fully illustrate the law, as does also the mer- 
cantile business of every country, in all of which competition is 
short, heated, and fitful, and the result is always the same — the 
swallowing up of the small industries by the great ones in ever 
widening cycles. 

And thus it comes about that nearly eveiywhere in human society 
the law of mind profoundly modifies the phenomena of industrial 
life, and produces an entirely different class of results from what 
would be produced by the operation of the unimpeded law of nat- 
ural competition. Whether the competition be continued for a 
time or whether it be converted into a competition of corporations, 
or whether, finally, it resolve itself into complete monopoly, in any 
and all cases an enormous artificial difference will be produced be- 
tween the cost of production and the price to the consumer, and 
the latter will be pushed up to the maximum limit attainable with- 
out affecting profits. In the first case this artificial difference is 
mostly wasted in aggressive competition, its only benefit to any 
one being that of doubling or trebling the number of persons who 
are enabled to live without productive labor. In the other cases 
and especially in the last, this difference goes to enrich the managers 
of trusts and to multiply millionaires. 

All this is so widely different from what we see everywhere in 
nature below the level of man's rational faculty, that it requires the 
application of an entirely different set of principles from those which 
can be applied to irrational life. There competition is pure. It 
continues as long as the weaker can survive it, and when these at 
last go to the wall and the better adapted structures survive and 
triumph, it is the triumph of physical superiority, and the strong 
and the robust alone are left to replenish the earth. But when 
mind enters into the contest all genuine competition is crushed out, 
and while it is still, in a certain sense, the strong that succeed, it 
is a strength which comes from superior cunning, necessarily coupled 
with stunted moral qualities, intense egoism, and undeveloped sym- 
pathies, and always aided more or less by the mere accident of 
position. In no proper sense can it be said that this class is the 
fittest to survive in society. Considered from this point of view 
solely, it is evident that brains are a positive detriment to society, 
and if there were really no hope of discovering and applying a rem- 



818 BKcnoK I. 

edy it would doubtless have been better if they had never been 
developed. It is probably the contemplation of such a hopeless 
condition that has given rise to the pessimistic phUosophy of India 
and modern Germany. 

Free competition as it exists in nature would be preferable to 
the existing industrial stute, and although it is not the boon that 
many suppose, it is still one of the great desiderata for which so- 
ciety should strive. IIow can it be secured? Herein lies a great 
social paradox. It is clear from all that has been said that this 
will never bring itself about. Competition is growing more and 
more feeble and ephemeral ; combination is growing more and more 
powerful and permanent . And this is the result of the most complete 
laissez /aire policy. The paradox therefore is thAt free competition 
can only be secured through regulation. The cooperative tendencies 
of the rule of mind which destroy competition can only be over- 
come by that higher form of cooperation which is able to stay the 
lower form and set the forces of nature free once more. 

Let me indulge in a single illustration. Suppose a railroad to be 
built alongside of an existing canal. Negotiations will be at once 
begun to purchase the canal, not because it is wanted, but merely 
to remove it from competition. Such negotiations would be sure 
to succeed and leave the railroad roaster of the field. Competition 
would be removed, rates of transportation increased, and a valu- 
able water way would be abandoned. But suppose society in its 
collective capacity, however constituted, seeing the situation and 
the danger, were to step in and itself purchase the canal, and to 
continue in spite of the railroad to conduct it in the interest of 
traffic ; here would be a case in which the law of mind would be 
directed to maintaining instead of destroying competition. 

Without enlarging further upon this subject, it may be said in 
defence of competition that a new and revised political economy 
will devote a large share of its energies to showing, not so much 
the glories of the competition that now goes on, as how society may 
conduct itself in order to secure whatever benefits competition can 
offer. These are considerable, but, as already remarked, they can 
only be secured through conscious and intelligent social control of 
those egoistic tendencies which either bring competition to a com- 
plete stop and substitute monopoly, or only allow it to go on in 
such extravagant ways as to be worse than monopoly. Under 
proper social restraint competition may undoubtedly be retained 



ADDRESS BT LESTER F. WARD. 819 

as an important economic factor. But it would then be divested 
of its fierce, crushing, and grinding character and reduced to the 
condition of friendly and healthful emulation which stimulates effort 
but does not work hardship. 

Neither should the influence of the higher attributes of reason 
and intelligence be discouraged. They are the foundations of 
civilization and progress. But these, too, should be deprived of 
their fangs, and made to pursue the paths of peace, justice, and 
equity. This result, if it is ever attained at all, must be attained 
by a still higher application of this same law of mind — by the ex- 
ercise of these higher attributes by society itself. Such a power- 
ful weapon as reason is unsafe in the hands of one individual when 
wielded against another. It is still more dangerous in the hands 
of corporations, which proverbially have no souls. It is most 
baneful of all in the hands pf those mighty compound corporations 
which seek to control the wealth of the world. It is only safe when 
employed by the social ego, emanating from the collective brain of 
society, and working for the common interest of the social organism. 

But the object of this address was not to point out remedies for 
social evils. It was, as stated at the outset, to show that any sys- 
tem of economics which is to deal with rational man must rest upon 
a psychologic and not upon a biologic basis. It may seem strange, 
in the light of all that has been said, that there should be any need 
of calling attention to this truth. And so it would be were it not 
that, in full view of all these facts, the prevailing system of social 
economics and social philosophy, completely ignores them and treats 
the human animal only as an animal. 

The old biological economics, culminating in tlie law of Malthus, 
has broken down at every point where it has had a fair triid. Its 
leading tenets have proved false in practice, and in the majority 
of cases the truth can only be reached by reversing the propositions. 
It may be profitable to enumerate a few of the economic truths 
which have been established by the industrial history of the last 
century and which consist for the most part in the simple negation 
of the dogmas of political economy as b«sed on the law of nature, 
unaffected by the law of mind. I will express them in the briefest 
form without any attempt to elaborate, illustrate, or justify them, 
this having been done on former occasions^ or by others, and it is 

1 See especially a paper entitled : '* Some Social and Economic Paradoxes," in the 
American Anttiropologist for April, 1889, Washington, Vol.ii, p. 119. 



820 BEcnoN I. 

not pretended that the propositions contain anything not already 
familiar to mont economists. 

1. Sabsistence increases instead of diminishing with popalation 
(negation of the dogma of Malthus). 

2. Competition usually has the effect to raise prices and rates. 

3. Free competition is only possible under social regulation. 

4. The evils of private monopoly can only be prevented by a 
resort to public monopoly. 

5. In consequence of ignorance the individual cannot be depended 
upon to act according to his own interest, and the principle of 
caveat emptor works an unnecessary hardship. 

6. The consumer cannot be depended upon to encourage the 
better producer, and competition results in deterioration. 

7. The interest of the individual is rarely the same as that of 
the community. 

8. Market values and social values are not identical, as e. g., 
those of a forest. 

9. In an increasing number of cases the hope of gain is not the 
best motive to industry. 

10. Public service will secure better talent than private enter- 
prise for the same outlay. 

11. Private enterprise through aggressive competition and mo- 
nopoly taxes the people far more heavily than does the state. 

12. The prosperity of a community depends as much upon the 
mode of consumption of wealth as upon the quantity produced. 

13. The social effects of taxation are more important than their 
fiscal effects. 

14. The producer cannot always shift the burden of taxation 
upm the consumer, e. ^., under monopoly and aggressive compe- 
tition. 

15. True protection often reduces the price of the commodity 
protected, sometimes even in the importing country. 

16. Capital, as equivalent to machinery, contributes more than 
labor to the product on of wealth. 

17. Wages are drawn from products and not from capital, and 
the "wages-fund" is a myth. 

18. Increase of wages is attended with increase of profits. 

19. Prices fall as wages rise. 

20. Diminished hours of labor bring increased production. 

21. Reduction of the time worked enhances the wages received. 






ADDRESS BT LESTER F. WARD. 821 

The enumeration might be continued to almost any length, but 
the above will suffice to show that the doctrines of physiocracy, 
laissezfaire and Spencerian individualism, and the biologic economy 
in general, are not sustained, and that the facts which society pre- 
sents are for the most part the reverse of those which were promised 
by them. The explanation is that the old political economy is true 
only of irrational animals and is altogether inapplicable to rational 
man! Darwin modestly confesses that he derived his original con- 
caption of natural selection from the reading of Malthus on popu- 
lation. But he did not perhaps himself perceive that in applying 
the law of Malthus to the animal world, he was introducing it into 
the only field in which it holds true. Yet such is the case, and 
for a reason that has already been given, viz., that the advent with 
man of the thinking, knowing, foreseeing, calculating, designing, 
inventing, and constructing faculty, which is wanting in lower crea- 
tures, repealed the biologic law or law of nature and enacted in its 
stead the psychologic law — the law of mind. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XLI. 21 



PAPERS READ. 



Competition and combination in nature. By IIenky Farquhar, U. S. 
C. & G. Survey, Washington, D. C. 

The customary courtesy of our Association, shown in receiving without 
remark, and particularly without adverse criticism, the inaugural ad- 
dresses of its Vice Presidents, is not any the worse respected by indalging 
an occasional transgression of the rule; and some reasons appear why one 
such transgression might not unprofitably be permitted to this Section at 
this meeting. In the first place, our presiding officer is himself too zeal- 
ous for truth to seek protection from any blows and knocks which his 
pursuit of it may bring upon him, or to receive even the stoutest attack 
(if made in the spirit befitting lovers of truth) with anything but a wel- 
come; in the second, the utmost light that can be thrown upon his tlieme, 
from a quarter however different, can only bring out more strongly the 
central truth of his address, the wastefulness of unlimited competition; 
in the third, that central truth is accompanied by another proposition, 
which, if it be really the grave error it appears, calls loudly for examina- 
tion and serious modification. 

That proposition is that the cruder competition spoken of, the unlimited 
competition of dissociated individuals, is the law of nature, while combi- 
nation is the law exclusively of mind and of man. That concerted action, 
in which the interests of the individual as a competitor against his fellows 
are neglected for a more important interest of the individual and his fel- 
lows as an association, is something belonging to mankind as a species, 
distinct from and transcending nature in general, is a position whose 
maintenance is difficult to reconcile with even the most hasty considera- 
tion of the acts of ruminants feeding in herds, where, instead of a tumult- 
uous crowding for the occupation of the best places, we see some 
individuals taking posts in which they can be of service in warning the 
whole herd of appioaching danger— or of the wolves that prey upon them 
in cooperating packs. It is not to be rashly claimed that mind, mind as 
we ourselves exercise it, though doubtless without the high development 
of self consciousness that distinguishes our race, is absent from the con- 
duct of ant and bee colonies ; but surely their example is convincing evi- 
dence that the lesson of the economic superiority of concert over cut- 
throat individual competition is one that has been well taught and learned 
in realms of nature widely sundered from ours. The common working 

(823) 



824 SECTION I. 

ant, deprived of the hard shellt the piercing eye, and the soaring wing, 
the lance in front and the lance behind, that are supplied in defence of 
kindred species, is a poor expression of nature*s production as an indiyid- 
nal competitor ; and yet her life of toil, none for herself and all for her 
community, is as truly a result of nature's struggle for existence as any— 
for Nature's competition regards associations as well as Individuals, and 
remorselessly suppresses the weapons of individual defence, whenever by 
saving and otherwise directing the vital energy they exact, she can evolve 
members of a social body which shall have a higher power of survival, as 
a body, than is possible to dissociated compel iiors. The ant reflects not 
on this and knows nothing of this, doubtless— we infer her lack of con- 
sciousness from her leaving no written records — ^but her disposition and 
power to subordinate individual to social ends is unsurpassed even in our 
own more highly conscious race. 

If not with man as a self-conscious being, where in the course of evo- 
lution does an implicit recognition of the wastefulness of indiscriminate 
competition begin? Not even, I think, with the first appearance of gre- 
garious animals. It is found at the point where parents first begin to 
care for their feeble offspring. The acts of the parent fi>h of certain spe- 
cies in building rude nests where their eggs may hatch undisturbed, or 
in carrying about with them their newborn offspring, are as truly transgres- 
sions of the law of individual competition as anything that human beings do. 
Their economic value to these fish as species, is vindicated in the dimin- 
ished number of epgs that need to be laid, to keep their race from 
'extinction, as compared with sturgeon and cod that never know their 
children. We may go back further yet — much further. It is an applica- 
tion of the same principle essentially unchanged when the organic cells, 
which are in the lowest organisms Independent beings, first unite in flla- 
.ments to form an aggregate of the second order, eacli cell giving up a 
part of the strength with which it could carry on a rivalry with its com- 
.rades, for a power of cooperation which makes the nggrc^gate tar better 
able to sustain itself than as many separate rival cells could ever be. In 
few words, we find In the truth that combination furnishes greater 
strength in competition than universal competition itself can furnish — this 
principle supposed a new development when tlie mind of the human spe- 
cies first arose from its elements— nothing more than is universal through- 
out organic nature; and Its characterization as something in conflict or 
contrast with nature's methods, something transcending the whole scope 
and power of nature, is suggestive only of incomplete realization of what 
the scope and power of nature is. True it Is that nature is coarse, and 
Ksruel, and clumsy, and prodigal, In a partial view of her; but in a wider 
view she includes the very excellences that have been vaunted as tran- 
scending her. 

It is significant that in all the instances to which I have asked yoar 
:attention, the eflVct — we may even say the object — of replacing competl- 
•tion by combination is more efilcient competition. The vice-presidential 
address made allusion to this feature. I remember being struck, as a boy, 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 325 

^Ith the fact that so many of the games I learned to play — rivalry beins: 
recoj2:nized as the essential principle of a game — were so arranged as to 
m&ke this rivalry one between two parties, the individuals of each party 
being comrades instead of rivals to one another. The reason Is clear 
enough to me now : an increased zest is given to that rivalry, on which 
the game Is based, by the sympathy of others who enter into it as we do; 
and an increased power of overcoming opposition is given by division of 
the work among cooperating participants. In the theater of severest 
competition, a battle field, there can be i)ut two combatants; *Hie that is 
not with me is against me." So it is in the contest between black rats 
and Norway rats, or'l)etween colonies of kindred ants. The elimination 
of competition, in fact, is much like that of "motion,'* or energy, in the 
general system of evolution. It must be present in some form, is an ab- 
solute indispensable, and yet progress is only attained by driving it back. 
* 'Evolution is an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of" 
energy, Spencer tells us, showing at the same time that;;he necessarily 
retained energy ^'undergoes a parallel transformation" with the matter 
which concentrates as it dissipates. 

Spencer's psychological system Is based upon au identification of mind 
with life, each being in its own way a "continuous adjustment of internal 
to external relations," and our vice president has reminded us that the 
same doctrine had been taught in France before Spencer's day. I was 
greatly impressed, in my early study of the evidences for evo^ution accord- 
ing to Mr. Darwin, by finding so close a correspondence between what 
were proofs of natural selection for him, and what had been set down as 
proofs of conscious design by older philosophers. The coincidence was 
too close to be passed over as fortuitous ; and it led me to the conclusion 
that design and natural selection were, after all, but two sides of the same 
thing — that when we consciously adapt means to ends, we d ) this i^y ap- 
proval of some and rejection of others, the rival means being sui)jected to 
a struggle for life, quite like that which Darwin has taught us to see in 
the organic world. When the adaptation lias become habitual, this strug- 
gle of rival means, with survival of the few and obliteration of the many, 
is symbolic rather than actual ; though Edison had to try and reject dozens 
or scores of devices before he hit upou the filament of bamboo charcoal 
that gave the best incandescent electric light, and though the first inven- 
tor of the telephone transmitter had to make almost as many abortive at- 
tempts before he found the form that did the best work, liter workers in 
the sariie field, finding the results of their labor recorded on paper or in 
memory, have been able to make far shorter work of adapting means to 
ends. Design, in all cases but the very first, is a short and easy process 
when once the way has been marked out. But not in that regard is natu- 
ral evolution different. The way from fish to vertebrate, when first traced 
out by nature, needed countless weary ages of geologic time, countless 
bloody battlefields and scenes of dire tragedy; countless abortive pushes 
in wrong directions, before the final goal could be rea<;hed; but, once 
traced, it is habitually, easily, smoothly, unerringly, retraced in the few 



826 sECTioir i. 

months of embryonic growth* where the nnf ormod yertebrate must pass 
first through the fish and afterward through the reptUe lype before it can 
take the higher rank to i\ hich it is destined. Here we find the same effect 
of recorded experience, become habit, to which we are accustomed in ha- 
man contrivance. The old proofs of design are the new proofs of selec- 
tion therefore, becanse design is selection. Nothing is more characteristic 
of the higher intelligence than this power of adjusting means to ends, and 
yet it is bnt the conscious following of a course followed by nature uncon* 
sciously. It was Froebel, the renowned €rerman educator, who soiig^ht 
to make of man the voluntary, as nature ia the involuntary, mirror of God^s 
will ; so that the power of being this, even though it be the highest of hu* 
man attributes, is not an attribute that isolates us from nature. Man is, 
I have long believed, the most completely natural of nature's works — for 
in none other do her powers and modes of evolution find such adequate 
expression. 

If the economy of man, then, shows us nothing radically divergent fron& 
the economy of nature, we are justified in distrusting all inferences from the 
hypothesis that the divergence exists. To sound this note of caution i& 
the object of the present paper. I t^eek not to defend any writer on polit- 
ical economy. If any have taught that universal competition, carried to 
its utmost limit, is the foundation of wealth, let them be condemned ; but 
condemned for overlooking the real character of Nature's economy, and not 
for upholding it. Such writers, whoever they may be, have failed to see 
not only the significance of any association of men for a common end, but 
the utility of combination In social animals. If any have taught that as- 
sociations of men are suitable and laudable for certain purposes, but ob- 
noxious to sound economy for all other purposes, let them fall under tbe 
same ban but not because combination is the law of man and unknown to 
nature outside him. Economic science is not condemned in their condem- 
nation ; nor, much as it yet lacks of the perfect development possible to 
it, is the mass of experience on which Its principles are founded, to be set 
aside by a few hasty inductions. It should be remembered that* notwith- 
standing the admitted truth that Indaction is the fonndatiim of economics, 
inductive proof is only valid where aU causes but one have been scrupu- 
lously excluded or allowed for: so that, pending the application of this 
principle to the propositions which concluded our Vice President's address, 
we are entitled to regard them, not as established, but only as more or less 
probable. 



The standard of defrrrrd PAYMs^fTS. By Edward A. Boss, As5>ociate 
Professor of Political Economy and Finance' at Cornell Univerity. 

[abstract.] 

The paper seeks to ascertain what constitutes justice between debtoir 
and creditor and what monetary standard will secure justice. 

The raison d*itre of all bimetalli$>ts, whether national or international, 
is the need of more money in order to prevent injustice to the debtor 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 327 

class. If no injustice exists, vain are all attempts to show the practica- 
bility or the efficiency of bimetallism. The argument showing the injury 
the debtor class receive from falling prices is, then, the primary, funda- 
mental argument on which all other bimetallist reasoning is built. Break 
down this and the whole theory falls to the ground. The argument takes 
its start from the fact that time contracts calling for future sums are based 
rtpon the present value or purchasing power of the money unit. Justice 
requires that the terms of the contract remain unaltered; that is, that the 
purcliasing power of the unit be constant. If, in fact, the unit appreciates, 
the debtor is wronged. But appreciation is simply fall in prices regarded 
from a certain view-point. Hence fall in prices means loss to the debtor. 
Now a general fall in prices, averaging from one and a half to two per 
cent, annually, has occurred during the last twenty years and even now 
continues. This means a stupendous robbery of the debtor class. A 
monetary system which permits such a fall is self-condemned as dishonest 
and iniquitous. 

The mono-metallists meet this argument by pointing out that the fall in 
prices is natural, and results from the abundance of commodities. Re- 
cently the output of commodities has enormously increased owing to great 
improvements in production. New inventions and new sources of supply 
have cheapened almost all articles. All along the line the economies re- 
sulting from better industrial leadership and more thorough organization 
have aided in lessening cost. This means that the relation between labor 
and product has changed. To this is due the fact that, while commodities 
have fallen in price, wages have shown a slight upward tendency. 

Reverting to the case of the debtor it appears that the sum he repays 
to his creditor, albeit it represents more commodities than tlie original 
flum, represents no more labor. He may restore double the quantity of 
products, but, owing to increase in industrial efficiency, they represent 
only the same quantity of labor. And as, according to the classical econ- 
omists, all fair exchange is the exchange of equal service, or of the prod- 
ucts of equal quantities of labor, we may conclude that the gold standard 
brings no hardship to the debtor. 

The opposing arguments just reviewed involve two controversies : 

(1). As to the ultimate standard of value. 

(2). As to the destination of the benefits of industrial progress. 

In regard to (1) the bimetallist maintains that the debtor should restore 
only the quantity of commodities represented by the loan, while the mono- 
metallist insists that he should return the quantity of labor represented 
by the loan. As both agree that the debtor should restore equal value we 
find here the issue fairly joined between the two great opposing doctrines 
of value — the theory of labor value and the theory of use value. The one 
derives value from production ; the other from consnmptlon. The one 
looks to cost ; the other to utility. The one regards sacrifices ; the other 
satisfactions. 

It is not difficult to show that the labor value theory rests upon a faulty 
analysis. A good possesses value or importance not on account of its past, 
but on account of its future ; not because it embodies past sacrifices, but 



828 8BCTION I. 

becaase It piomlseft future satisfaGtions. The labor value theory of 
Ricardo rests* upon obaervattou of competitive industries of constant re- 
turns. But the growing importance of monopolized goods and of indus- 
tries of diminishing returns has compelled a wider study, resulting in the 
discovery that value ia a particular ntility, viz., marginal ^ttUitjt. This 
idea, thrown out by Jevona and dev^oped by tlie Aostrians, has changed 
the face of economic tlieory within a few years. By revamping the obso- 
lete labor-value doctrine the nK>nometallists hava shown thcmselvea the 
Bourbons of Political Economy. 

In regard to (2) the monometallist contends that the benefits of indus- 
trial progress should belong to the creditor. The bimetallist holds that 
tbey should remain with the debtor. 

If it be urged in behalf of the creditor that Justice demanda equal sac- 
rifices regardless of satiafactions, it can be replied that the argument 
involves the labor value fallacy and is therefore worthless. Nor can it be 
Justly urged that the creditor deserves the benefits of the cheapening of 
production because so much improvement comes by way of bettering 
fixed capital. The creditor, as such, supplied only pure capital ; its in- 
vestment in better and ever better machinery ia not due to him. 

On the other hand, it may be argued on behalf of the debtor's daim to 
the benefits of industrial progress, that even on the labor value theory he 
cannot justly be called upon to restore an equal quantity of labor to his 
CI editor, seeing that his lalM>r is of superior efficiency and hence not of 
the same quality. But, again, it may be urjsed that in any case the debtor 
is notbouud to meet the requirements of the labor value standard. For 
the transaction of debtor and creditor is a case of exchange of goods pro- 
duced under diflTerent industrial conditions. And in such cases,, as is evi- 
denced by the conrse of trade between nations at diiferent economic 
stages, values are ultimately determined not by cost but by utility. This 
would seem to leave all the benefits of industrial progress in the hands of 
the debtor. ^ 

But another course of reasoning shows ground tor sharing the benefits. 
The debtor Is bound to return to his creditor utility equal to that he re- 
ceived. But will this be done by restoring an equal quantity of goods? 
Only in case the objective utility of the goods remains the same. In fact 
the objective utilities of most goods are constant for a long period. But 
the utilities of those goods that the possessor unes in procuring social 
distinction, esteem, influence, etc., have a very fluctuating utility. And, Id 
the case of a general rise in the scale of living owing to the abundance 
due to industrial progress, the objective utility of a good devoted to pro- 
curing social satisfactions would tend to lessen. Solely on this ground 
can we justify any participation of the creditor in the benefits arising 
from industrial progress. 

Applying these results to the problem of the standard of deferred pay- 
ments we